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FIGURE 1-2 Percentage of calories from macronutrient intake for carbohydrates, protein, and total fat among adult men and women, 1970-2000. SOURCE: CDC, 2004a.

FIGURE 1-3 Available calories from the U.S. food supply, adjusted for losses/2 and average energy intake for adult men and women,' 1970-2000. SOURCES: Putnam et al., 2002; CDC, 2004a.

2Based on USDA food supply data, calories from the U.S. food supply adjusted for spoilage, cooking losses, plate waste, and other losses increased by 20 percent between 1983 and 2000 (Putnam et al., 2002; USDA, 2003).

'Dietary intake trends and percentage of calories from macronutrient intake are based on a CDC analysis of four NHANES, by survey year, for adult men and women aged 20 to 74 years from 1971 to 2000 for energy intake (kilocalories), protein, carbohydrates, total fat, and saturated fat (CDC, 2004a).

FIGURE 1-3 Available calories from the U.S. food supply, adjusted for losses/2 and average energy intake for adult men and women,' 1970-2000. SOURCES: Putnam et al., 2002; CDC, 2004a.

2Based on USDA food supply data, calories from the U.S. food supply adjusted for spoilage, cooking losses, plate waste, and other losses increased by 20 percent between 1983 and 2000 (Putnam et al., 2002; USDA, 2003).

'Dietary intake trends and percentage of calories from macronutrient intake are based on a CDC analysis of four NHANES, by survey year, for adult men and women aged 20 to 74 years from 1971 to 2000 for energy intake (kilocalories), protein, carbohydrates, total fat, and saturated fat (CDC, 2004a).

BRFSS data, although it is unclear why this occurred (CDC, 2004b). In 2001, BRFSS respondents were asked to report the overall frequency and duration of time spent in household, transportation, and leisure-time activity of both moderate and vigorous intensity (CDC, 2003c). Although 45.4 percent of adults reported having engaged in physical activities consistent with the recommendation of a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity on most days of the week in 2001, more than one-half of U.S. adults (54.6 percent) were not sufficiently active to meet these recommendations (CDC, 2003c).

The physical activity trend data for children and youth are even more limited than for adults. Most available information is on the physical activity levels of high school youth, with limited data available on levels in younger children. Based on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), daily enrollment in physical education classes declined among high school students from 42 percent in 1991 to 25 percent in 1995 (DHHS, 1996) and increased slightly to 28.4 percent in 2003 (CDC, 2004c). Cross-sectional data collected through the YRBS for 15,214 high school students indicated that one-third (33.4 percent) of 9th to 12th graders nationwide are not engaging in recommended levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity

TABLE 1-2 Trends in Leisure Time and Physical Activity of U.S. Adults, Children, and Youth

Trend

Adults

Children and Youth

Available leisure time

Leisure-time physical activity

Moderate to vigorous physical activity

Adults' free time increased by 14% between 1965 and 1985 to an average of nearly 40 hours per week based on Americans' Use of Time Study (Robinson and Godbey, 1999).

There have been increases in reported leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults based on NHES, NHANES, BRFSS, and trend data on sports and recreational participation (Pratt et al., 1999; French et al., 2001).

There was a slight increase in self-reported physical activity levels among adults, based on the 1990-1998 BRFSS, from 24.3% in 1990 to 25.4% in 1998 (CDC, 2001).

There was a slight decrease in adults reporting no physical activity at all (from 30.7% in 1990 to 28.7% in 1998) (CDC, 2001).

Based on the 2001 BRFSS, 45.4% of adults reported having engaged in physical activities consistent with the recommendation of a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week in 2001. However, 54.6% of U.S. adults were not sufficiently active to meet these recommendations (CDC, 2003c).

From 1981 to 1997, children aged 3 to 12 years experienced a decline in their free time by seven hours per week (Sturm, 2005a).

An estimated 61.5% of children aged 9 to 13 years do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours and 22.6% do not engage in any freetime physical activity based on the 2002 YMCLS (CDC, 2003a).

From 1981 to 1997, children aged 3 to 12 years experienced an increase in time spent in organized sports and outdoor activities (Sturm, 2005a).

High school students in grades 9 to 12 are not engaging in recommended levels of moderate or vigorous physical activity based on the YRBS (CDC, 2003b, 2004c; see Chapter 7).

INTRODUCTION TABLE 1-2 Continued

Trend Adults Children and Youth

Physical education

Not applicable

Daily enrollment in physical

classes

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