Chapter Summary

• Listening to speech. Listeners to speech have to confront the Iinearity, non-invariance, and segmentation problems. There is evidence of categorical speech perception, but this may occur mainly at the level of conscious awareness. It remains unclear whether speech perception involves a special module. Studies on the phonemic restoration effect suggest that contextual information can influence speech perception in a top-down way. Prosodic cues are often used rapidly by listeners, but such cues are sometimes not provided by speakers. The important role played by lip-reading in speech perception is shown by the McGurk effect.

• Theories of word recognition. According to the motor theory of speech perception, listeners mimic the articulatory movements of the speaker but this need not involve measurable articulatory responses. The ability of infants and of simultaneous translators to show good speech perception is hard to explain by the motor theory. According to the original version of cohort theory, the initial sound of a word is used to construct a word-initial cohort which is reduced to only one word by using additional information from the presented word and from contextual information. Cohort theory has been revised to make it more flexible and in Iine with the evidence. According to the TRACE model, bottom-up and top-down processes interact during speech perception. This assumption that these processes interact is probably incorrect, and the importance of top-down processes is exaggerated in the TRACE model.

• Cognitive neuropsychology. Patients with pure word deafness have problems with speech perception because of impaired phonemic processing in the auditory analysis system. Patients with word meaning deafness can repeat familiar words without understanding their meaning, but have problems with non-words. Patients with auditory phonological agnosia seem to have damage within Route 3. Deep dysphasia may reflect damage to all three routes involved in the repetition of spoken words, or it may involve damage to the response buffer.

• Basic reading processes. The least obtrusive way of studying reading is by eye-movement recordings. According to the E-Z Reader model, the next eye movement is programmed when only part

• of the processing of the currently fixated word has occurred. Completion of frequency checking of a word is the signal to initiate an eye-movement program, and completion of lexical access is the signal for a shift of covert attention to the next word. This model takes insufficient account of the impact of higher-level cognitive processes on fixation times.

• Word identification. According to the interactive activation model, bottom-up and top-down processes are both involved in letter identification and word recognition. This model was only designed to account for performance on four-letter words written in capital letters, and it makes the strong assumption that lexical access is determined by visual information.

• Routes from print to sound. According to the dual-route model, there is an indirect route between the printed word and speech based on grapheme-phoneme conversion, and a direct route based on lexical access. Surface dyslexics seem to have an impaired direct route and so rely mainly on the indirect route. In contrast, phonological dyslexics have an impaired indirect route and so rely on the direct route. Deep dyslexics resemble phonological dyslexics, but also make semantic reading errors. Some patients seem to use a third route based on lexical access but with no use of the semantic system. The direct and indirect routes are less independent than was assumed by dual-route theorists. Connectionist interactive models can simulate adult reading of words and non-words, and "lesioned" networks can mimic the reading performance of surface and deep dyslexics. However, such models have little to say about phonological dyslexia, and their accounts of the semantic system are sketchy. According to the phonological theory, phonological processing is of central importance to reading. It is hard to account for phonological dyslexia within phonological theory.

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