Natural Childbirth Options

Bump To Birth

The experience that a woman has during childbirth shapes how the rest of her child-raising experience goes, in many ways. A good birth can have a huge effect on how good you feel about your child, whereas a bad birth can often lead to feelings of sadness or PDST-type symptoms due to the pain and struggle of the birth experience. However, you don't need to worry about that now, because the information in this book gives you ALL of the experience and expert advice that you need in order to have a really amazing birth, that really marked that day as the truly special day that it is. This book teaches you how to use natural, holistic remedies to heal yourself during pregnancy in order to make sure that you feel your best during the whole birth experience. You can also learn everything you need to know about natural birth Everything you need to know to have a great pregnancy and birth is in this guide! Continue reading...

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Alternate Birth Centers

Hospitals operate as bustling, crisis-oriented places. Such institutions are for sick people, and pregnancy is not considered an illness by supporters of a new kind of environment for giving birth the alternate birth center. Alternate birth centers were developed because many parents objected to what they felt to be the impersonal, needlessly technological, and increasingly expensive childbirth procedures available in the conventional hospital setting. As a growing number of women chose to give birth at home, the risks involved became a concern. Alternate birth centers, then, are a response to both the dissatisfaction with hospitals and the hazards of home births. Alternate birth centers provide a relaxed, homelike atmosphere for the pregnant woman, her family, and the newborn. The most dramatic aspect of an alternate birth center compared with a conventional hospital is the room where the deliveries take place. Unlike the operating-room atmosphere to which laboring women are...

The stages of labor and childbirth

How long will your labor last That depends on many factors. As a rule, labor is usually longer with first babies. That's because the openings of the uterus (cervix) and vagina (birth canal) of first-time mothers are less flexible, and therefore it takes longer for labor and birth. For women giving birth for the first time, labor usually lasts between 12 and 24 hours, with an average of 14 hours. For women who have given birth before, labor usually lasts between four and eight hours, with an average of six hours. How long labor lasts and how it progresses differs from woman to woman and from birth to birth. Even though every labor is unique, the sequence of events that takes place remains roughly the same. Labor is formally divided into three natural stages. Stage 1 occurs when the uterus, on its own, opens the cervix to allow descent of the baby. Stage 2 is pushing and delivery the birth of your baby. Stage 3 is delivery of the placenta (afterbirth). The first stage is the longest of...

Understanding pain relief choices in childbirth

The decision of whether to use medication during labor and delivery is mostly yours. However, it may also depend on your health care provider's recommendations, what's available at your hospital or birthing center, and the specific character of your labor. Sometimes, you won't know what kinds of pain relief you want until you're in labor. Each woman's labor is unique to her. Your perception of labor pain will differ from that of other women in labor. In addition, your capacity to deal with pain during childbirth can be affected by factors such as the length of your labor, the size and position of your baby, and how rested you are as labor begins. No one can predict how you'll cope with the pain of your first labor, and subsequent labors often don't follow the same pattern. When making your decision, keep in mind that birth isn't a test of endurance. You won't have failed if you ask for a pain relief drug. Keep in mind, too, that the contractions of labor have a purpose. Labor pains...

Getting Ready for Childbirth

It's important to be well-informed about what happens during childbirth, but you can prepare yourself only so much. How the birth pans out is largely out of your control and if you have very firm ideas about how you want the birth to be, you may get disappointed. A bit of a 'go-with-the-flow' mentality helps you be ready for whatever comes your way. In Chapter 19, I describe the different types of birth.

Handling Birthing Plan Letdowns

Childbirth is a unique experience that every pregnant woman anticipates with mixed feelings. Countering your excitement of meeting your baby for the first time is the trepidation about what the birth will actually be like. If you're hoping to have a vaginal birth and end up having a caesarean, you may feel cheated and disappointed after all, you needed IVF to conceive, your pregnancy was super-monitored and to top it off you end up having a caesarean delivery. You may feel overwhelmed by all the technology and resentful that nothing seems to be straightforward and 'natural'. In Australia, more than 50 per cent of IVF mums have a caesarean section, which is twice the rate of other childbearing women (I explain why this is so in Chapter 18). Given these odds, it's a good idea to be prepared for this eventuality. And, if you're over 35 and expecting twins, you're almost guaranteed to have a caesarean birth, so you may as well make your birthing plans accordingly.

Problems of labor and childbirth

Even if you're doing everything right as you go through labor and childbirth, complications can occur. If something does go wrong, trust your health care provider to do the best for both you and your baby. If you aren't comfortable before birth with the care you're receiving, that's the time to make a change. It's important to trust your health care team when problems arise in labor because treatment usually must begin quickly. That's not the time to doubt your provider's skill. If your labor isn't progressing, a condition called dystocia, it's usually due to a problem with one or more components of the birth process. Progress in labor is measured by how well your cervix opens (dilates) and the descent of your baby through the pelvis. Good progress is the progressive dilation of your cervix and descent of your baby. This progress requires the following

Positions for labor and childbirth

Lying flat on your back isn't recommended for labor or childbirth. It can cause the weight of your uterus to compress major blood vessels and decrease blood flow to your uterus. If you're having a lot of back pain, kneeling on a pillow on the floor and leaning forward against your bed or a chair may feel good. This position relieves backache by directing the baby's weight away from your spine. Many birthing beds have two sections, one which can be lowered and the other which can be raised. The beds are designed so that you can kneel on the lower portion while resting your arms and upper body on the raised portion. Transition may go quickly. You may suddenly be past it and ready to push. Or you may feel as if the pain is never going to end, and you're unsure whether you can hold on one more minute. Many women, especially those practicing natural childbirth, feel exhausted and somewhat overwhelmed during transition. Don't worry if you lose control of your emotions. But to help you stay...

During pregnancy and childbirth

Generally speaking, pregnancy and childbirth are very safe events in countries like Australia with a good healthcare system and most babies are born healthy. But, irrespective of how you conceive, you may have unexpected complications during pregnancy or at the time of birth. Some of these complications are more common with IVF than with spontaneous conception. This is because 1 Women who have IVF are generally older when they give birth and this increases the risk of pregnancy complications. 1 Be older when they give birth (on average, about five years older)

Having a birthing experience that isnt quite what you expected

Several years ago some colleagues and I undertook a study of women's experiences post-IVF (see Chapter 18). About one-third of the IVF mums in our study weren't so thrilled with their childbirth experience but were very happy with the baby, of course These were predominantly the 1 The ultimate reward for giving birth is to hold your baby in your arms straight away, but this isn't always possible when you have a caesarean delivery, which can be upsetting. Table 19-1 IVF Mums' Satisfaction with Childbirth Table 19-1 IVF Mums' Satisfaction with Childbirth Vaginal birth 1 feel pleased with the birth experience. 1 feel disappointed with the birth experience. Some women blame themselves if they can't give birth the way nature intended. Don't give yourself a hard time about needing a caesarean section It's not your fault and doesn't mean that you'll be less of a mother. IVF mums and childbirth As part of our study, my colleagues and I examined how IVF mums regard their childbirth experience...

Tips for planning a vaginal birth after a Caesarean birth

Most women who've undergone a previous Caesarean are candidates for a vaginal birth after a Caesarean birth (VBAC). Yet in 2000, only about 20 percent of eligible women went through with it. Given that the success rate is 60 percent to 80 percent, why don't more women choose VBAC

Take childbirth classes if you havent already

Childbirth classes help you and your partner fully prepare for labor and childbirth. They vary in name and are available at most hospitals and birthing centers, so ask about them as part of your prenatal care. Typically, classes are offered as one- to two-hour sessions over the course of several months or as full-day sessions that take place over one or two weekends. Childbirth classes are often taught by nurses, who cover more than just breathing techniques used for relaxation during labor, or so-called natural childbirth. They typically address all aspects of labor and delivery, as well as newborn care. You'll likely learn about signs of labor, pain relief options during labor, birthing positions, postnatal care and care of a newborn, including information on breast-feeding. Typically, at these classes you'll also learn about what will happen to your body during labor and birth so that you feel positive rather than fearful. Especially if you're a first-time parent, you may find that...

Review choices for your labor and childbirth

In addition to attending childbirth classes in your final months of pregnancy, you and your partner may want to discuss with your health care provider When making a birth plan with your health care provider, don't be embarrassed by any question. For example, you may be wondering In the past, it was normal for a woman to have an enema when she went into labor, the theory being that emptying the bowel reduced the risk of infection for the mother and baby and stimulated stronger contractions. This is no longer common practice. Your bowel usually will empty without intervention during labor. Occasionally, a small amount of stool is expelled during birth. This is perfectly normal and nothing to worry about. During labor, the health care team caring for you will perform periodic vaginal exams to check how you're progressing. During actual delivery, you're joined by your health care provider, labor coach and, typically, at least one nurse. A pediatrician also may be present to examine the...

Creating a birth plan

A birth plan encourages you to think about your labor and delivery before it happens. You can record your preferences regarding labor, delivery and post-partum care. You can use the list to talk about your preferences with your Your health care provider may ask you to fill out a form stating your preferences. Or you may create a birth plan on your own or as part of a childbearing class. Be sure to communicate your wishes to your health care provider so that you both understand how you feel. Your birth plan I I Your birth plan may include details such as When to come to the hospital or birthing center. Concerns you may have regarding giving birth. Things you look forward to during birth. Preferences for nonmedicated pain relief shower, birthing ball, music, dim lights, walking, rocking chair.

Birthing ball

A birthing ball is a large rubber ball and tool of natural childbirth. Leaning or sitting on the ball can decrease the discomfort of your contractions, relieve the pain of back labor and aid in the descent of your baby into the birth canal. Your hospital or birthing center may provide one for you. Or you may need to purchase one and bring it with you. Have someone on your health care team show you how to get the most out of a birthing ball. Its use can be combined with massage and touch relaxation.

Natural Childbirth

In natural childbirth, birth takes place with no medical intervention. Medical interventions during childbirth include giving anesthesia for pain giving other drugs such as Pitocin to speed up labor performing an episiotomy, in which the perineum or the area between a woman's vagina and anus is cut, ostensibly to reduce tearing in that area and attaching an electrode to the baby's scalp to monitor heart rate. In natural childbirth the idea is that the mother's body naturally knows what to do and unless there are problems, interventions are not necessary or desirable. Pain control consists of the use of different breathing patterns (such as the Lamaze method), imagery, massage, or related techniques. Mothers may be encouraged to walk around and try positions such as squatting. Both of these methods may help labor to go faster and better. In Western countries, midwives, nurses, or physicians may facilitate such births. These births can take place at home, at birthing centers, or in...

The Domestic Environment

A number of intervention studies are currently being performed in cohorts followed prospectively from birth, examining the effect of indoor allergen elimination on the incidence of asthma. The results will have a strong impact on public health policies, since they will clarify whether it is meaningful to consider indoor allergen elimination an important element of primary prevention of various atopic manifestations. But even if it turns out that other factors play a major part in determining whether an atopic child will develop asthma, so that allergen elimination as a measure of primary prevention is inefficient, a reduction of allergen exposure will still remain a very important element in secondary prevention.

Confronting your fears

This month you may be starting to have some fears about the process of giving birth. In fact, you may have been having them for a while What if I don't make it to the hospital in time How will I cope with baring myself in front of strangers What if I lose control during labor What if there's something wrong with the baby Childbirth preparation classes are a great place to address these fears. They typically begin between the sixth and seventh months of pregnancy and involve weekly sessions over six to eight weeks. These classes are a unique opportunity. They allow you to talk about your fears with other couples who probably share the same concerns. Plus, they provide you with access to a trained childbirth educator who can address your fears point by point, dispelling myths and providing helpful information. This can lighten your emotional load. Take time to sit down and make a list of your fears, and ask your partner to do the same. Then compare lists. Share those concerns with your...

Perineal massage Why do it

Massaging the area between your vaginal opening and anus (perineum) in the last weeks before labor may help to stretch these tissues in preparation for childbirth. This may help minimize stinging when your baby's head A couple of additional points You don't have to practice perineal massage if the idea of it makes you feel uncomfortable. And if you do it, it's no guarantee that you won't have an episiotomy. Certain birth situations, such as those involving a large baby or a baby in an abnormal position, require an episiotomy for the safety of the baby. You'll just have to wait and see what your experience of labor and childbirth brings.

Want my child to understand that I am his mother and that I love him

I have met autistic adults who believed that they were adopted or that their real parents were living on another continent. Ask yourself how would you feel and what would you think if the child to whom you gave birth, for whom you cared and did all you could to help, told you that you were not his real parent Then ignore your emotions and ask yourself 'What makes my child hold such a belief ' 'Could it be my behaviour towards him '

Genetic Skin Diseases in Which Cytokines May Be Involved

DEB is a genetic disease involving a defect in the gene for type VII collagen (Gardella et al. 1996). However, it may also involve autoimmune mechanisms in the period of mutation or afterward. IFN-y could also be involved by altering gene expression (Buntinx et al. 2004). Based on evidence in the literature of immune system involvement and signs of inflammation in a patient suffering severely from DEB, we treated two cases with striking results. For example, in one case a 14-year-old boy with DEB from birth was given a course of anti-IFN-y antibodies intramuscularly. Before treatment, his temperature was 39.2 C. Skin on the back of his neck, lower back, and upper and lower extremities was covered with erosive, ulcerative lesions up to 15 cm in diameter with pustular, hemorrhagic scabs. Around the lesions were painful areas of hyperemia and swelling, on the mucous membranes of the mouth and

Digestive disturbances

At the beginning of labor, the uterus begins to contract (squeeze). These contractions are what move your baby down the birth canal. Contractions (labor pains) often begin with cramping or discomfort in your lower back and abdomen that doesn't stop when you change position. Over time, these contractions become stronger and more regular.

Is it time to go to the hospital

Once you've started having regular contractions, the next question is When is it time to leave for the hospital or birthing center, or to call your health care provider Your health care provider probably will give you instructions on when to leave for the hospital or birthing center. For example, you may be told to call your health care provider when it becomes hard to walk or talk through contractions. Many women are told to go to the hospital or birthing center after an hour of contractions that come five minutes apart. You may need to leave sooner if your labor seems to be progressing rapidly. As your due date approaches, keep the gas tank full and make a practice run or two to the hospital or birthing center. It's a good idea, especially, to become familiar with where to park your car when the time arrives and how to get to the obstetrical floor. Make arrangements for your other children, including an emergency plan for a friend or neighbor to help out in case you have to leave in...

Or is it a false alarm

You might leave for the hospital or birthing center with regular contractions that are five minutes apart, and after you arrive, they simply stop. It's possible that your health care provider may send you home if your contractions aren't to the stage called active labor and your cervix isn't dilating. If this happens, try not to feel embarrassed or frustrated. Instead, regard it as a good practice run. Most health care providers want you to come to the hospital if your water breaks. If there are concerns about your health, your health care provider may instruct you to go to the hospital or birthing center sooner. It's always a good idea to discuss this plan with him or her.

How the baby comes out

The human pelvis has a complex shape, making your baby negotiate several maneuvers during labor and delivery. Your pelvis is widest from side to side at the top (inlet) and from front to back at the bottom (outlet). The baby's head is widest from front to back, and the shoulders are widest from side to side. As a result, your baby must twist and turn on the way through the birth canal. Because every mother's pelvis is widest side to side at the entrance, most babies enter the pelvis looking left or right. The exit from the pelvis is widest from front to back, so babies almost always turn faceup or facedown (visual 1). These maneuvers occur as a result of forces of labor and the resistance provided by the birth canal.

What you can do as the labor coach

You may be the father-to-be, a partner, parent, sibling, or friend. Whatever your other roles, your job as labor coach is to support the mother-to-be both physically and emotionally during labor and delivery. Here are some ways that you can help your partner through each phase of childbirth Once contractions begin, you both may feel some initial butterflies. After all, it's the big moment you've been anticipating for the past nine months. But during labor and delivery, your goal is to keep the expectant mother relaxed. That means staying as calm as possible yourself. Take some deep breaths together. Between contractions, practice those relaxation techniques you learned in childbirth class. For example, suggest that she let her muscles go limp or that she concentrate on relaxing her jaw and hands. Gently massage her back, feet or shoulders. Reassure her with your words and actions that you're both ready to have this baby. If it's possible, keep the labor room or birthing room as calm...

Correlation Coefficient

Correlation does not imply causation. There is evidence that the density of the stork population is correlated with the human birth rate. The reason for the relationship is probably that both variables are related to the number of chimney stacks, which are favourite nesting sites for the birds and an indicator of the size of the human population.

Early Intervention Programs

Early intervention programs provide special services to children from birth through age five who are at-risk or have special needs. The scope of these programs may also include the child's family. Early intervention services and programs focus on the areas of cognition (thinking skills), speech language, motor skills, self-help skills, and social-emotional development. It is not uncommon to find programs that also include services such as nursing, social work, nutrition, and counseling. For example, the Head Start early intervention program offers two meals a day to children as part of its nutritional services.

How Children Qualify for Early Intervention

With the passage of Public Law 94-142 in 1977, now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the federal government requires that states provide early intervention services for children from birth through age five. In most circumstances, these services are provided free of charge to families.

Antiro Antibodies And Neonatal

It was a surprising finding when it was recognized that babies born with a problem called complete congenital heart block (in which there is interference with the transmission of the electrical signals that regulate the normal pumping motion of the heart) are often had mothers with SLE. Most mothers with SLE have healthy babies, and conversely, most babies with congenital heart block have healthy mothers. But when doctors began testing them, it was found that almost all of the normal, healthy mothers who gave birth to children with congenital heart block tested positive for antibodies to Ro. A few of these mothers had unrecognized SLE when examined carefully, and some of these mothers (but so far not most) have gone on to develop SLE years later.

Monitoring Mental Activity

With positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), one can map out the regions of neuronal activity in the brain from birth to death in experimental animals and humans. The encoding of information in the brain is based on networks of activated neurons and specific molecules that contain information encoding features of the environment. Neuronal networks encode features of objects in the external world. The brain also stores molecules of the mind.

Choosing your health care provider for pregnancy

Whether it's a new venture for you or you're an old hand at it, finding the right health care provider and thinking through the type of childbirth you want can make a big difference in your experience. Plenty of options are available for obstetrical care, birth locations and birth plans. The nature of your pregnancy and your own personal preferences serve as your guides to choosing your care. This decision guide is designed to help you get to know the different types of care and health care providers that may be available to you. Throughout your pregnancy and childbirth, remember that you chose your health care provider for a reason. You trust his or her abilities to safely guide you and your baby through the birthing process. Allow your provider to give you the best possible care.

Choices in pain management

Today, women have more options for managing the discomforts of childbirth than ever before. These options fall into two categories Medications to relieve pain are known medically as analgesics. A common pain medication used in labor is nalbuphine (Nubain), which is given either intravenously or by injection. Anesthetics are medications that cause loss of sensation. Two examples of anesthetic techniques used in childbirth are epidural blocks and spinal blocks. Natural childbirth means labor and delivery without the use of pain medications. Natural (nonpharmaceutical or nonmedicinal) methods of pain relief take many forms, some dating back centuries. Relaxation and massage are two examples of pain relief options of natural childbirth.

Magic and Superstition

The law of similarity has been summarized as like produces like, like goes with like, or the image equals the object. Likeness is elevated to a basic, often causal principle the simplest example confounds likeness with identity, hence appearance equals reality. The adaptive value of this law is clear generally speaking, if it looks like a tiger, it is a tiger. For humans, this law becomes problematic because humans make artifacts that are imitations of entities in the world, as in drawings or photographs, or more abstractly, the words that represent them. A picture of a tiger does not justify fear. Similarity functions in nonhumans and in young children (presumably from birth) one feature of development is learning about situations in which appearance does not correspond to reality.

Natural pain relief methods

Natural birth refers to a childbirth experience in which the mother avoids the use of drugs for pain relief and favors the use of natural and complementary types of pain relief. Methods of natural pain relief can be particularly useful both in early and active labor. It's during transition, when your cervix opens (dilates) the final centimeters to a full 10 cm, and during pushing that women who choose natural childbirth typically feel the greatest discomfort.

Categories Of Epilepsy

This occurs usually as a result of some kind of structural abnormality in the brain. This may have been present from birth, or may occur later in life. It is possible that other disabilities may also be present, caused by the same abnormality. Response to drug treatment may be variable.

Skeletal Growth and Development

Growth and physical development depend on a multitude of genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors, and may be optimal only in the presence of optimal health. The skeletal apparatus is no exception. From birth to the end of the pubertal phase, the skeleton of a healthy child increases almost three times in length. The faster skeletal growth occurs from birth to about three years of age, although at a rapidly decelerating yearly rate. From age three to the onset of puberty, there is a relatively slower growth in both sexes, with a small spurt at around eight years. Then, during puberty, a rapid acceleration occurs and the skeleton has another phase of rapid growth. After that, another deceleration phase follows, until full resorption of the growth cartilages occurs. This means the complete cessation of bone lengthening, while the bone mineral content (BMC) continues to increase for several more years. During puberty, the differences between genders become evident. Both the...

Clinical Problems with Bone Mass Measurement in Pediatrics

The use of densitometry is not only a matter of instruments, but is strongly related to the availability of normative data. The reference databases supplied by the manufacturers are generally not adequate for serious studies. It is essential that the normal reference sample be of adequate size and stratified by sex, age and ethnicity. In studying pediatric patients, the pubertal status must also be considered. Weight and height should also be included in the normal sample (and actually measured in the examined subject) in order to normalize densitometric data for body size. From birth to about 25 years of age (i.e., until the achievement of peak bone mass), the normal reference population must be that of healthy subjects of the same sex and age. BMD comparisons are made in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) below the average value of the reference population. This index is called the Z-score, and is calculated with the formula Z-score Examined subject's

The Future of Accommodating Mental Retardation

Today, there is the opportunity to start early intervention from birth. There is greater understanding about mental retardation and how it affects brain development, which in turn enables society to make the necessary accommodations for both children and adults with disabilities. Early intervention provides a stronger foundation for the child to learn and develop skills later in life.

Asking someone you know

One of the risks with surrogacy arrangements is that the surrogate goes through with the pregnancy and later regrets it. For example, if she carries a pregnancy and gives the baby to the commissioning couple to raise, then later discovers that she can't conceive or carry a pregnancy when she wants to have her own child, she may regret being a surrogate. To minimise the risks that the surrogate has any regrets later, the surrogate needs to be aged 25 or older (21 in New South Wales), have given birth before and preferably have completed her family. Even if you have a written agreement with the surrogate, there's no way of enforcing that agreement should a dispute arise later over the child. Under the Australian legal framework it's difficult to legally recognise any woman as the mother of a child other than the woman who gives birth to the child, so if a dispute goes to court, the birth mother will usually be assumed to be the true and legal mother.

Histochemical and Immunohistochemical Detection of lacZPositive Cells at the Light Microscopic Level

The total number of pups should be counted after the pregnant dam has given birth to the injected embryos. Often, fewer pups are born than the number of embryos that were injected. Moreover, one can not correlate individual pups with the number they were assigned prenatally at the time of surgery unless the injection site was substantially different (i.e., right hemisphere vs left hemisphere, or big differences in the volume of retrovirus injected). If the injected animals are retrieved at a later embryonic time point, individual injected animals can be distinguished by their position along each uterine horn.

Arriving at D for Delivery

Whether you have a vaginal birth or a caesarean section, giving birth is very definitely a life-changing event Unless you plan in advance to have a caesarean section, you have no way of knowing what the birth is going to be like. Afterwards you may feel that it was better or worse than you expected, or perhaps just like you thought it would be. No matter how your baby is born, your reward at the end of the birthing process is to hold your baby in your arms.

Intravenous solution or IV

If a woman loses a lot of blood during childbirth, or after a complicated miscarriage or abortion, she needs fluids fast in order to save her life . Take her to a medical center as soon as possible. On the way, you can start an intravenous (IV) drip to give her fluids through her veins. If she is awake and can drink fluids let her do so, but you can also give her an IV

Taking A Crash Course in Baby Care

No matter how many books about caring for babies you read, when you actually have to do it you may be surprised how unprepared you feel. When you're in hospital recovering after giving birth, plenty of experts are around you, so soak up as much good advice as you can while you're there. But most importantly, trust yourself you'll be the expert on your own baby in no time.

Resting while you can

After giving birth you'll no doubt want some well-earned rest, but resting in hospital is easier said than done. Between meals being served, nurses checking on you, cleaners tidying up and your baby needing your attention, you often have precious little time for rest. If you have your own room, ask not to be disturbed if you want to rest if you're sharing a room, pull the curtains around your bed and hope that people get the message.

Keeping visitors at bay

The phones will be ringing hot between your friends and family and soon they'll all know that your baby has arrived. Just like you, they've waited a long time to see this baby, so now they want to meet her pronto. Being showered with attention, flowers and presents after giving birth is wonderful, but you may find entertaining people exhausting when you and your partner are trying to get to know your new baby.

Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital cardiac anomaly (CAA), also known as congenital heart disease (CHD), refers to any structural defect of the heart or major vessels that exists from birth. It is the most common cause of infant death, other than problems of prematurity, and death is likely to occur in the first year of life. CAA may result either from genetic causes or from external causes such as maternal infection or exposure to other factors that affect embryonic development. The general problems associated with CAA include increased cardiac workload, hypertension, poor oxygenation of blood, and respiratory infections. There are many types of CAA, including aortic stenosis, atrial septal defect, valvular stenosis, and pulmonary stenosis.

Incidence of Teenage Pregnancy

Pregnancy and birth rates among teenagers have varied considerably over time. Figure 1 depicts rates of birth among women aged fifteen through nineteen years from 1940 to 1999. Teen birth rates were at their highest from the late 1940s through the early 1960s, mirroring the elevated rates seen among all women of childbearing age during this time period, commonly referred to as the baby boom.'' More recently, birth rates showed a relatively modest increase in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and declined steadily thereafter. Data for 1999 indicated that the teenage birth rate in that year fell to a record low of 49.6 births per 1,000. Teen births tend to be concentrated in later adolescence, with two-thirds of the total births in 1999 occurring to women eighteen or nineteen years of age. Birth rates also vary among teens by race and ethnicity. Non-Hispanic white teenagers have historically had much lower birth rates than other groups. African-American teenagers ranked highest of any...

Teenage Pregnancy and Later Outcomes

More recently, Joseph Hotz and colleagues compared mothers who gave birth as teenagers, with women who became pregnant at the same age but suffered miscarriages and subsequently delayed child-bearing for at least three or four years. Their results indicated that, on average, those who gave birth actually had significantly higher incomes later on than women who had delayed childbearing. In this study there was no difference among the groups of mothers in the likelihood of obtaining a high-school level education, although teen mothers were more likely to obtain a GED than a high school diploma. Teen mothers also tended to have more births by age thirty than the other mothers, and had spent a greater proportion of this time interval unmarried.

The afterlife in the Japanese myth of creation

The ancient myth of creation of the Japanese islands is narrated in the first book of the Kojiki (or 'Record of Ancient Things'), which was completed in 712 AD.3 It tells the story of the God Izanagi and the Goddess Izanami who created the numerous islands of Japan alongside many other deities. The myth starts with the description of the gods standing on the 'Floating Bridge of Heaven' (Ame no uke-hashi). Izanagi dipped a heavenly jewelled spear into the cosmological brine below and stirred it. Then, when he lifted up the spear, the dripping salt from the tip of the spear coagulated and became the island of Onokoro, the first island of Japan to be created. Izanami and Izanagi decided to go and make their home there. They stuck the spear into the ground to erect the Heavenly Pillar and after dancing around this pillar, they gave birth to more deities, numerous islands and various features of nature such as waterfalls, mountains, trees, herbs and the wind. So, how does this myth relate...

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

(FSH) and abnormal stimulation testing, no predisposing factor for gonadal dysfunction can be found. Previous recommendations that dietary lactose restriction from birth may be beneficial have in fact not prevented gonadal dysfunction. In the galac-tosemic male, a complete understanding of gonadal dysfunction has not yet been described. The majority but not all of male galactosemic patients had normal pubertal development, and a few individuals have been found to have normal semen. Growth retardation, cognitive impairment, speech impediment, tremor, ataxia, and ovarian failure are frequent complications in spite of a strict galactose-free diet. Elevated galactose phosphate levels may occur in erythrocytes of even well-treated galactosemic patients. This elevation is attributed to endogenous production of the metabolite. A galactose-free diet is recommended from birth. It is recommended to restrict galactose in the diet of pregnant mothers diagnosed perinatally with trans-ferase...

Gene Therapy for Childhood Onset Blindness

In the RPE65 mutant dog, rod photoreceptor-specific ERG waveforms are essentially flat from birth on, even using high-intensity stimuli. Quantitative testing of retinal function using ERGs 3 to 4 months after treatment revealed waveforms similar to those present in wild-type dogs, although reduced in amplitude (1).

Agarwood aquilaria malaccensis lam thymelaeaceae

Aquilaria Malaccensis

Allergy (1 X9324002) Anaphylaxis (1 X9324002) Anuria (f HH2) Asthma (f1 BIB WO2 X9324002) Bleeding (f DEP) Bronchosis (f BIB NAD) Cancer (f BIB) Cancer, colon (f BIB) Cancer, liver (f BIB) Cancer, lung (f BIB) Cancer, stomach (f BIB) Cancer, thyroid (f BIB) Cardiopathy (f IHB) Childbirth (f BIB IHB) Cholera (f HH2) Colic (f BIB DEP) Congestion (f BIB) Cough (f HH2) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f BIB) Dropsy (f BIB) Dysgeusia (f KAB) Enteralgia (f BIB) Enterosis (f BIB) Fever (f1 BIB DEP X8441779) Gastrosis (f BIB) Gout (f BIB DEP) Headache (f NAD) Hepatosis (f KAB) Hiccup (f BIB) Impotence (f KAB) Induration (f BIB) Leukoderma (f BIB KAB) Malaria (f BIB HH2) Nausea (f BIB DEP) Nephrosis (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f BIB) Otosis (f BIB) Pain (f BIB) Palpitation (f IHB) Palsy (f BIB DEP) Paralysis (f BIB) Pulmonosis (f BIB) Rheumatism (f BIB DEP) Smallpox (f IHB) Thirst (f KAB) Tumor (f JLH) Vertigo (f BIB DEP) Wound (f BIB). Malayans, considering it carminative, stimulant, and tonic, take it...

Condylomata acuminata

Congenital infectious disease Any infectious disease present at birth that was acquired by the infant either before birth or during its passage through the birth canal. The infant is also vulnerable to maternal infection while passing through the birth canal. At this time, any active infection in the mother's genital area can have serious repercussions to her child. Conditions acquired in this way include conjunctivitis, genital herpes, or chlamydial infection. Staph, or strep infections, meningitis, hepatitis b, or listeriosis may also be passed on. Newborns sometimes contract a type of conjunctivitis called neonatal ophthalmia, caused by infection in the mother's cervix during birth from either gonorrhea, genital herpes, or chlamydia. The infection may spread to the entire eye and cause blindness.

Eurycoma longifolia Jack Simaroubaceae Tongkat Ali Alis Umbrella Pasak Bumi

Eurycoma Longifolia Flowers

Traditional Medicinal Uses The plant is used to cure indigestion and lumbago. It is used as a tonic after childbirth, to relieve pains in the bone and for treatment of jaundice, dropsy, cachexia and fever. 3,20 Tongkat Ali is one of the most well known folk medicines for intermittent fever (malaria) in Southeast Asia. 16 Decoction of the leaves is used for washing itches, while the fruits are used in curing dysentery. 3 Its bark is used as a vermifuge. 3 The taproots are used to lower high blood pressure, while the root bark is used for the treatment of fever and diarrhoea. 18 The roots of this plant are used as folk medicine for the treatment of sexual insufficiency, aches, persistent fever, malaria, dysentery, glandular swelling and also as health supplements. 18

Categorical versus Dimensional Approach to Emotion

Pleasant Unpleasant Emotions

Found in this area of psychology results from dif ferent criteria that researchers use for defining an emotion as primar . Primary emotions are thought to be the irreducible set of emotions, combinations of which result in the huge variety of experienced emotions. This is similar to the primary trait issue discussed in Chapter 3. Various researchers have proposed criteria for determining which emotions are primary emotions. For example, Ekman (1992a) requires that a primary emotion have a distinct facial expression that is recognized across cultures. For example, sadness is accompanied by frowning and knitting the brow . This facial expression is universally recognized as depicting the emotion of sadness. Similarly , clenching and baring the teeth is associated with anger and is universally recognized as anger . In fact, people who are blind from birth frown when sad, clench and bare their teeth when angry , and smile when they are happy . Because persons blind from birth have never...

Secondary Metabolites

The alkaloids are a broad category of chemicals produced by fungi that are synthesized from several different pathways. Many of these chemicals are thought to be involved in defense and disrupt metabolic processes in herbivores that eat infected grasses, or deter attacking insects. The ergot alkaloids are a collection of alkaloid compounds based on lysergic acid amide, which are produced by fungi in the genus Claviceps (Bacon et al. 1986). There are about 50 known species of Claviceps, commonly called the ergots, most living in tropical regions. The ergots infect many grasses, including rye, wheat, and barley as part of their life cycle. The fungi are endophytic and cause no known disease symptoms in their hosts. However, the alkaloids produced by the ergots can induce various metabolic disorders in the herbivores that consume infected grasses. For example, one of these alkaloids, ergotamine, possesses structural similarity to several neutotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine,...

Nightshades Jimsonweed Datura Belladonna Henbane

Belladone Scopolaline

Cold and allergy tablets still include it to dry up runny noses. Low doses can be applied to the skin in special patches to prevent motion sickness. Higher doses used to be given by injection to women in labor ( Twilight Sleep ) to make them amnesic for the experience of childbirth, a practice that does not seem beneficial to either mother or baby because it produces a predictable violent delirium. Jimsonweed leaves have been rolled into cigarettes for the treatment of asthma, and tincture of belladonna is still used to treat gastrointestinal spasms.

Cindy Faith Miller Hanns Martin Trautner Diane N Ruble

Gender serves as one of the most significant identifying labels throughout the life span. While originally a child's sex is based primarily on chromosomal and genital distinctions, this category will follow the child from the birthing room, operating as a life-long functional tag that will influence virtually every aspect of her or his experience. Our society uses sex categories to divide names, public restrooms, pronoun usage, school lines, toys, room decor, clothing and appearance options, hobbies, and occupations. Given societies' insistence on the functional use of sex categories (Bem, 1981), a child's physical, social, cognitive, and emotional milestones will all develop under a gendered umbrella. During some aspects of development, a child's gender tag will be at the forefront of experience while, other times, it will fade into the background providing minimal cues and effects to the situation. Regardless of the degree of salience, an individual's gender1 has meaningful...

Chunagi Herera Books 1996

Anderson GH, Atkinson SA, Bryan MH. 1981. Energy and macronutrient content of human milk during early lactation from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term. Am J Clin Nutr 34 258-265. Archer SL, Liu K, Dyer AR, Ruth KJ, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Hilner JE, Savage PJ. 1998. Relationship between changes in dietary sucrose and high density lipo-protein cholesterol The CARDIA Study. Ann Epidemiol 8 433-438. Aronow WS, Ahn C. 1998. Risk factors for new coronary events in older African-

Indications Coriander

Adenopathy (f KAB) Ameba (f PH2) Amenorrhea (f JFM) Anorexia (f2 APA EFS KOM PH2) Arthrosis (f BIB HHB) Asthenia (f BOU) Bacillus (1 HH2 X15612768) Bacteria (1 PH2 X15612768) Biliousness (f BIB DEP SUW) Bleeding (f DEP EGG PH2) BO (f APA) Bron-chosis (f KAB) Burn (f BOU) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f JLH) Cancer, colon (f JLH) Cancer, sinew (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Cancer, uterus (f JLH) Carbuncle (f BOU DEP) Cardiopathy (f BIB GHA) Catarrh (f BIB) Chickenpox (f PH2 SKJ) Childbirth (f IHB PH2) Cholecocystosis (f PHR) Cholera (f BOU) Colic (f DEP GHA HHB) Condyloma (f JLH) Conjunctivosis (f DEP GHA) Coryza (f KAB) Cough (f IHB PHR PH2) Cramp (f1 BGB BIB PH2) Cystosis (f PH2) Dermatosis (f PHR PH2) Diabetes (f JFM) Diarrhea (f APA EGG HHB) Dysentery (f1 APA PHR PH2) Dyspepsia (f12 APA DEP GHA HHB KOM PH2) Dysuria (f PH2) Edema (f PH2) Enterosis (f2 BGB JLH PHR PH2) Epistaxis (f EGG PH2) Erotomania (f BIB) Erysipelas (f BIB) Erythema (f DEP) Escherichia (1 HH2 X15612768) Fever...

Can 600 Mcg Of Misoprostol And 300mg Of White Quinine Cause Abortion

Can Asprin Used For Abortion

Ergometrine causes contractions of the womb and its blood vessels and is used to control heavy bleeding after childbirth or an abortion. For heavy bleeding after childbirth Oxytocin is used to cause contractions of the womb and its blood vessels to control heavy bleeding after abortion or childbirth. Lamivudine is used in combination with other medicines to treat HIV, and to prevent passing HIV to a baby during birth. To prevent HIV from passing to a baby during birth (see pp. 492-494), give the mother 150 mg as labor starts, every 12 hours during labor, and every 12 hours for 7 days after the baby is born. Nevirapine is used in combination with other medicines to treat HIV, and to prevent passing HIV to a baby during birth. To prevent HIV from passing to a baby during birth (see pp. 492-494) For a woman who has not taken medicines for HIV during pregnancy, give 200 mg by mouth when labor begins. For any baby born to a woman with HIV, give the baby 2 mg for each kilogram of weight (5...

Childrens Hospitals In The United States

Pediatric health care services, teaching and research for children from birth to age 18. Providing comprehensive inpatient and outpatient care for children from birth through age 19. Private, nonprofit, specialty pediatric hospital that serves children from birth through the age of 21.

The Pill Progestin Only Pills POPs

Progestin-only pills (POPs) are variants of the more commonly used combined (estrogen and progestin) oral contraceptives. Because POPs have no estrogen and only very small amounts of progestin, they are sometimes called minipills. Like Depo-Provera and Norplant, POPs do not contain the estrogen thought to lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as blood clots and thrombophlebitis. They also are thought to be safer than the combined pill for women who smoke. A POP is taken every day of the month, even during menstrual periods. It can be started as early as a week after childbirth or immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.

Indications Desert Date

(f BOU KAB) Bronchosis (f UPW) Bubo (f HDN) Burn (f NAD WO2) Carbuncle (f UPW) Caries (f UPW) Catarrh (f HDN) Childbirth (f WO2) Circumcision fi (BOU) Cold (f DEP HDN) Colic (f BIB KAB NAD UPW) Conjunctivosis (f HDN) Cough (f BIB DEP KAB NAD) Cramp (f HDN) Dermatosis (f KAB) Diabetes (1 WO3) Diarrhea (f HDN) Dysentery (f KAB UPW) Edema (1 X15763372) Fasciolaris (1 X10904170) Fever (f BOU HDN) Freckle (f NAD WO2) Fungus (1 HDN) Gingivosis (f UPW) Guinea Worm (1 WO3) Hemorrhoid (f UPW) Hepatosis (f1 HDN UPW PR15 598) Herpes (1 BIB HDN) High Blood Pressure (1 HDN) Impotence (f UPW) Infection (f BIB) Infection (1 HDN) Infertility (f HDN) Inflammation (f1 HDN X15763372) Insanity (f HDN UPW) Jaundice (f1 UPW PR13 439 X10441790) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukoderma (f BOU KAB) Malaria (f1 BIB BI2 BOU) Mycosis (1 HDN) Pain (f1 BOU HDN X15763372) Paralysis (f UPW) Pertussis (f WO2) Pneumonia (f WO2) Pulmonosis (f WO2) Rheumatism (f BIB UPW) Schistosomiasis (1 HDN 15664459) Shingle (1 HDN) Sleeping...

Manifestations of Lead Toxicity

The physicochemical basis of these changes derives largely from small animal data. Rats exposed to lead from birth develop mitochondrial dysfunction, neuronal swelling, and necrosis in both the cerebrum and the cerebellum. Exposure on day 10 of life elicited only the cerebellar pathology, and lead exposure after 31 weeks of life failed to produce any of these changes. In combination with manganese, lead has also produced peroxidative damage to rat brains and has been shown to inhibit nitric oxide synthase in the brains of mice. Additionally, an increase in blood arachidonic acid and in the ratio of arachidonic to linoleic acid following lead exposure in several species, including humans, may provide evidence in support of a peroxidative mechanism of damage to neural tissue following lead exposure.

Exploring brain systems

Despite many years of investment, giving up the work I had been doing in the peripheral nervous system was not that hard. I had gradually come to feel that working at that level would yield diminishing returns, similar to my sense in the 1970s about the future of invertebrate nervous systems as they were then being studied with electrophysiological and anatomical methods. By the mid-1980s, it was hard to ignore the fact that neuroscientists were shifting to what might be described as either a lower or a higher level of interests. The revolution in molecular biology and the powerful methods it provided were attracting many neuroscientists to pursue the organization of the nervous systems of worms, fruit flies, and mice at the molecular genetic level. At the same time, brain imaging techniques based on computer assisted tomography (CAT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were giving birth to a new field that had been dubbed cognitive neuroscience, defined as a wedding of psychology...

Observational Learning

Imitation may be a powerful means through which infants can learn from those around them. Andrew Meltzoff and M. Keith Moore's classic 1977 study illustrated imitation of tongue protrusion, lip protrusion, and mouth opening by two- to three-week-old infants. For this behavior to occur, infants must match what they see the model doing with what they feel themselves doing, and it has been demonstrated in infants three days old. Thus, it seems that imitation occurs from birth onward and that infants may learn many new behaviors in this way.

Craig Jenny 1932 and Craig Sid 1932

Experience that many of her followers seemed to share. After giving birth to her second daughter, she looked in the mirror and decided that she did not like what she saw She was 45 pounds overweight. In the mirror, she saw another image, which was that of her mother who died at the age of forty-nine from a stroke, possibly related to her overweight condition. Jenny had many reminders in the family that weight was the primary health problem.

Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development

Piaget is considered the father of cognitive development because his studies were the first to examine children's thinking and because he offered a comprehensive theory of how cognition changed over time. His theory of cognitive development was based on data from a series of experiments and interviews of children (including his own) that explored their thinking in a variety of contexts. Piaget's theory consisted of four stages of development from birth to adolescence sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. The sensorimotor stage describes the years from birth to about age two. During this time the infant learns to coordinate the visual and tactile information she receives from the world around her with her emerging motor skills. For example, the child learns that by moving her eyes she can see a different part of her world and monitor how her arms or legs are interacting with various objects. Throughout these first two years of life the infant...

Experiments in voluntary death Ketamine research study

Psychiatrist Stanislav Grof called these 'near-birth experiences' (NBEs) (Grof 1979 1985). I saw my two children on a boat ten years before I gave birth to both of them. They were smiling and they looked very happy together. My daughter wore the same shirt my mother bought her on the occasion of the Holy Communion.

Who looks after you now

A few years ago some colleagues and I carried out a large study of almost 200 women's experiences of pregnancy, childbirth and mothering post-IVF. We followed the women from early in their pregnancies until their children were 18 months old. These women very kindly shared their experiences by completing questionnaires in early and late pregnancy, and three, eight and eighteen months after childbirth.

Potato tule See arrowhead

Primipara Woman who has given birth to one infant capable of survival. programming The idea that nutritional and environmental factors in utero or during early post-natal life can modify gene expression and hence programme metabolism permanently. See also epigenetics. pro-insulin The inactive precursor of insulin, in which the A- and B-chains are joined by the c-peptide the form in which insulin is stored in pancreatic P-islet cells before release. A small proportion of insulin secretion is pro-insulin. A rare variant of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is due to genetic lack of the pro-insulin converting enzyme (carboxypeptidase e), so that only pro-insulin is secreted. prolactin Hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates milk secretion after childbirth. Also known as lactogenic or luteotrophic hormone, and luteotrophin. prolamins The major storage proteins of the endosperm of cereals, including gliadin (wheat), zein (maize), hordein (barley) and avenin (oats)....

Dilation of the cervix

Dilated Cervix

What do contractions (labor pains) feel like Except for perhaps menstrual cramps, the sensation may be unlike any other you've experienced. That's because you're not accustomed to feeling your uterine muscles contracting. The pain of childbirth may end up being easier or harder than you imagined. The best way to prepare for either outcome is to take childbirth classes so that you have realistic expectations of labor and delivery. Don't let fear add to your pain. Remember that contractions have a positive purpose, which is to help you deliver your baby. The pain won't last forever it has a definite time limit. And pain relief options are available, one or more of which many women choose as part of their birth plans.

Drug Addicts Hemophiliacs and Children

Bill Gates Workin

The number of nonhomosexual GRID cases continued to rise. By mid-1982, two more hemophiliacs were confirmed to have GRID. Infected intravenous drug users were also becoming more common. Furthermore, there were reports of children of GRID-infected drug addicts showing GRID symptoms from birth. One account told of a seventeen-month-old baby who had oral yeast infections, staphylococcus aureus infections, and an infection of a bacterium called Mycobacterium avian-intracellular, which was usually only seen in birds. Another thirty-week-old infant was suffering from infections including PCP, cryptococcosis, and CMV all hallmarks of GRID. Soon, doctors at the CDC were forced to conclude that GRID was not purely a homosexual disease. Furthermore, the fact that babies could be born with the disease made it clear that, although lifestyle was a risk factor, virtually anyone could contact GRID. As this fact became clear, scientists redoubled their efforts to find the cause of GRID.

A womans body in pregnancy

During birth, the baby passes through the hole to get out. During birth, the baby passes through the hole to get out. Inside the womb, the baby floats in a bag of fluid called amniotic fluid (the bag of waters). The baby is connected to the placenta (afterbirth) by a cord, and the placenta is attached to the inside of the mother's womb.

Vitex rotundifolia L f Verbenaceae Round Leaf Chastetree Beach Vitex

Reverse Testicular Atrophy

A tincture or for intestinal complaints. 10 In Papua New Guinea, sap from crushed heated leaves is diluted with water and drunk to relieve headaches. The fruits are used to expel worms and in Vietnam, a decoction of dried fruits has been used to treat colds, headache, watery eyes and mastitis. 10 In Thailand, fruits have been used for asthmatic cough and haemorrhoids. 10 Infusion of the boiled roots is regarded as diaphoretic and diuretic, drunk for fever, after child-birth and for liver diseases. 10

Indications Fenugreek

Abscess (f VAD WOI) Acne (f VAD) Adenopathy (f CRC HHB) Aging (f BOW) Alactea (f1 PH2 WOI) Allergy (f PED) Alopecia (1 APA KAP MAD) Anemia (f1 BOU GMH SPI VAD) Anorexia (f12 APA CAN KOM PH2 JAC7 405) Aposteme (f JLH) Arthrosis (1 KOM) Atherosclerosis (1 BGB SKY) Backache (f BOW) Bacteria (1 WOI X15331344) Blepharosis (f VAD) Boil (f BGB GMH KAP) Bronchosis (f APA BOU GHA PH2) Burn (f CRC IHB) Calculus (1 APA) Cancer (f1 APA) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, breast (f1 FNF JLH X15936223) Cancer, cervix (f1 BOW) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, eye (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, gland (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, groin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, intestine (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, kidney (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, parotid (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, rectum (f1 FNF JLH MAD) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, stomach (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, testes (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, throat (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uvula (f1 FNF JLH) Carbuncle (f GMH KAP)...

Indications Generic

Abscesses (f CAN FAD) Adenopathy (f CRC DEM PH2) Bleeding (f CEB DEM) Blepharosis (f VAD) Boils (f1 APA CRC GMH PNC) Bronchosis (f CRC) Bruise (f FEL) Burn (f1 APA FAD GMH PH2 WAM) Cancer (f CRC FEL JLH) Carcinoma (f CRC) Cardiopathy (f GMH) Caries (f CRC) Catarrh (f CRC DEM GMH) Chilblain (f CEB) Childbirth (f CRC DEM) Cholera (f CEB) Cold (f SKY) Cold Sore (1 APA) Colitis (f1 APA CAN CRC GMH) Conjunc-tivosis (f CRC DEM) Constipation (f CRC) Corneosis (f VAD) Cough (12 APA FAD HHB WAM) Cramp (f CEB CRC) Crohn's Disease (1 SKY) Cuts (f FAD) Cystosis (f1 GMH WAM) Dermatosis (f1 APA PH2 PNC VAD WAM) Diarrhea (f1 APA CAN FAD) Diverticulosis (1 FNF) Duodenosis (f PH2) Dysentery (f CRC FAD) Dyspepsia (f1 FAD) Dysuria (f CRC) Eczema (f CRC) Enterosis (12 APA CEB GMH) Erysipelas (f FEL) Esophagitis (2 APA) Felon (f CRC JLH) Fever (f CRC DAW) Fistula (f FEL) Fracture (f CRC DEM) Gangrene (f CRC) Gastrosis (12 APA GMH PHR PH2 SKY) Gleet (f FEL) Gonorrhea (f DEM) Gout (f CRC HH2 PH2) Heartburn...

What the Law Says About Surrogacy

The story of the first Australian baby born as a result of IVF and surrogacy made big headlines. Alice Kirkman was born in Melbourne in 1988. Her mother Maggie didn't have a uterus and her father Zev didn't have sperm, so Alice was conceived from one of her mother's eggs and donor sperm, and her aunt Linda carried the pregnancy and gave birth. After Alice's birth, surrogacy became illegal in Victoria, in spite of intense lobbying to allow altruistic surrogacy arrangements by Dr John Leeton, the doctor who made Alice's birth possible. So,

Complications Related to Cesarean Delivery

Complications of the birth process may affect either the mother or the infant. Whereas the risk of complications for the mother is somewhat greater in a cesarean birth than in a vaginal birth, the risk of complications for the infant is greater from vaginal birth than from cesarean birth. Moreover, the type and severity of complications from each method of birth differs for both the mother and the infant. Complications of cesarean birth for the mother during the operative procedure include adverse reactions to anesthetic agents, injury of abdominal organs and hemorrhage from the surgical incisions and after the procedure, pneumonia, urinary or wound infections, and blood clots in the legs, abdomen, or lungs. The most common long-term complication of cesarean birth is the risk of rupture of the uterine incision in a subsequent pregnancy, and the consequent increase in risk of future pregnancies having to be delivered by cesarean. Complications of vaginal birth for the mother include...

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

Epidermolysis bul-losa (EB) is a group of hereditary mechanobullous disorders with at least 11 distinct forms, 7 of which are dominantly inherited. The EBS subtype is characterized by intraepidermal blistering, and most cases are due to dominant keratin mutations. The estimated incidence for EBS is 10 per 1 million births in the United States (128), with a considerable perinatal mortality rate because of electrolyte imbalance, marked protein loss and sepsis. The most severe form of EBS, epidermolysis bullosa herpetiformis (EB herpetiformis) or Dowling-Meara variant (EBS-DM), presents at birth with generalized blistering (129). Blisters occur characteristically in groups (herpetiform) on the trunk and extremities, including palms and soles, and usually heal without scarring. Development of hyperkeratoses starts later in childhood.

Stage 1 Early labor active labor and transition Early labor

Because the bones of the skull aren't yet fused together, your baby's head molds itself to the shape and size of your pelvis as it moves through the vagina (birth canal). If the head moves through at an awkward angle, it can affect the location and intensity of your discomfort and the length of your labor. Birth is easiest if your baby comes headfirst through the birth canal, with its chin tucked down on the chest so that the smallest diameter leads the way. But babies aren't always so accommodating sometimes their heads aren't in the best position, and sometimes they're breech, with their buttocks or feet coming first. They may even be sideways in the uterus or come shoulder-first. Your health care provider, the nurses, your labor coach or other loved ones in the labor room with you they all work together to support you and help you stay relaxed during labor. Through their presence and coaching, they can enhance the coping skills necessary for labor and delivery. Especially important...

EER Summary Lactation

The EERs to be used during lactation are estimated from TEE, milk energy output, and energy mobilization from tissue stores. Because adaptations in basal metabolism and physical activity are not evident in well-nourished women, energy requirements of lactating women are met partially by mobilization of tissue stores, but primarily from the diet. In the first 6 months postpartum, well-nourished lactating women experience an average weight loss of 0.8 kg mo, which is equivalent to 170 kcal d (6,500 kcal kg) (Butte and Hopkinson, 1998). Weight stability is assumed after 6 months postpartum. Milk production rates average 0.78 L d from birth through 6 months of age and 0.6 L d from 7 through 12 months of age. At 0.67 kcal g of milk (Table 5-18), the milk energy output would be 523 kcal d, which is rounded to 500 kcal d, in the first 6 months and 402 kcal d, which is rounded to 400 kcal d, in the second 6 months of lactation.

How many children has she had

Women who have had 1 or 2 babies and whose children were born alive and healthy usually have the fewest problems giving birth Other women may have more problems . First births are often more difficult than later births . It may be safer for a woman giving birth for the first time to give birth near a medical center. Watch carefully for risk signs and have transportation available for emergencies A woman who has given birth to 5 or more babies is more likely to have some of the following problems For these reasons, it may be safer for a woman who has had 5 or more births to give birth in or near a medical center.

Three Common Elements of Temperament Characteristics

The third component of all definitions of temperament is that behavioral styles are relatively stable across development. Temperament characteristics can and will change in response to parenting and other social forces. The idea is that the early roots of adult personality can be seen from the beginning. Several studies have included groups of individuals who were followed from birth to adulthood. The findings from these studies regarding stability are mixed. Children's temperament traits do appear to be quite stable through infancy and into childhood. Jerome Kagan and his colleagues studied two extreme groups of children from infancy to adolescence. Members of the first group, behaviorally inhibited children, were very shy and fearful in unfamiliar situations. Members of the second group, behaviorally uninhibited children, were very gregarious and assertive in novel settings. The researchers found that the inhibited children were at greater risk for later social and emo

Family Income and Early Child Care

The NICHD Study of Early Child Care is a longitudinal study in which Huston is an investigator following 1,364 children from birth through adolescence, and includes observations of whatever child-care settings parents selected for their children. Participants were recruited from hospitals located at 10 sites across the United States in 1991. Interviews with parents, evaluations of children, and observations of both parent-child interaction and children's child-care or school settings were conducted when children were 6, 15, 24, 36, and 54 months old and in first grade. Measures included maternal education (in years), child's race and ethnicity, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting quality scores derived from videotaped observations of mother-child interactions, and observed home

Dermatitis seborrheic

Developmental disability Technically, this term refers to any significant disability acquired before the age of 22. In actuality, however, developmental disability is used instead of the term mental retardation to describe the condition of individuals with severely impaired intellectual functioning from birth. The term brings the description of this particular spectrum of disability more into line with the general language used to define various types of difficulties, and its focus on development rather than retardation provides a more accurate way of describing the actual nature of these difficulties.

Genetics Affects Nutrient Requirements

Differentiation, and in some women (not all) an insufficient intake of folate just before pregnancy and in the early weeks of pregnancy can result in these neural tube defects. It was estimated that 2500 infants per year were born with this problem. As a prevention measure, foods are now fortified with the vitamin. However, many women with very low intakes of folate give birth to healthy infants. It appears likely that some women have an enhanced requirement for folate, and it is the infants of these women who are at risk. Although the specific gene mutations are not clear, a number of candidate genes involved in folate metabolism and transport have been identified.

Principles of Development

First, most children develop from head to toe, or cephalocaudal. Initially, the head is disproportionately larger than the other parts of the infant's body. The cephalocaudal theory states that muscular control develops from the head downward first the neck, then the upper body and the arms, then the lower trunk and the legs. Motor development from birth to six months of age includes initial head and neck control, then hand movements and eye-hand coordination, followed by preliminary upper body control. The subsequent six months of life include important stages in learning to control the trunk, arms, and legs for skills such as sitting, crawling, standing, and walking.

The Prevalence of Single Parent Families in America

Such increases are accounted for by rising divorce rates (5.7 of first-time marriages ended in divorce in 1970, while 18.5 of such marriages ended in divorce in 1998) and an increase in the number of women who give birth to or adopt children outside of marital relationships. Women giving birth outside of marital relationships include adolescent mothers and increasing numbers of older, more affluent (and predominantly white) women, who have elected to become single parents through either out-of-marriage births or adoption. Such women are called single mothers by choice.

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

When included in the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, DHA is thought to be beneficial to infant brain (learning ability) and eye (visual acuity) development. Scientists have found that women who ate fatty fish while pregnant gave birth to children with better visual development. Babies of mothers who had significant levels of DHA in their diet while breastfeeding experienced faster-than-normal eyesight development. Preliminary research also suggests that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids - and in DHA in particular - may help to decrease the chance of preterm birth, thus allowing the baby more time for growth and development.

Exanthem subitum See Roseola

Eye infections The most common infection of the eye is CONJUNCTIVITIS, also known as pinkeye. Most of these infections are caused by bacteria (such as staphylococci) or by viruses associated with a cold, sore throat, or illness such as MEASLES. Viral conjunctivitis is the version that often appears in schools, sweeping through classrooms in massive epidemics. Newborns may contract a type of conjunctivitis from their mothers during birth. This type of infection may be caused by common bacteria, organisms responsible for GONORRHEA or genital HERPES, or by a

Growth Standards for Preterm Infants

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics 18 recommends nutrients to 'approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same post-menstrual age, and to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients' the definition of normal fetal growth is unclear 11, 17 . One of the earliest growth charts is that of Lubchenco et al. 19 , based on 5,635 premature babies born at high altitude in Denver, Colo. Based on this dataset, fetal growth was estimated to be about 15 g kg day between 27 and 34 weeks' postmenstrual age. Since then a number of other studies have questioned this value see also 17 , the three largest (each studying over 1 million births) are summarized above (table 1). The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Center for Health Statistics have recently produced revised growth centiles for males and females from birth to 20 years of age 25 (see http www. growthcharts). Some preterm babies may...

Infant Monkey Bipedal

Infant Monkey Bipedal

The difficulties of childbirth have probably challenged humans and their ancestors for millions of years which means that the modern custom of seeking assistance during delivery may have similarly ancient roots GIVING BIRTH IN THE TREETOPS is not the normal human way of doing things, but that is exactly what Sophia Pedro was forced to do during the height of the floods that ravaged southern Mozambique in March 2000. Pedro had survived for four days perched high above the raging floodwaters that killed more than 700 people in the region. The day after her delivery, television broadcasts and newspapers all over the world featured images of Pedro and her newborn child being plucked from the tree during a dramatic helicopter rescue. Treetop delivery rooms are unusual for humans but not for other primate species. For millions of years, primates have secluded themselves in tree-tops or bushes to give birth. Human beings are the only primate species that regularly seeks assistance during...

Noorden Carl Von 18581944 German Internist

Noorden was also very much attuned to the gender politics of his age. Thus, he advocates being very careful with the whims and fancies of our lady patients that, having given birth, are appalled at their abdominal fat. Radical reduction of such fat may lead, Noorden warns, to further medical complications even if changes of appearance are achieved (Noorden 1903 31). In pathological cases, the general tendency towards a weakness of

Bipolar Disorder across the Reproductive Life Cycle

The postpartum period has been well established as a time of high risk for women with BD. Nonacs and Cohen 20 reviewed a number of studies, and found that women with BD had a 20-50 risk of relapse during the postpartum period. The risk of postpartum relapse appears to be even higher in women with a past history of postpartum psychosis. The strongest evidence for these findings comes from a well-designed study, in which Kendell et al 21 linked the Edinburgh Psychiatric Case Register to the Scottish maternity discharge database. This study encompassed 54 087 child-births over an 11-year period, and also obtained information about prior psychiatric admissions. Among all women, a psychiatric admission with psychosis during the first 90 days after childbirth was 14.3 more likely than before childbirth. The most striking finding of this study was the degree to which a diagnosis of manic-depressive illness increased the risk of post-partum psychosis. Among the 486 women who had a...

First Steps Ive Been Diagnosed with Cervical Cancer

The reproductive organs include the uterus (the womb), the cervix, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus sits in the middle of the pelvis and the fallopian tubes and ovaries are located to the right and the left. The cervix is the opening to the uterus and is the part that dilates when a woman goes into labor. The cervix is divided into two parts. The ectocervix is the outside portion of the cervix and is lined by squamous cells. The endocervix is the inside portion of the cervix. It is the tunnel that leads to the inside of the uterus and is lined by glandular cells. The labia (lips) are the part of the female genitalia that you see on the outside and are sometimes referred to as the vulva or genitalia. The vagina (birth canal) connects the cervix to the vulva, and as the name implies, this is the tunnel that babies travel through when they are born (unless a cesarean section is performed). The rectum and sigmoid colon (where bowel movement is stored) are located behind...

China in the early twentieth century

The essay presents the argument that obesity is an illness that women must not take lightly (Shuhui and Weiseng 1913). The authors refer to male figures and texts from ancient China, such as a man named Zilong who lived in the warring-state period. Zilong felt he was too fat, so he took Phragmites communis Trirn (a traditional medicine) to lose weight. The authors use this example to prove that obesity is an illness treatable by medical intervention even in the premodern period. One source they mention is Hanshu (The History of the Former Han Dynasty) written by the historian Bangu. They argue that according to Hanshu, too much body fat is the cause of obesity. But there are two kinds of obesity one is obesity with too many blood cells and the other not enough blood cells. The causes the former are (1) not eating appropriately (2) not having a balanced life style and (3) not enough sex. Not eating appropriately means that one eats too many foods such as...

Dietary Reference Intakes for Infants

For infants, evaluation of evidence to establish the DRIs consistently revealed a paucity of appropriate studies on which to base an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or UL. A Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) could not be calculated if a value for the EAR was not established, in which case the recommended intake was based on an Adequate Intake (AI). The nutrient recommendations for infants from birth through 6 months of age for all nutrients except for energy and vitamin D were set as an AI, a value that represents ''the mean intake of a nutrient calculated based on the average concentration of the nutrient in human milk from 2 to 6 months of lactation using consensus values from several reported studies,'' multiplied by an average volume (0.780 l day) of human milk. The predicted daily volume of breast milk ingested by an infant was based on observational studies that used test weighing of full-term infants. For infants aged 7-12 months, the AI for many nutrients was based on...

What understanding do young children have of death

The term 'young children' covers the age range from birth to starting school age. The way death is understood will vary enormously between tiny babies and children who are ready to start school. In order to understand death, a child must have developed concepts which enable him to grasp what has happened when someone has died. Children between the ages of two and two and a half have only a slight understanding of what death is, and children aged under two are usually too young to be able to grasp this at all. Between four and six years of age the child gradually develops a biological more than a psychological understanding of what life is and that life depends on the function of the body's organs. As children approach school age they can understand that the body's organs have the task of sustaining life. This biological understanding is a prerequisite for understanding that if any of the organs fail or are damaged, we may die. Young children seldom understand death in the way an adult...

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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