Standards in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory

There has been no coordinated effort among various groups to bring about sp cifications and definitions for various standards and reference samples for the clinical chemistry laboratory. Suggested definitions and a review of the standards available to the clinical chemist will be presented in this discussion. In the reference frame of usual analytical laboratory practice the primary standard is defined as a pure chemical substance that is used for the purpose of assaying a volumetric solution...

Reagents And Preparations

Antigen, Ampuls containing 1500 IU of a commercial preparation (Pregnyl, Organon) of human chorionic gonadotrophs (HCG) was used. Adjuvant. Ramon's adjuvant (Ramon ct td. li)3> ) was prepared by mixing 48 ml of mineral oil, 24 ml of 0.9 per cent saline and 1(> g of lanoline. The mixture was autoclaved and homogenized. Antisera. Normal white adult male and female rabbits were used for immunization. Rabbit anti-HCG-sera was prepared by subcutaneous injection of 12 000 IU of HCG, suspended in...

Diagnostic Specificity

A limited number of laboratory tests will be reviewed in this section, in order to examine their specificity in relation to a specific disease. Various tests have been proclaimed as being virtually pathognomonic, at least if a certain value is exceeded. Some tests have considerable diagnostic value with others, early enthusiasm has been tempered with experience. Many diagnostic tests for cancer, based on analysis of blood or urine, have been suggested and described, but apparently none has...

Summario In Interlingua

Iste communication es concernite con un revista e un discussion del variabiles e del causas potential de error in le specimen individual que affice le specificitate de tests al laboratorio clinic. Attention special es prestate al factores que es le minus apte a esser corrigite per le technicas usual del controlo de qualitate. Istos concerne factores como le specificitate chimic, le uso de anticoagulantes, le stabilitate del specimens, hemolyse, lipemia, regulation del temperatura e del pH,...

The Determination Of Bilirubin With The Photoelectric Colorimeter

EVELYN* From the Department of Medicine, McGill University Clinic, Royal Victoria The main source of error in the determination of bilirubin in serum by the diazo reaction has been the loss caused by adsorption on the protein precipitate. In addition, the lack of an accurately matching artificial standard and the sensitivity of the azobilirubin color to changes in pH have made accurate colorimetric determinations impossible, without the aid of some type of...

Discussion

The G-II cuvet rotor allows 15 reactions to be initiated simultaneously and the absorbancies to be observed and measured after very short time intervals. The rotor is an extension of the double-beam spectrophotometer concept where two absorbancies are repeatedly measured over intervals of time which are short relative to the variations in intensity that may occur in the light source. Unlike sequential analyzers of class II, no carryover between samples is observed, and the tracing returns to 0...

Van Slyke Neill Gas Manometers

The copper solution is adjusted to give proportionate reductions with 0.12 to 0.4 mg. of dextrose. This covers the range of hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic bloods. But in extreme cases it is better to use 3 or 1 cc. of the filtrate, instead of 2 cc., adding water to the standard or to the unknown so as to equalize the concen- page 199 15. Van Slyke, D. D. and Neill, J. M. (1924) COMMENTARY TO The Determination of Gases in Blood and Other Solutions by Vacuum Extraction and Manometric Measurement....

Bromide Treatment In Epilepsy

Finally, I will add a few words about the bromide treatment of epilepsy. Ulrich was the first to control the bromide saturation or relative bromide content of his epileptic patients that is to say, the percentage of total halogens in the urine represented by bromides. He found large individual differences as to the optimal individual saturation. Of forty-eight epileptic patients who had been kept free of convulsions for several years by bromide therapy, ten showed a relative bromide content of...

References

COMMENTARY TO Separation of Tissue and Serum Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes by Ion Exchange Column Chromatography. Clinical Chemistry 20(1) 36-40. The measurement of isoenzymes in serum in order to improve the specificity of an enzyme assay for disease detection began with the work of Oscar Bodansky in 1937. He used taurocholate inhibition to differentiate bone, kidney and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP, EC 3.1.3.1) in normal serum and in two patients with Paget's disease (1). Zone...

Sulfanilamide Determination

What slight modification of the method, if any, is necessary to determine it accurately. However, we must caution investigators against accepting results with a new compound until control recoveries from blood and urine have been made. In the determination of sulfanilamide by diazotization and coupling in acid solution, the use of N-(l-naphthyl)ethylenediam-ine dihydrochloride offers the following advantages over N,N-dimethyl-l-naphthylamine (dimethyl-a-naphthylamine) (1) reproducibility and...

Correction Of Comparator Standard To Eliminate Error Of Serum Adsorption

Our previous experiments showed that serum adsorbed a certain amount of bromides this amount increasing proportionally to the concentration of the bromides, and that the amount adsorbed is practically independent of the particular blood serum (between 1 and 4.1 per cent). This adsorption loss is indicated in chart 11 by the shaded portion, which represents the difference in the amount of bromides estimated from watery solution and from serum solutions of known quantities of bromides. The...

Info

The effect of eating on some of the clinically important chemical constituents of the blood. Am. J. Clin. Path., 31 155-159,1959. 6. Arst, H. E., ManninGj R. T., and Delp, M. Serum leucine ammopeptidase activity findings in carcinoma of the pancreas, pregnancy and other disorders. Am. J. M. Sc., 238 598-609, 1959. 7. Babson, A. L. Opportunities for application of the scientific method in the routine clinical laboratory. Am. J. M. Technol., 26 379-385, 1960. 8....

Molecular Diagnostics

A., Singer, S. J. and Wells., I. C. (1949) Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease. 38. Hyypia, T., Jalava, A., Larsen, S. H., Terho, P. and Hukkanen, V. (1985) Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in clinical specimens by nucleic acid spot hybridization. 39. Maskos, U. and Southern, E. M. (1992) Oligonucleotide hybridisations on glass supports a novel linker for oligonucleotide synthesis and hybridisation properties of oligonucleotides synthesised in situ. This page is...

Routine Use Of Ultramicro Methods In The Clinical Laboratory

Estimation of Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Protein, Hematocrit Value, Sugar, Urea and Nonprotein Nitrogen in Fingertip Blood. Construction of Ultramicro Pipets. A Practical Microgasometer for Estimation of Carbon Dioxide* From the Department of Biochemistry of the Laboratories of the Rockford Memorial Hospital, For more than a year a routine procedure has been in use in this hospital for analysis of blood from the fingertip or heel for certain chemical constituents. These ultramicro procedures...

Analytical Techniques for Cell Fractions

A Multiple-Cuvet Rotor for a New Microarialytical System1 Molecular Anatomy Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory t2 Fast automatic analytical devices are required to handle the increasing number of different analyses desired on an ever-increasing number of samples in both biochemical research and clinical Mechanized analytical systems3 have been divided into two major groups (1). Class I systems analyze a large number of samples for a single substance or activity, whereas those of class...

The Estimation Of Atabrine In Biological Fluids

BRODIE and SIDNEY UDENFRIEND (From the Research Service, Third (New York University) Medical Division Goldwater Memorial Hospital, New York, and the Department of Medicine, The following are two methods for the estimation of atabrine in biological fluids and tissues through the measurement of its fluorescence in an acidic environment. The methods have a high degree of specificity in that they exclude from the estimation the many fluorescent degradation products of atabrine as well...

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring TDM

New methods for its control. 7. Bratton, A. C. and Marshall, E. K., Jr. (1939) A new coupling component for sulfanilamide determination. 8. Brodie, B. B. and Udenfriend, S. (1943) The estimation of Atabrine in biological fluids and tissues. 9. Smith, T. W., Butler, V. P. and Haber, E. (1969) Determination of therapeutic and toxic serum digoxin concentrations by radioimmunoassay. 10. Thompson, R. D., Nagasawa, H. T. and Jenne, J. W. (1974) Determination of...

Chemical And Diagnostic Specificity Of Laboratory Tests

Effect of Hemolysis, Lipemia, Anticoagulants, Medications, Contaminants, and Other Variables WENDELL T. CARAWAY, PH.D. McLaren General Hospital, St. Joseph Hospital, and the Flint Medical Laboratory, Flint, Michigan It is desirable that clinical laboratory procedures have a high degree of diagnostic specificity. Chemical analysis of biologic material is based upon the presence of functional groups in organic compounds or upon the separation and measurement of ions. Such analyses are inherently...

Instrumentation and Techniques

A microelectrophoretic and microionophoretic technique. An automated method for colorimetric analysis. Enzymatic Glucose, Dry Reagents on Pads 25. Free, A. H., Adams, E. C., Kercher, M. L., Free, H. M. and Cook, M. H., (1957) Simple specific test for urine glucose. 26. Severinghaus, J. W. and Bradley, A. F. (1958) Electrodes for blood pO2 and pCO2 determination. 27. Friedman, S. M. and Nakashima, M. (1961) Single sample analysis with the sodium electrode. Analytical techniques for cell...

D D Van Slyke and J M Neill 573

The solution is shaken 1 minute to absorb the CO2. The gas volume is brought back to 2 cc. and p2 is measured. Similarly, to absorb O2, 1 cc. of air-free hydrosulfite solution is introduced, and is shaken for 2 minutes. is then read on the The c corrections for the effect of the added 1 cc. portions of alkali and hydrosulfite are found in blank determinations in the gas-free apparatus. The results are calculated as follows For this calculation based on pressure changes only, it is assumed that...

Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay

QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF PROTEIN ANTIGEN, IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, BY MEANS OF ENZYME-LABELLED ANTIGEN AND ANTIBODY-COATED TUBES EVA ENGVALL, KARIN JONSSON and PETER PERLMANN From the Department of Immunology, The Wenner-Gren Institute, University of Stockholm, Stockholm Sweden Alkaline phosphatase from calf intestinal mucosa has been conjugated to a protein antigen, rabbit IgG. Such conjugates, prepared by glutardialdehyde, have been used in a competitive solid phase immunoassay. In this test native...