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The Theological Disputes of the Ancient Church

It is more than probable that the contrast of types would also appear in the history of those schisms and heresies so frequent in the disputes of the early Christian Church. The Ebionites or Jewish Christians, who in this respect were probably identical with the primitive Christians generally, believed in the exclusive humanity of Christ and held him to be the son of Mary and Joseph, only subsequently receiving his consecration through the Holy Ghost. The Ebionites are, therefore, upon this point diametrically opposed to the Docetists. The effects of this opposition endured long after. The conflict came to light again in an altered form which, though essentially attenuated, had in reality an even graver effect upon Church politics about the year 320 in the heresy of Arius. Arius denied the formula propounded by the orthodox church T TLarrpl uloovclo (like unto the Father). When we examine more closely the history of the great Arian controversy concerning Homoousia and Homoiousia (the...

Church Turing Thesis

Alonzo Church proposed at a meeting of the American Mathematical Society in April 1935, that the notion of an effectively calculable function of positive integers should be identified with that of a recursive function. This proposal of identifying an informal notion, effectively calculable function, with a mathematically precise one, recursive function, has been called Church's thesis since Stephen Cole Kleene used that name in 1952. Alan turing independently made a related proposal in 1936, Turing's thesis, suggesting the identification of effectively calculable functions with functions whose values can be computed by a particular idealized computing device, a Turing machine. As the two mathematical notions are provably equivalent, the theses are equivalent, and are jointly referred to as the Church-Turing thesis. The reflective, partly philosophical and partly mathematical, work around and in support of the thesis concerns one of the fundamental notions of mathematical logic. Its...

Machines and Cognition

The conceptual precursors of AI can be traced back many centuries. logic, the formal theory of deductive reasoning, was studied in ancient Greece, as were algorithms for mathematical computations. In the late seventeenth century, Wilhelm Leibniz actually constructed simple conceptual calculators, but their representational and combinatorial powers were far too limited. In the nineteenth century, Charles Babbage designed (but did not build) a device capable of universal computation, and his collaborator Ada Lovelace speculated that the machine might one day be programmed to play chess or compose music. Fundamental work by alan turing in the 1930s formalized the notion of universal computation the famous church-turing thesis proposed that all sufficiently powerful computing devices were essentially identical in the sense that any one device could emulate the operations of any other. From here it was a small step to the bold hypothesis that human cognition was a form of computation in...

Beaumont William MD 17851853

Martin never met again. Beaumont, who subsequently had a lucrative private practice, died in St. Louis in i853 of a head injury from falling on an icy step. St. Martin, although he had been paid rather well by both Beaumont and the U.S. Government, was frustrated with the experiments. Prior to his death in i880, it was rumored that St. Martin had requested that his body be allowed to decompose for days to prevent it from being used for experiment before burial in an unmarked grave. Certainly, when the great Canadian physician and teacher William Osler requested that he be permitted to undertake an autopsy, he was informed by the local priest that the body was in such an advanced stage of decomposition that it could not be admitted into the Church . . . the family resisted all requests . . . for an autopsy (Myer 1912 xvii). He was warned by a local physician, Don't come for autopsy will be killed. In 1962, a plaque was erected at the Church at St. Thomas de Joli-ette...

Keeping Food Safe at Big Events

Every year, hundreds of cases of foodborne illness are reported, many due to unsafe food handling at picnics, church suppers, and camps. Often foodborne illness occurs at these events because cooks are not familiar with how to handle large volumes of food safely. Foodborne illness is nearly 100 percent preventable if safe food-handling practices are followed.

Phase 1 Forming a Therapeutic Alliance and a Frame for Treatment

C, the initial phase focused on helping her to see how she rapidly came to interpret problems arising in the course of her work and church relationships as evidence that she was globally impaired, flawed and bad, rather than as evidence of more discrete and manageable difficulties. These perceptions were linked to her feelings about herself from her childhood relationships with her mother, in which she had often felt helpless and disappointing, and her father, in which she had never felt special enough to draw him into a meaningful relationship. Ms. C began to realize how much she anticipated and expected others' criticism by examining her reaction to even supportive comments made by her therapist as if they were judgmental. Through this exploration, Ms. C realized that she spent so much time defending herself against others' imagined criticisms that it was difficult for her to relax and enjoy her relationships with others and that instead, she distanced...

The Holy Communion Controversy between Luther and Zwingli

It is hardly credible that it was merely the power of tradition which determined Luther to cling to this dogma, for he assuredly gave abundant proof of his ability to throw aside traditional forms of belief. Indeed we should not go far wrong in assuming that it was rather the actual contact with the 'real' and material in the Communion, and the feeling-significance of this contact for Luther himself, that prevailed over the evangelical principle, which maintained that the word was the sole vehicle of grace and not the ceremony. With Luther the word certainly had redeeming power, but the partaking of the Communion was also a transmitter of grace. This, I repeat, must have been only an apparent concession to the institutions of the Catholic Church for in reality it was the acknowledgment, demanded by Luther's psychology, of the fact of feeling, grounded upon the immediate sense-experience.

Preface to the Second Edition

As you will see, she didn't let Parkinson's get her down. In fact, we worked on the book's revision in a campground in Florida. She and I still ran the Parkinson's support group that we started more than eighteen years ago. She remained busy on committees, in church, and by planning special events with her grandchildren. They were her pride and joy.

Computational Complexity

Computational complexity is the part of computer science that studies the resource requirements in time and memory of various computational tasks (Papadimitriou 1994). Typically, these requirements are formulated as functions of the size of the input to be processed. The central tenet of computability theory (one form of the church-turing thesis) is that any computational task that can be performed by a physical system of whatever form, can be performed by a very simple device called a Turing machine. The central tenet of (sequential) complexity theory, then, is that any computational task that can be performed by any physical system in F(n) steps, where n is the size of the input, can be performed by a Turing machine in G(n) steps, where F and G differ by at most a polynomial. A consequence of this is that any task requiring exponential time on a Turing machine would not be computable in polynomial time by anything physical whatsoever. Because exponentials grow so rapidly, such a...

An Architecture for Epistemic Cognition

Thus a decision procedure for ideal warrant would give us a decision procedure for the predicate calculus. However, by Church's theorem, the set of theorems of the predicate calculus is not decidable. Thus no reasoner can compute ideal warrant in this sense. To prove this, suppose otherwise. Then for any finite set input and finite set of non-logical reasons, there is a way of mechanically generating the list of formulas ideally warranted relative to them. Given any first-order formula P, choose a sentence letter Q not occurring in P, let input Q , and let the only non-logical reason be the prima facie reason . We have a prima facie reason for P, so P is ideally warranted iff there is no undefeated or provisionally defeated argument defeating this inference. Because Q is logically unrelated to P and there are no other prima facie reasons, the only possible defeating argument would be a deductive argument for P. Thus in this situation, P is ideally warranted iff P is not...

Clergy and religious community

When Shawn was very ill, I began to worry about the fact that he had never been baptized, and I asked Father Ron to baptize him in the chapel. We ended up going to his own little church nearby, and we had a private service with just godparents and family, because Shawn's counts were so low. It was a wonderful, special service I'll never forget it. Parents who were members of a church, synagogue, or mosque prior to the diagnosis of their childs cancer derive great comfort from the clergy and members of their home religious base. Members of the congregation usually rally around the family, providing meals, baby-sitting, prayers, and support. Regular visits from clergy provide spiritual sustenance throughout the initial crisis and subsequent years of treatment.

Applied Behavior Analysis

After reluctantly giving up on a medical cure, Spencer's parents heard about a promising educational program based on ABA principles from an acquaintance whose son also had autism. They were referred to a local psychologist trained in ABA methods, who did some testing with Spencer to determine his individual needs. After concluding that Spencer would likely benefit from ABA, the psychologist recommended that a home program consisting of approximately a dozen goals be set up. Since Spencer was high-functioning and already had some useful skills (talking in simple sentences, sitting in a chair and attending), the initial goals were primarily academic identifying colors, shapes, numbers, and letters stating the functions of objects answering questions (What is your name How old are you ) identifying environmental sounds imitating two-step sequences and drawing shapes. Therapists came into his home 7 hours a day, 5 days a week, to work with him, and Spencer progressed rapidly. Within only...

What about my social life

When you give in to PD, you become its victim, suffering embarrassment and loneliness. When you accept that PD is a reality in your life, you can find ways of coping, thus regaining a sense of control and getting on with living your life. Remaining active with social events, going to church, going to the theater or concerts, and entertaining at home may take a bit more effort, but are worth it. It is important to interact with others and to share your thoughts and your hopes and dreams. Join a gym and exercise regularly it will help you to stay in shape as well as get you out with other people. Take up yoga it will calm your mind as it stretches and keeps your muscles limber. Members of a support group offer camaraderie and will share their own methods of coping. It is also important to be on top of the newest information try

Viewing the dead body

Preparation for viewing the dead body In Norway, it has become fairly usual for children to see the dead person on one of the first days following the death, before the funeral. Around an open coffin family members and close friends can say their goodbyes. Most funeral services are held in church, even for non-religious people, and the majority of people are buried. In other countries and cultures, practices vary enormously, but the principles of listening to children, explaining to them and involving them remain the best advice to be given.

Where Do Moral Concepts Come From

If basic moral values are the product of sentiment, rather than reason, then they probably originate in a process other than rational deliberation. Some basic moral values may have their seeds in biology. We may be innately empathetic towards members of our species, for example. But such innate sentiments fall short of true moral rules. We naturally squirm at the sight of another person in pain, but that does not mean we are innately programmed to feel guilt when we are cruel. Guilt may be a learned response. Rats are disturbed when they see other rats in distress, but they do not feel guilty, and they do not have moral rules (Church, 1959). One difference between us and rats is that we have the capacity to put our selves in others' shoes. When a rat sees another rat suffering, the misery it experiences is egocentric. When we see another person suffering, we become concerned for that person. At the collective level, this leads human societies to develop rules that protect self and...

Policy Recommendations

Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws promulgated amendments to the Uniform Controlled Substances Act that codified the commission's recommendation. Some form of decriminalization was endorsed the same year by a variety of national organizations, including the American Bar Association and numerous state and local bar associations, the National Education Association, the Consumers' Union, the National Council of Churches, the American Public Health Association, and the governing board of the American Medical Association.

Depression Is Serious

Do not stop any medication without consulting a trained healthcare provider who has experience with antidepressants and natural alternatives. It is not uncommon to read headlines such as, Sermon Reportedly Upset Shooter. Several church members were killed by a person who had a history of depression. The article reported that the event occurred in the northern U.S. in the winter.

Ceremony and help in the kindergarten

Close friends from the kindergarten can also be taken to the funeral of a child, but they should be accompanied by their parents and staff from the kindergarten so that they are with trusted and close people who care for them. In some cases these children may be quite lost in this kind of ceremony, especially if there has been an event which has devastated a whole community so that the church is full. If this is the case, it could be arranged for the group of children to come up to the coffin beforehand (an hour before, for example), so that they can say goodbye in person and without being disturbed.

Ethnic And Cultural Groups

Targeted to African Americans and Hispanics and Latinos. Campaigns to eliminate the disproportionately high numbers of alcohol and tobacco billboards located near schools and churches in innercity neighborhoods have resulted in outright bans of such advertising in at least two American cities, Baltimore and Cincinnati.

Magnetize Your Marriage

Both partners need to focus on serving the other without being recognized or thanked. Take the focus off of yourself. Increase your capacity to do more. Read God's Word with your spouse. Take a big step and pray together daily. My wife and I periodically take communion together at home in addition to our church service. Spend time with each other. Find someone to watch the kids and create a romantic evening. Make a picnic lunch or go on a bicycle ride. Do you live by the beach, lake, or river Water creates a calming background setting. To increase the attraction, let go of your agenda and fill the need of your mate.

Metcalfe William 17881862 The first public advocate of vegetarianism in the USA

B orn in England, Metcalfe immigrated to America to preach the gospel of temperance, vegetarianism, and health. He was a member of the New Church, which, following the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772), advocated abstinence based on his theological views. Likewise, Metcalfe gave up, at once and entirely, fish, flesh and fowl as food, and every kind of intoxicating liquor as drink in 1809 (Metcalfe 1872 12). Nevertheless, Metcalfe did not renounce his vegetarianism, which became central to his preaching in the Bible-Christian Church that he helped to found. Like the New Church, Metcalfe's sect advocated temperance and vegetarianism. The Bible-Christian Church resulted, in part, from Metcalfe's break with the New Church over the question of revelation. He argued that only the Bible was divinely inspired record of the word of God (Metcalfe 1872 16). In 1816, forty-one followers of Metcalfe and the Bible-Christian Church departed Liverpool for Philadelphia. Their numbers...

Religion And Drug Use Drug use

And religion have been intertwined throughout history, but the nature of this relationship has varied over time and from place to place. Alcohol and other drugs have played important roles in the religious rituals of numerous groups. For example, among a number of native South American groups, TOBACCO was considered sacred and was used in religious ritual, including the consultation of spirits and the initiation of religious leaders. Similarly, wine, representing the blood of Christ, has been central in the Holy Communion observances of both Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches. Considered divine by the Aztecs of ancient Mexico, the PEYOTE cactus (which contains a number of psychoactive substances, including the psychedelic drug MESCALINE) is used today in the religious services of the contemporary Native American church (Goode, 1984).

Possible Causal Processes

Etiology of drug abuse Implications for prevention. Washington, DC U.S. Government Printing Office. Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., & Bachman, J. G. (2000). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future study, 1975-1999. Volume I Secondary school students. Volume II College students and young adults. Rockville, MD National Institute on Drug Abuse. Lorch, B. R., & Hughes, R. H. (1988). Church, youth, alcohol, and drug education programs and youth substance abuse. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 33 (2), 14-26. Lorch, B. R., & Hughes, R. H. (1985). Religion and youth substance use. Journal of Religion and Health,

Life Without Medication

Is a distressing spirit holding you hostage Seek the Lord for healing. Is anyone among you suffering Let him pray. Is anyone cheerful Let him sing psalms. Is anyone among you sick Let him call for the elders of the church and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. And the prayer of faith will save the sick and the Lord will raise him up. And if he committed sins, he will be forgiven (James 5 13-15). Natural Prescription for Health Seek counsel from a sincere spiritual leader in your church community.

Professionalization of Dieting

In the history of dieting, various groups and individuals have been responsible for handing out dieting advice. From the 1860s to the 1950s, the church and religious groups, as well as celebrity and socialites from Lord Byron to Upton Sinclair, emphasized the importance of keeping the body pure (Griffith 2004 50). In the 1960s, people shifted from following traditional diet advice of keeping the body clean to conforming to a thinness campaign (Bordo 2003 102-3). Restrictive diets became popular and, thus, the average American looked to supermodels like Twiggy for advice. Again, in the 1980s, celebrity figures and fad doctors published the bulk of dieting books and gave out dieting tips on how they were able to achieve a slim figure. Celebrities like Jane Fonda

The Intervention Hum Louder

Another song was sung, only this time it was a religious song, and now a few more members of the group joined in. Gradually, members began to sing songs from their countries Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and soon the entire group began to sing together, alternating songs from their countries with songs from their churches.

Principles Of Behavioral Modification

Despite the many negative consequences of tobacco use, it often persists in many who try it. There are many antecedents or events that precede tobacco use, that begin to control or maximize the occurrence of tobacco use, the process called stimulus control. An individual learns that in certain situations, behavior is reinforced while in other situations, it is either not reinforced or punished. For example, a smoker may learn smoking in bars is reinforced socially as well as by nicotine's effects, whereas smoking in church is not reinforced. Upon repeated experiences, frequenting bars begins to automatically elicit the desire or behavior for smoking, while in contrast attending church does not. In large part, the punishing effects of tobacco use and particularly the reinforcing effects of cessation are relatively remote (i.e., occur years in the future), while the reinforcing consequences of smoking (e.g., mood regulation) are more immediate. The strength of any reinforcer or...

Case Illustration

The patient, Lance, represents someone struggling to reconcile his sexual orientation with his religious upbringing. Lance, a 27-year-old male, was referred for CT by his primary care physician, who thought that he needed treatment for depression or possible dysthymic disorder. Lance was gainfully employed in the computer industry and lived alone in a small condominium that he owned. The youngest of four children, Lance's parents were still married and were regular church attendees in a conservative Christian denomination, as were his three older siblings. All of his older siblings were married with children. None of his family lived in the same city as Lance. He was in regular communication with his parents and kept in contact with his nieces and nephews by sending birthday, Easter, and Christmas gifts. Lance did not feel particularly close to any of his siblings, and he reported that his relationship with his father was better than that with his mother. He had told his parents about...

Statistical Techniques in Natural Language Processing

Statistical natural language processing is concerned with the creation of computer programs that can perform language-processing tasks by virtue of information gathered from (typically large) corpora. Usually this information is in the form of statistics, but it may be distilled into other forms, such as decision trees, dictionary entries, or various kinds of rules (see also natural language processing). The techniques have been applied to (or have correlates in) areas as diverse as lexicography and document retrieval (Church and Mercer 1993). Here, however, we concentrate on subar-eas closer to cognitive science. text when the speech signal analysis by itself is insufficient (Church and Mercer 1993). An early successful application of HMM technology to language tasks was the HMM taggers, programs that try to assign the correct part of speech to each word in a text. For example, in the can will rust the program should identify can as a noun (not a modal verb) and will as a modal verb...

When do I look for a nursing home

Churches and fraternal organizations may also offer care. Visit several, interview the director, talk to the nurses, and observe the patients. Find out how many registered nurses are on staff, how many licensed practical nurses, and how many nurses' aides are employed, and whether they are permanent employees or are provided by a temporary agency. If the staff is from a temporary agency, they may not be as committed to the home as regular staff employees. Ask whether there is a social worker on staff and try to meet that person. Ask about the doctor on staff and find out if he she will work with the patient's doctor, especially on the PD issues. Ask your own doctor about his her recommendations for nursing homes and whether he knows the doctors at a particular home you're considering. Make a list of questions you feel are important regarding the care of your parent or partner and compare the answers from several nursing homes. Find out what services are covered and if...

Finding Meaning at Your Funeral

We are gathered here today to say goodbye to our friend and family member, Roland. Roland was a wonderful father and husband. He loved and enjoyed spending time with his family Roland's children grew up to be successful and happy He loved and cherished his wife throughout their marriage. He was careful to keep the romance alive, even until the end. Roland was a true friend to many of us here today When someone needed help, Roland was the first to offer His door was always open. Whether or not people needed his time or even his money, Roland was generous. Roland also gave to his community he organized members of his congregation to pick up seniors who were unable to drive so that they could attend church services and functions. Truly, he made the world a little better place.

Blaeberry See bilberry

See also ageing (3). bleeding bread A bacterial infection with Bacillus prodigiosus or Serratia marcescens, which stains the bread bright red. Under warm and damp conditions the infection can appear overnight, and contamination of the shewbread in churches has led to accusations and riots against religious minorities over the centuries. blewits Edible wild fungus, Tricholoma (Lepista) saevum, also known as bluetail also wood blewits, T. nudum, see mushrooms. blinding Blocking of a sieve by small particles. blind loop syndrome Or stagnant loop syndrome stasis of the small intestine, permitting bacterial overgrowth and causing malabsorption and steatorrhoea. Usually the result of chronic obstruction or surgical by-pass operations producing a stagnant length of bowel.

Use St Johns wort for

St John's wort is one of the main herbs of St John the Baptist, whose birthday was taken to be June 24th. It is no coincidence that John, the precursor of Christ, was given a birthdate in midsummer and Christ himself in midwinter. This was one way the year's solstices were appropriated from older pagan festivals by the Christian Church.

Social Component of the Self Social Identity

For other people, the route to identity is not through experimentation. Instead, some people attain an identity by accepting and adopting a ready-made social role. Typically, such people adopt an identity that is practiced and provided by their parents or significant others. For example, they may take over the family busi ness, buy a house in their hometown, and join the same church as their parents. Such people appear stable and mature in their identities and have mature values, plans, and objectives even when they are teenagers. Another identity adoption

Psychodynamic Models of Depression

In accord with Freud's theory of identification, when Ms. C identified herself with her mother's aggressive and hurtful behaviors toward others, she became extremely self-critical and felt worthless and unlovable. In Ms. C's case, however, the loss that connected most immediately with her current depression was that of her rapport with the previously idealized church leaders, not her mother. This can best be understood by Abraham's efforts to refine Freud's theory and make it consistent with his earlier model. Abraham (1924) came to view an episode of adult melancholia as stemming from a current disappointment in love, which is viewed, usually unconsciously, as a repetition of an early childhood traumatic experience. Abraham (1924) posited that the depressed patient had had a severe injury to an early healthy sense of narcissism (self-esteem) by way of childhood disappointments in love, usually at the hands of the mother. Such an injury could stem, for example, from losing a view of...

Post Charles William 18541914 Health food provider and cereal tycoon

P ost was the commercial genius who built the Postum Cereal Company as one of the major players in the American food reform movement of the late nineteenth century and, incidentally, made a 17-million-dollar fortune. In 1890, Post, a self-taught inventor and salesman, arrived at the Battle Creek sanitarium in Michigan because of his own failing health. The sanitarium was run for the Seventh-day Adventist Church by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg. The town had been a major center for religion-based health reform since the arrival of the founders of the Church, James and Ellen Gould White, in the 1850s. During his visit, Post became exposed to the food reform movement and its claims about human health. Here he experienced the use of breakfast cereals as the basis for health therapies, using the double idea of a modern health regime with a religious foundation. In 1897, Post developed Grape-Nuts, the first cold cereal, and, in 1899, he created a brand of cornflakes, to compete with Kellogg's...

Cycle Based Fertility Awareness Methods

The best source for classes in these methods is the Catholic Church, which offers them through Marriage and Family Life offices or programs run by local Catholic archdioceses. Classes generally are held once a month for 3 or 4 months and are open to any couple interested in a natural method of contraception, regardless of religious background, or lack of religious background. About Classes that teach fertility awareness are available, usually through the Catholic Church. Since cycle-based birth control methods (especially when combined with abstinence) can be difficult regimens to follow at first, it is strongly recommended that couples or women join support groups, women's health networks, or family life programs that offer classes in such methods. Personal feedback and support from other users of these methods are very helpful, especially during your first months of learning about cycles. Many churches and church-run hospitals offer family life programs and support groups. You need...

Frankincense boswellia sacra birdw burseraceae

Planta Cacahuate

It is nice when all three versions translate it as frankincense, all three actually being pretty consistent in the formula for a holy incense. On reading Zohary (1982), I see he had a change in plans just before publication, eliminating one species of Boswellia, for he says the resins from the two species listed above (but he only listed one). He even hints, without clearly stating, that frankincense may involve resins from as many as 24 species of Boswellia. Boswellia carteri has been reduced to synonymy with Boswellia sacra. Frankincense came to the Holy Land via the famous spice route across southern Arabia and some of the littoral stations of East Africa, the same caravan highway used also for goods from India and points farther east (Zohary, 1982). Zohary rationalizes his conclusions by pointing to similarities between the Arabic luban and the Hebrew levonah. Today, the Catholic Church may be the major consumer, often using frankincense in ceremonial incenses. Another true...

Key factors related to caries prevalence in human populations Physiological or cultural factors

Comparisons between social classes show contradictory results in medieval Europe. Individuals from all social classes, buried around the Westerhuss church (Sweden), do not show differences in caries prevalence that suggest similar diets independently of social status (Swardstedt, 1966). In Zalavar (Hungary), however, high class individuals linked to

Also known as William the Conqueror 10278 io87

How much weight he lost however, he was riding his horse again the next year. It has also been reported, however, that in July 1087, he was still corpulent enough that when he led his troop to loot Mantes, he fell on the pommel of his saddle which caused an intestinal hernia (Bates 1989 179). This resulted in his death. The clergy also had problems getting him to fit into his sarcophagus, and the body had to be broken to fit (Ashley 1973 181). Moreover, the sarcophagus was reported to have burst while his clergy trying to put him in it and the rotting corpse filled the church with an intolerable stench (Douglas 1999 362). This was clear proof to many of the doggerel written about him at the time that He was sunk in greed And utterly given up to avarice (Ashley 1973 159).

Stages of Psychosocial Development

At first, the infant's ''society'' consists primarily of the mother. As the child grows and goes out into the world, however, that circle of influence is expanded to include other adults, peers, and social institutions such as school, churches, and political structures.

Transcendental hypothesis

Even this approach has its own limitations. The most remarkable one is that by losing sight of mind-body wholeness, the mind (or soul) is considered a disembodied entity, which is totally unrelated to the rest of the body. In order to overcome such a limitation, the Church of England Doctrine Commission has recently redefined the concept of the soul as follows (Church of England 1995)

Stuart A Weinzimer MDa Kristin A Sikes MSNb Amy T Steffen BSb William V Tamborlane MDac

ADepartment of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, PO Box 208064, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, USA hYale Pediatric Diabetes Research Program, Yale School of Medicine, 2 Church Street South, Suite 312, New Haven, CT 06519, USA cGeneral Clinical Research Center, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520-8064, USA

Cognitive Modeling Symbolic

A cognitive model is considered to be a symbolic cognitive model if it has the properties of a symbolic system in the technical sense of Newell and Simon's (1976) physical symbol system hypothesis (PSSH). The PSSH provides a hypothesis about the necessary and sufficient conditions for a physical system to realize intelligence. It is a reformulation of Turing computation (see church-turing thesis) that identifies symbol processing as the key requirement for complex cognition. The requirement is that the system be capable of manipulating and composing symbols and symbol structures physical patterns with associated processes that give the patterns the power to denote either external entities or other internal symbol structures (Newell 1980 Newell 1990 Pylyshyn 1989 Simon 1996). One of the distinguishing characteristics of symbols systems is that novel

The Psychological Toll

Hong Kong 1948

Many people found that the sources from which they had always drawn strength were missing. For some it was religion, and there were noticeable changes in churches in Asia and Canada. In Altar boys attend Catholic mass in Hong Kong. Churches throughout areas impacted by SARS welcomed parishioners struggling with the emotional effects of the epidemic. Altar boys attend Catholic mass in Hong Kong. Churches throughout areas impacted by SARS welcomed parishioners struggling with the emotional effects of the epidemic. Singapore, for example, the Catholic Church suspended confessions in private confessional booths instead offering general forgiveneness to their parishioners. Toronto churchgoers were asked not to dip their hands in holy water or to share wine at communion.

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Before the early centuries AD, cardamom was a common spice throughout India, used particularly in hotly-spiced sauces. It was no longer limited to its native habitat in the south of the country and neighboring areas further south still, but had already penetrated beyond India's northern borders. Ancient Egyptians chewed the seeds to whiten teeth, and cardamom was being imported by the ancient Greeks by the 4th century BC Pedanius Dioscorides, the 1st century Greek physician, refers to it in his De materia medica. It was also being imported by the Romans by the 1st century AD. Both the Greeks and the Romans filled shells with a mixture of cardamom and wax to use as a perfume worn in their hair or on their clothing. This was a fashion that persisted for several centuries, not least among some of the Christian clergy, who were berated for it in the 4th century by the Italian scholar and Latin Church father, St Jerome (c. 342 420). In addition, the use of cardamom for dental hygiene was...

Sources of Strength and Buffers of Race Related Stressors

Religion and Church Membership Religion has been theorized to be an adaptive coping mechanism that has enabled African Americans to transcend the limitations and harshness of their social realities and to give meaning and direction to their individual and collective existence. During the 1980s, nearly 70 percent of African Americans reported themselves to be members of a church. Churches provide informal support (e.g., friendship, companionship, advice and comfort, help during illness, financial assistance), formal services (e.g., meals on wheels, transportation, group outings and vacations, ministerial counseling), and moral guidance. Religiosity and church membership enhance self-esteem partly as a consequence of the perception that one is held in high regard by other believers and by an omnipotent divine other who makes his her presence felt in one's life. Religiosity also buffers the negative psychological effects of stress. Having a mother who seeks spiritual support is one of...

Formal Systems Properties of

Formal systems or theories must satisfy requirements that are sharper than those imposed on the structure of theories by the axiomatic-deductive method, which can be traced back to Euclid's Elements. The crucial additional requirement is the regimentation of inferential steps in proofs not only axioms have to be given in advance, but also the logical rules representing argumentative steps. To avoid a regress in the definition of proof and to achieve intersubjectivity on a minimal basis, the rules are to be mechanical and must take into account only the syntactic form of statements. Thus, to exclude any ambiguity, a precise symbolic language is needed and a logical calculus. Both the concept of a formula (i.e., statement in the symbolic language) and that of a rule (i.e., inference step in the logical calculus) have to be effective by the Church-Turing Thesis, this means they have to be recursive. Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem, the decision problem for first order logic, was one issue...

Psychoeducation and the Early Phases of CT with Older Adults

In addition to educating older patients about depression and CT, therapists also need to determine any limitations to coming to therapy on a regular basis. For instance, older patients commonly have limited resources with regard to travel and rely on others to get to appointments (Coon & Gallagher-Thompson, 2002). Furthermore, some older patients still work or take care of family members, and have little time for homework, reading new material, or coming to weekly appointments. Some older patients are too disabled to attend regularly, or they may become disabled during the course of treatment and no longer be able to attend as expected. Therapists working with older patients need to remain flexible with regard to the therapeutic frame by determining these potential limitations early on in treatment they can prevent problems in starting the therapy process. Some therapists provide initial case management services to link older patients to services that facilitate the use of therapy,...

A4 Annotated Bibliography of Studies Specifically Designed To Achieve Weight Reduction in Special Populations

A randomized controlled trial conducted at an urban hospital in Washington, DC. The intervention group was offered 12 weekly group sessions, 1 individual session, and 6 biweekly group sessions the usual care group was offered one class and two informational mailings. Participants were recruited through various clinics and through community outreach, including announcements in newsletters and church bulletins, flyers distributed at clinics and churches, and presentations at community gatherings. Program materials depicted African-American individuals, families, and community settings and reflected language, social values, and situa tions relevant to older Americans or African-Americans. All guidance about foods and recipes was based on types of foods and flavorings characteristic in African-American communities. Recipes were provided by participants and used in direct instruction. Ample time was allowed for the participants to discuss and work through dietary adherence issues unique to...

The Transitional Object

The concept of transitional objects to reinforce object constancy has been a long-established precedent in the study of child development and the psychodynamic model of psychotherapy (Baldwin, 1967 Stone & Church, 1973 Rutan & Stone, 2001). Yalom (1985) posited that in group psychotherapy, the individual client and or the group as a whole might view the therapist as a transitional object. In my groups, I often utilize a small, inanimate object to serve as a transitional object that ties the client to the group when he or she is dealing with a particularly difficult situation outside of group. This object encourages the group member, as he or she goes through the days between group meetings, to remember the support and attachment he or she feels from and toward the group. This intervention helps and supports him or her through the tough times in the real world.

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

In addition to aches and pains, Lawrence notices that he avoids long car trips or air travel. He even avoids going to the movies or to church. He reports that all of these activities make his legs hurt or sometimes feel like something is crawling on them. He finds he must stand up and walk around to relieve the sensations. Further, at night he has great difficulty going to sleep because these symptoms also occur when he is in bed. His provider diagnosed him with Restless Legs Syndrome. The provider first changed his short-acting opioid to Tramadol to see if that was precipitating the restless legs. The good news was that Tramadol was effective for his pain without the constipating side effects of many opioid medications, which he now only uses for a flare. The bad news is that the restless legs continued. Iron and vitamin B blood tests revealed no problems, so his provider prescribed Carbidopa, one hour before bedtime or prior to prolonged sitting. Lawrence's restless...

Are Expressions Necessary For Emotional Experience

In a more recent study, Sandi Duclos (Duclos & Laird, 2001) explored the effectiveness of deliberate inhibition of expression on feeling. In contrast to the many studies of college students, the participants in Duclos's study were adults recruited from a mainstream church who were unacquainted with recent psychology and who were very dubious about the potential benefits of controlling their expressive behavior. Nonetheless, inhibiting expressive behavior was quite effective in reducing the intensity of both sadness and anger.

Graham Sylvester 17941851 Presbyterian minister social reformer and early advocate of dietary reform in America

Graham was chronically ill as a young man, diagnosed with consumption (tuberculosis), which interrupted his studies at Amherst College. After one of his illnesses, he married his nurse. As a preacher, he was an advocate of the temperance movement. In 1830, while preaching in Pennsylvania against the dangers of drink, he met members of the Vegetarian Bible Christian Church and thereafter became an advocate of vegetarianism. After i839, he withdrew from his public activities to devote himself to developing his system. Like many reformers of his day, Graham associated capitalism with moral decay (Nissenbaum 1980 48). Responding in part to the advent of preprepared foods, Graham wrote his famous Treatise on Bread and Bread-Making (1837), in which he urged readers to make quality bread at home and eat it fresh. His Graham bread was made primarily with wholewheat and molasses, as opposed to white flour, and it contained neither yeast nor eggs. The ideal food came to be bread. It was plain,...

Can I black out from PD

On February 1, 2002, Janet Reno, the former Attorney General of the United States, blacked out. Ms. Reno was giving a speech. She had been standing and talking for 45 minutes, she felt hot, and (as captured on television), she fell to the floor. She was immediately awakened, taken to a nearby hospital, evaluated overnight, and released the next day. Earlier, in 1998, while standing in church, Ms. Reno blacked out. The blackout occurred after Ms. Reno had completed a strenuous hike. A concern has been raised is that Ms. Reno, who is 63 years of age and has had PD for 6 years, blacked out because of her PD, or because of the drugs she's taking for PD, a dopamine agonist and Sinemet.

How is a diagnosis of MS made

The doctor asked whether I had ever had any prior events of weakness or numbness. By the time we went through his questions and my answers, a pattern of unexplained, often ignored, yet classic MS symptoms was evident. Previously, when a medical problem would get too bothersome, I would finally make an appointment with a doctor. Inevitably, the symptom went away I was too busy to keep the appointment before it went away or an explanation emerged, and thus, I canceled the appointment. I was a typical over-achiever working, making Christmas decorations by hand, entertaining my husband's corporate clients, starting a soup kitchen at our church, and keeping in touch with family each day. Fatigue was apparently due to hard work at law school and around-the-clock hours as a hostile takeover lawyer in the 1980s. Weakness in my right hand was explained as a side effect from writing a law review article and having a lumpectomy. Changes in my vision were thought to be due to long hours and the...

General Dietary Influences

African-American meals are deeply rooted in traditions, holidays, and celebrations. For American slaves, after long hours working in the fields the evening meal was a time for families to gather, reflect, tell stories, and visit with loved ones and friends. Today, the Sunday meal after church continues to serve as a prime gathering time for friends and family.

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It is a much more straightforward business to enquire about sugar (refined sucrose) consumption than honey consumption in preindustrial times. All sugar supplies, in Europe, came from imports, so customs records constitute a readily accessible record of national consumption. In the 1520s, the Dissolution of the Monasteries reduced demand for bees-wax for church candles and brought about a small decrease in the production of honey. Almost simultaneous with this came an increase in the supply of refined sucrose, imported from the new European colonies. Sugar was still considerably more expensive than honey, but this combination of events gained it a more complete following among the wealthy. Cookery books were used exclusively by the well-to-do at this time and clearly illustrate that, for this section of society, sugar had, by the 1550s, usurped honey's place in the diet.

Service organizations

There are numerous service organizations that can help families in need. They provide all kinds of aid transportation, wigs, special wheelchairs, and food. Often, all a family has to do is describe their plight, and good Samaritans appear. Some organizations that may exist in your community are American Legion Elks Club fraternal organizations such as the Masons, Jaycees, Kiwanis Club, Knights of Columbus, Lions, Rotary United Way and Veterans of Foreign Wars and churches of all denominations. In addition, local philanthropic organizations exist in many communities. To locate them, call your local health department, speak to the social worker, and ask for help.

Keeping the household functioning

Every family of a child with leukemia needs massive assistance. It is important for families to recognize this early and learn not only to accept aid gracefully but also to ask for help when needed. As discussed earlier in the chapter, most family members, friends, neighbors, and church members want to help, but they need direction from the family on what is helpful but not intrusive.

Looking back after many years

At that time I also became very involved in a church, which was perhaps the most comforting, healing thing of all. I decided never to visit my daughter's grave. I know it comforts some people, but not me. I never thought for a second that she was there, just her bones. She, I will meet again. And finally, I had more children. I caution newly bereaved parents to think long and hard about the timing of the next child. But I look at my children, and I thank God for them.

Preface to the I edition

The plants we have selected are found in various habitats, including both cultivated and neglected land. So do not be surprised to see pictures here of plants growing on cliff scree, a church wall, or open moorland. Quite a few of our plants are happy in cities, in waste lots, and parks, or cracks in sidewalks.

Battle Creek Sanitarium Early Health

Upon its opening, in 1866, the Western Health Reform Institute was heralded far and wide through the Seventh-day Adventist journal Review and Herald. Dr. H. S. Lay, the first physician in charge, and James and Ellen White, early founders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, were instrumental in founding this health institution. Taking in visitors and teaching simple principles, such as advocating the use of Graham bread and counseling eight hours of sleep at night, the institution struggled to live up to its grand name until 1876, when John Harvey Kellogg became medical director. In 1877, Kellogg changed the name to Battle Creek Sanitarium.

Phase 2 Treatment of Vulnerability to Depression

In the middle phase of her treatment, Ms. C accomplished a good deal of work in recognizing how an exquisite sense of helplessness in the face of others' expectations and a sense of herself as always potentially disappointing contributed to her depressions and to her continual defensive-ness with others. She recognized the often passive expressions of her anger and realized how deeply she feared directly expressing angry feelings because of her terror of rejection, which was based on her mother's tendency to respond to any complaint of hers with a prolonged, silent withdrawal. She gradually came to understand how disruptive the indirect expression of her rage was in her relationships with her boss and in her church. Ms. C also became more able to distinguish her own anger from that of her mother and to realize that her own behaviors, although problematic, did not deserve the same level of self-censure as did her mother's very destructive and vicious attacks toward others. Finally,...

Incline Your Ear to My Tips

What are you learning from the diet and personal journal Where should you start Do not throw any food away. Eat the items you have and slowly add products without trans fat and sugar. Do not make immediate family changes. Go slowly. Drink more water. Eat whole foods, organic preferred. Stay away from trans fat and sugar. Limit snacks to real food. Limit coffee drinking to the morning. Start some type of regular exercise 30 minutes each day. Watch less TV and spend more time with your family. Attend a church community that believes Jesus is the Son of God. Write at least one thank you note each week. Say uplifting, edifying words or do not speak at all.

Cornerstone Significance

A cornerstone is the point of the building where two significant walls join. In biblical terms, this is the primary focal point of man the spiritual and man the physical. Jesus unites the Bride and Groom. Each one of us who have accepted Jesus as our personal Savior is analogues to a brick in the church. Masonry bricks make strong structures. They can last for decades without continuous maintenance. When my family was in Jericho, we asked the guide what happened to the stones that made the walls of Jericho. She responded that the neighboring inhabitants came and took them. The neighbors knew the strong nature of those building bricks.

Kellogg John Harvey MD 18521943

The San was originally affiliated with the Adventist Church but had moved away from religious practice to a more medical and scientific focus by 1907. Kellogg now appealed to rational medicine as nature alone possesses the power to heal. As in The San, patients, and not disease are to be treated (Kellogg 1907 593). As such, The San included a Laboratory of Hygiene that aimed to create new nutritious food products by undertaking the preliminary digestive work of the body by kettle cooking, oven cooking, and toasting (Kellogg 1907 1561).

Human Computer Interaction

A second research activity explores interfaces that expand representational possibilities beyond the menus and icons of the desktop metaphor. The new field of information visualization (Hollan, Bederson, and Helfman 1997) provides many examples. The Information Visualizer (Card, Robertson, and Mackinlay 1991), a cognitive coprocessor architecture and collection of 3-D visualization techniques, supports navigation and browsing of large information spaces. Numerous techniques are being developed to help visualize large complex systems (Eick and Joseph 1993 Church and Helfman 1993), gather histories of interactions with digital objects (Hill and Hollan 1994 Eick and Joseph 1993), and provide interactive multiscale views of information spaces (Perlin and Fox 1993 Bederson et al. 1996).

Identify local community norms

In communities with a significant 'special population' (African American, Hispanic, Native American), patient advocates can be particularly helpful in helping to identify community norms and function as an intermediary with the community. For instance, in many Native American traditions, important information is communicated not through a newspaper or other media, but through word of mouth and through story telling by a trusted community 'elder.' An important source for credible information in some African American communities is the local church. (This is fairly well recognized now and many churches have come to feel burdened with the expectations placed on them to be 'all things to all their people.') In first Hispanic and Asian communities, family priorities take precedence over

Hispanics And Alcohol

Finally, as noted before in regard to drugs, there are important differences in drinking behavior between subgroups of Hispanics. Mainland-dwelling Puerto Ricans' use of both alcohol and drugs is comparatively high wherever studied (Gordon, 1985). Pentecostal church groups have had notable success in influencing the drinking behavior of some Puerto Ricans, although some clinicians have expressed the view that Puerto Ricans are reluctant to use treatment services. Cuban drinking patterns are generally moderate Cultural values of self-control forbid discernible drunkenness for both men and women. With increasing acculturation, there is gradually increasing alcohol usage but reduced reliance on minor TRANQUILIZERS by Cuban women. All the (scanty) information available on the subject stresses the importance of individual ethnic experience.

Dietary Problems

Use coupons, unit pricing, and shopping lists. Plan and prepare ahead, freezing several meals at once. Buy more generic or store-brand foods and foods on sale. Find food assistance programs or sources for free and reduced-price meals, such as churches, Meals On Wheels, Congregate Dining, and Food Stamps. Buy more low-cost foods, such as dried beans and peas, rice, pasta, canned tuna, and peanut butter.

Time seconds

Differences are consistent with prior reports of greater cerebrovascular sensitivity to cocaine in men (Levin et al., 1994) and modulation of cocaine's effects by gonadal steroids (Church and Subramanian, 1997). We suggested that gonadal steroids might modulate the effects of cocaine on cerebral hemodynamics (Kaufman et al., 1998a), which if true would suggest novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cocaine-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction.


Epistles, we gain nothing by eating, lose nothing by abstaining (1 Cor. 8 8). With the establishment of the early Church (most readily seen in St. Augustine's Confessions), the submission to the temptation to overeat was written on the body in the form of fat. Gula is one of the seven deadly sins (Sawyer 1995). In many

Case Formulation

Turner held himself to unrealistically high standards for serving the congregation, his family, and God, and he was extremely harsh on himself when he inevitably failed to meet them. He also held his daughters and church members to these same excessively high standards. He believed that because of his position as choir director, his family was always being scrutinized by church members, so that any imperfection indicated that he and his family were poor role models. Similarly, he blamed himself when church members did not meet his unrealistically high standards, because it indicated he had failed to motivate them sufficiently. Furthermore, he interpreted any criti

After the viewing

After the viewing the child can be informed about what happens to the body in the time before the burial cremation, that is, that he or she will stay in the coffin in a room at the hospital or the chapel and is then brought to the church or cremation place before the funeral takes place.


Another example of intact perceptual priming by amnesic patients was reported by Schacter and Church (1995). In this study, the participants initially heard a series of words spoken in the same voice. After that, they tried to identify the same words passed through an auditory filter the words were either spoken in the same voice or in an unfamiliar voice. The findings are shown in Figure 7.9 (a). Amnesic patients and normal controls both showed perceptual priming, in that word-identification performance was better when the words were spoken in the same voice.

Avoid Pain

Emotional pain can be a motivator for repentance. Paul, writing to the church in Corinth, knew that their pain was instrumental in motivating them to change direction. It has been estimated that 86 million America have some type of physical pain.31 Pain is a sign of inflammation. People avoid pain by taking pain relieving meds that do not get to the cause of pain. Do you know you can minimize or eliminate pain on your own without the bad or near-death side effects from pain relieving medications

Watch Your Company

A challenge Paul dealt with while developing the early church was mind-sets. Once you have made a decision to alter your health lifestyle, seek out individuals with similar desires. Look what people did to Jesus who didn't agree with what He believed. Jealousy, envy, and strife may occur because many may not like the changes you are making. This happens in my practice frequently. Let your light of improved health, weight loss, reduced pain, and emotional stability shine in the darkness.


We are completing a project assessing the short and longer term (one year after pretest) efficacy of the Internet-based Guide to Health (GTH) program delivered within churches. GTH focuses on nutrition targets similar to NLS and has emphasis on soft drinks, sweets, portion sizes, fast food, and the importance of energy balance to weight management. Content for each individual is tailored based on initial assessments, personal goals for the overall program, and progress in the program. In addition, GTH expands on previous self-regulation components through planning templates for physical activity and fast-food consumption. The GTH randomized trial involves 14 Baptist and United Methodist churches (Wojcik et al., 2003). Participants from five churches in the GTH-only condition accessed the 12-module, tailored, interactive GTH from home, work, or church. Participants in five churches received the GTH plus additional coordinated church-based supports (GTH-plus), while participants from...

Rational Agency

Development of logic in this century would then cease even to be intelligible). For a COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF MIND, where the agent's deductive competence must be represented as a finite algorithm, the ideal agent would in fact have to violate Church's undecidability theorem for first-order logic (Cherniak 1986).

Graham Sylvester

Graham influenced others to take up the cause of health reform. John Harvey Kellogg, while working as an apprentice typesetter, was exposed to a compilation of articles on health, including Graham's Health, or How to Live, a series of six pamphlets published by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and he became intensely interested in Graham's dietetic and sanitary reforms. In his spare moments Kellogg read all of Graham's writings. Ralph Waldo Emerson made reference to Sylvester Graham as the poet of bran and pumpkins. Graham died in 1851.


There is a particular concern with the kinds of rules and policies established for the adolescent and the types of monitoring practices used. Clearly, as children age, the role of parent shifts gradually from that of direct provider of experiences and conditions (caretaker) to that of guide, broker, and facilitator of experiences. Things often are done at a greater distance and over a longer period of time that is, monitoring the whereabouts of a baby and monitoring the life and times of an adolescent require quite different actions. Things more often are done in league with other adults and other institutions (e.g., church, school, youth organization).

Religion and Dieting

It is not just religious diets, however, that emphasize the need for spiritual purpose in dieting. Indeed, many contemporary dieting books suggest that either dieters need to find peace in order to achieve dieting success or that the diet proposed will actually bring the reader peace. From wherever the peace originates, modern science has shown that religion can be a powerful factor in dietary success. One of the reasons suggested by researchers is that the church group can be a good support system for someone looking to improve his her health. In addition, the Sunday morning service can be a good platform to distribute information on dietary changes for healthy weight maintenance. Therefore, some investigators have used people who attend church as research subjects to test dietary interventions. In contrast to the use of diet as a representation of austerity and reverence to God in the time of Sylvester Graham, dieting in contemporary society has a very different relationship to...

Viatical Settlements

A means by which people with terminal disease may retrieve some of the value of their life insurance. In a viatical settlement, people with terminal illnesses assign their life insurance policies to 'viatical settlement companies' in exchange for a percentage of the policy's face value. The viatical settlement company may in turn sell the policy to a third party. The purchaser continues to pay the premiums, and collects the face value of the policy when the original policyholder dies. The word comes from the Latin word for 'to travel' and relates to the provisions made for subsistence while travelling, with the metaphorical use in the Roman church of preparation for the passage from life to death and the last Eucharistic rite or 'viaticum'.

Hispanic Children

Hispanic families and individuals engage in various practices of spirituality, including formal religion and different folk religions. Historically, the common religion of Hispanic people was that of the Roman Catholic Church, and a large number of Hispanic children are still baptized as Catholics. Nevertheless, Hispanic children today represent a variety of denominations, such as Baptist and Methodist, as well as other religions, such as Judaism. Members of some Hispanic groups also practice folk religions, such as Santeria, Espiritismo, and Curanderismo. While the belief in spirits of deceased persons differs across Hispanic cultures, many children learn about beliefs by observing family or community practices, and often see the frequency with which saints, angels, and God are invoked by adults.

Good vs Evil

Historically, coupling religious convictions to politics has resulted in disastrous consequences, including pogroms, terrorism and war. Christianity was the dominant political and social force in Europe and other parts of the world for much of the last 2,000 years, with particularly tragic consequences for Jews. In the eighteenth century, the Enlightenment was characterized by faith in the triumph of universal human reason, benevolence, tolerance and pluralism. One of its core values was the separation of the church and state, was enshrined in the United States constitution. The religious orientation of the Enlightenment was a radical departure from Evangelicalism, which emphasized faith and Biblical truth (Head and Heart American Christianities, Garry Wills, Penguin Press, 2007)

Demographic profile

More flexible in this regard is the Doctrine Commission of the Church of England who recently revised their views (Church of England 1995) In the past the imagery of hell-fire and eternal torment and punishment, often sadistically expressed, has been used to frighten men and women into believing. Christians have professed appalling theologies which made God into a sadistic monster and left searing psychological scars on many. Over the last two centuries the decline in the churches of the western world in the teaching of everlasting punishment has been one of the most notable transformations of Christian belief. There are many reasons for this change, but amongst them has been the moral protest from both within and without the Christian faith against a religion of fear, and a growing sense that the picture of a God who consigned millions to eternal torment was far removed from the revelation of (Church of England 1995 198-9) The case for the non-homogeneity of space has ancient roots....

Case Example

C's church, where she had been a very active member, often taking on many of the difficult volunteer duties. The patient idealized the church leaders as loving, caring men whose positive regard soothed her long-standing low self-esteem. However, she increasingly felt that the church leaders were not responsive to her problems with her husband, from whom she was later divorced. These problems included her husband's verbal abuse and criticisms. When the two of them met with the elders, she felt that they were siding with him and ignoring her concerns. She became angry but did not reveal her discontent to the church leaders. However, she appeared resentful and became derelict in her duties. The church leaders, increasingly frustrated with her behavior, eventually encouraged her to leave the parish. When Ms. C finally voiced her concerns, she did so with an abrasive bitterness that only alienated the clerics further. Ms. C appealed her case to a higher...

Social Problems

Research has shown a correlation between living alone and having lower quality diets. Men may be at greater risk because they are less experienced with planning, shopping, and preparing meals. Women may feel less motivated to prepare meals when there is no one to share them with. Ways to improve social interaction during meals and improve the experience of dining alone include participating with others, such as at churches or Congregate Dining sites, eating by a window, using good china, eating in a park or on one's porch, garnishing meals, and trying various frozen or prepared dinners.

School Vouchers

The states of Maine and Vermont have had small-scale voucher programs operating since the 1800s, but attention in the early twenty-first century was focused on more recent systems such as the one serving Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Critics argue that vouchers violate the separation of church and state (because parents can use them at private schools run by religious


PEYOTE, or mescal, is the common name of the small spineless cactus Lophophora williamsii, found in the southwestern United States and north-central Mexico. Peyote is used in Native American religious rituals, primarily for its HALLUCINOGENIC effects. At the end of the nineteenth century, Arthur Heffter demonstrated that MESCALINE (3,4,5-tri-methoxyphenethylamine) was responsible for peyote's pharmacological effects. Mescaline is related to the Amphetamines. When ingested, it can produce HALLUCINATIONS, frequently of a visual nature, characterized by vivid colors, designs, and a distorted space perception. It stimulates the auto-nomic nervous system and can cause nausea, vomiting, sweating, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), pupillary dilation, and anxiety. The use of peyote in Native American ritual, referred to as Peyotism, was documented by Europeans in the sixteenth century. The modern practice of the peyote-based religion began in the late nineteenth century, was widely practiced by...


From the earliest stages of birth through adolescence, religion can play a role in providing a framework for a child's life and world view. A strong religious background can help children and adults individually and together answer life's most significant questions, respond to difficult challenges, and make important decisions. Religion conveys a sense of the sacred or holy, often reflected in views of a god. Each religion consists of rituals, symbols, stories, values, and role models, which guide and shape a child's ways of being and acting in the world. Parents draw upon these different elements in passing on a religious tradition to their children, often sharing the responsibility for educating their children with a religious school and a religious institution such as a church, synagogue, or mosque.

Moving On

I Finding other ways to parent If having children in your life is still a top priority for you and your partner, you may want to look into alternative ways of parenting. For example, depending on your age you may consider adopting a child or acting as foster parents. Or you may prefer to develop closer relationships with your nieces and nephews or friends' children. You could also have children in your life by volunteering at the local hospital children's ward, helping out at the local school or church, or becoming a youth leader. It won't be the same as having your own children, but it can be very rewarding to be a mentor or confidante.

Course of Treatment

Turner became very active and took charge of the sessions. He first reported on his successful use of coping skills, complete with specific examples. By reviewing successful experiences with these skills, the therapist encouraged Mr. Turner to take credit for the changes he was making in his life. As C-CT was nearing an end, the therapist had Mr. Turner review the major changes he had made over the course of treatment. Mr. Turner stated that over the course of therapy he had come to see that he could be proud to be average, that he had permission to be imperfect, and that he had multiple important roles (father, choir director, friend), in contrast to his former self-view as someone who must please everyone and always achieve perfection. He also recognized the importance of using the social support of members of his church, of prioritizing family time, and of taking care of himself. In the final C-CT sessions, therapy focused on termination and relapse prevention. Mr....

Closing thoughts

In outlook from a meeting I had gone to only a few weeks before in Victoria, British Columbia. There, about 150 earnest people assembled in a church hall to share their fears about biotechnology. The focus of concern for the speakers in Victoria was also business expansion and their mistrust of it. The heart of their message was not in specific scientific issues or questions of risk and benefit. Their first question was do we need biotechnology

From 1000 To 1500

During this period, hops, which enhanced both the flavor and durability of beer, were introduced. In Italy and France, wine became even more popular, both in the diet and for expanding commerce. Distillation had been known to the Arabs since about 800, but among Europeans, a small group of clergy, physicians, and alchemists monopolized that technology until about 1200, producing spirits as beverages for a limited luxury market and for broader use as a medicine. Gradual overpopulation was halted by the Black Death (a pandemic of bubonic plague), and schisms in the Catholic church resulted in unrest and political struggles later in this period.