It is clear from the literature summarized here that characteristics of the neighborhoods in which children live and the schools they attend can impact children's mental health and their likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors. Disadvantaged neighborhoods and schools leave children without adequate opportunities for positive engagement with adults and thus disposed to disruptive behavior and susceptible to negative peer influence. Violence in neighborhoods and schools can exact clear tolls on children's mental health and creates an environment in which children's own aggressive behavior is adaptive. In contrast to these negative impacts, a sense of community and cohesion in neighborhoods and schools can foster feelings of belonging and security that promote adaptive social-emotional behavior.
Aside from these conclusions, the literature summarized in this chapter suffers from two major flaws. First, the emphasis in the neighborhood literature has primarily been on negative impacts of neighborhoods on students. More research is needed that considers the positive ways in which neighborhoods can affect children and youth. Second, the school impact literature has almost exclusively been restricted to academic achievement outcomes, or at most to behavioral school-related outcomes such as drop-out. This lack of research is surprising, given growing emphases on both character development (Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, 2004) and violence prevention in schools (Thornton, Craft, Dahlberg, Lynch, & Baer, 2002). Additional research into how school contexts impact child mental health and risk behavior is needed in order to inform the design of learning environments and of broader school reforms whose targets are typically academic outcomes (Roeser et al., 1998).
The sheer amount of time children spend in neighborhoods and in schools establishes them as clear places of opportunity in which to promote positive mental health and to decrease the incidence of risk behaviors. We have provided examples of a very few of such interventions here, most of which are small-scale, targeted interventions. Improving neighborhoods and schools on a large scale will require significant commitments from local and national policymakers and funders. Although such interventions would be costly, their potential to enhance so many aspects of children's lives would undoubtedly make them cost-effective in the long-term.
Writing of this chapter was funded through grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCR218598), the National Institute of Mental Health (5R01MH063685), and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (5R01HD042144) to the authors.
Aber, J. L. (1994). Poverty, violence, and child development: Untangling effects of family and community. In C. Nelson (Ed.), Threats to optimal development: Integrating biological, psychological, and social risk factors. The Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology (Vol. 27, pp. 229-272). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Aber, J. L., Brown, J. L., & Jones, S. M. (2003). Developmental trajectories toward violence in middle childhood: Course, demographic differences, and response to school-based intervention. Developmental Psychology, 39, 324-348. Aber, J. L., Gephart, M. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Connell, J. P. (1997). Development in context: Implications for studying neighborhood effects. In J. Brooks-Gunn, G. J. Duncan, & J. L. Aber (Eds.), Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children, (Vol. 1, pp. 44-78). New York: Russell Sage. Aber, J. L., Gershoff, E. T., Ware, A., & Kotler, J. A. (2004). Estimating the effects of September 11th and other forms of violence on the mental health and social development of New York City's youth: A matter of context. Applied Developmental Science, 8(3), 111-129. Addington, L. A., Ruddy, S. A., Miller, A. K., & DeVoe, J. F. (2002). Are America's schools safe? Students speak out: 1999 school crime supplement (NCES 2002-331). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 7, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002331_1.pdf Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (1998) Reframing mental health in schools and expanding school reform. Educational Psychologist, 33, 135-152.
Allen, L., Jones, S. M., Seidman, E., & Aber, J. L. (1998). The organization of exposure to violence among urban adolescents: Clinical, prevention, and research implications. In Flannery, D. J. & Huff, C. R. (Eds.), Youth violence: Prevention, intervention, and social policy (pp. 119-141). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Allison, K. W, Burton, L., Marshall, S., Perez-Febles, A., Yar-rington, J., Kirsh, L. B., & Merriwether-DeVries, C. (1999). Life experiences among urban adolescents: Examining the role of context. Child Development, 70, 1017-1029.
Allison, K. W., Crawford, I., Leone, P. E., Trickett, E., Perez-Febles, A., Burton, L. M., & Le Blanc, R. (1999). Adolescent substance use: Preliminary examinations of school and neighborhood context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27, 111-141.
American School Health Association. (1989). The national adolescent student health survey: A report on the health of America's youth. Oakland, CA: Society for Public Health Education.
Aneshensel, C. S., & Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 293-310.
Arnette, J. L., & Walsleben, M. C. (1998). Combating fear and restoring safety in schools. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved January 16, 2004, from http://www.ncjrs. org/pdffiles/167888.pdf.
Astor, R. A. (1998). Moral reasoning about school violence. Educational Psychologist, 33, 207-221.
Astor, R. A., & Meyer, H. A. (2001). The conceptualization of violence-prone school subcontexts: Is the sum of the parts greater than the whole? Urban Education, 36, 374-399.
Atkins, R., & Hart, D. (2003). Neighborhoods, adults, and the development of civic identity in urban youth. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 156-164.
Attar, B. K., Guerra, N. G., Tolan, P. H. (1994). Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391-400.
Barton, P. E., Coley, R. J., & Wenglisky, H. (1998). Order in the classroom: Violence, discipline, and student achievement. Princeton, NJ: Policy Information Center, Educational Testing Service.
Bastian, L., & Taylor, B. (1991). School crime: A national crime victimization survey report (NCJ-131645) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Battistich, V., Watson, M., Solomon, D., Lewis, C., & Sc-haps, E. (1999). Beyond the three R's: A broader agenda for school reform. The Elementary School Journal, 99, 415-432.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.
Bell, R. Q., & Chapman, M. (1986). Child effects in studies using experimental or brief longitudinal approaches to socialization. Developmental Psychology, 22, 595-603.
Berman, S. L., Kurtines, W. M., Silverman, W. K., & Serafini, L. T. (1996). The impact of exposure to violence on urban youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 329-336.
Berton, M. W., & Stabb, S. D. (1996). Exposure to violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in urban adolescents. Adolescence, 31, 489-498.
Beyers, J. M., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Neighborhood structure, parenting processes, and the development of youths' externalizing behaviors: A multilevel analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 35-53.
Beyers, J. M., Loeber, R., Wilkstrom, P. H., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2001). What predicts adolescent violence in better-offneighborhoods? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 369-381.
Bickel, R., Howley, C., Williams, T., & Glascock, C. (2001). High school size, achievement equity, and cost: Robust interaction effects and tentative results. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 9(40). Retrieved January 6, 2004, from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v9n40.html.
Blechman, E. A., Dumas, J. E., & Prinz, R. J. (1994). Prosocial coping by youth exposed to violence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Group Therapy, 4, 205-227.
Boney-McCoy, S., & Finkelhor, D. (1995). Psychosocial sequelae of violent victimization in a national youth sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 726-736.
Bowen, N. K., & Bowen, G. L. (1999). Effects of crime and violence in neighborhoods and schools on the school behavior and performance of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14, 319-342.
Bowen, G. L., Richman, J. M., Brewster, A., & Bowen, N. (1998). Sense of school coherence, perceptions of danger at school, and teacher support among youth at risk of school failure. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 15, 273-286.
Boykin McElhaney, K., & Allen, J. P. (2001). Autonomy and adolescent social functioning: The moderating effect of risk. Child Development, 72, 220-235.
Brody, G. H., Ge, X., Conger, R., Gibbons, F. X., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., & Simons, R. L. (2001). The influence of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American children's affiliation with deviant peers. Child Development, 72, 1231-1246.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Ceci, S. J. (1994). Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: A biological model. Psychological Review, 101, 568-586.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., & Aber, J. L. (Eds.) (1997a). Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children, Volume 1. New York: Russell Sage.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., & Aber, J. L. (Eds.) (1997b). Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children, Volume 2. New York: Russell Sage.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American Journal of Sociology, 99, 353-395.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513-531.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723-742.
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1988). Toward a more appropriate conceptualization of research on school effects: A three-level hierarchical linear model. American Journal of Education, 97, 65-108.
Bryk, A. S., & Thum, Y. M. (1989). The effects of high school organization on dropping out: An exploratory investigation. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 353-383.
Burns, B. J., Costello, E.J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E., & Erkanli, A. (1995). Children's mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14, 147-159.
Burton, L. (2001). One step forward and two steps back: Neighborhoods, adolescent development, and unmeasured variables In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, and families (pp. 149-159). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Carlson, C., Paavola, J. & Talley, R. (1995). Historical, current, and future models of schools as health care delivery settings. School Psychology Quarterly, 10, 184-202.
Caspi, A., Taylor, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Plomin, R. (2000). Neighborhood deprivation affects children's mental health: Environmental risks identified in a genetic design. Psychological Science, 11, 338-342.
Ceballo, R., Dahl, T. A., Aretakis, M. T., & Ramirez, C. (2001). Inner-city children's exposure to community violence: How much do parents know? Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 927-940.
Ceballo, R., & McLoyd, V. C. (2002). Social support and parenting in poor, dangerous neighborhoods. Child Development, 73, 1310-1321.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002a). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2001. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51 (SS-04), 1-64. Retrieved January 2, 2003, from http://www.cdc.gov/ mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5104a1.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002b). YRBSS: 2001 Information and Results. Youth 2001 Online. Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved Jamuary 2, 2003, from http://www. cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/2001/youth01online.htm.
Cleveland, H. H. (2003). Disadvantaged neighborhoods and adolescent aggression: Behavioral genetic evidence of contextual effects. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 211-238.
Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and antisocial behavior. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), W. Damon (Series Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.), Vol. 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 779-862). New York: Wiley.
Colder, C. R., Mott, J., Levy, S., & Flay, B. (2000). The relation of perceived neighborhood danger to childhood aggression: A test of mediating mechanisms. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 83-103.
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95-S120.
Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobson, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A. M., Weinfeld, F. D., & York, R. L. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: the case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218-232.
Connell, J. P., Aber, J. L., & Walker, G. (1995). How do urban communities affect youth? Using social science research to inform the design and evaluation of comprehensive community initiatives. In J. P. Connell, A. Kubisch, L. Schorr, & C. Weiss (Eds.), New approaches to evaluating comprehensive community initiatives: Concepts, methods and contexts (pp. 93-125). Roundtable on Comprehensive Community Initiatives for Children and Families. Queenstown, MD: The Aspen Institute.
Connell, J. P., & Halpern-Felsher, B. (1997). How neighborhoods affect educational outcomes in middle childhood and adolescence: Conceptual issues and an empirical example. In G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn & J. L. Aber (Eds.), Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children, Vol. 1 (pp. 174-199). New York: Russell Sage.
Cook, T. D., Herman, M. R., Phillips, M., & Settersten, Jr., R. A. (2002). Some ways in which neighborhoods, nuclear families, friendship groups, and schools jointly affect changes in early adolescent development. Child Development, 73, 1283-1309.
Cooley-Quille, M. R., Turner, S. M., & Biedel, D. C. (1995). Emotional impact of children's exposure to community violence: A preliminary study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1362-1368.
DeVoe, J. F., Peter, K., Kaufman, P., Ruddy, S. A., Miller, A. K., Planty, M., Snyder, T. D., & Rand, M. R. (2003). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2003. (NCES 2004-004/NCJ 201257). Washington, DC: U. S. Departments of Education and Justice.
Dishion, T. J., Patterson, G. R., Stoolmiller, M., & Skinner, M. L. (1991). Family, school, and behavioral antecedents to early adolescent involvement with antisocial peers. Developmental Psychology, 27, 172-180.
Dorsey, S., & Forehand, R. (2003). The relation of social capital to child psychosocial adjustment difficulties: The role of positive parenting and neighborhood dangerousness. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25, 11-23.
Dryfoos, J. G. (1990). Adolescents at risk: Prevalence and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dubow, E. F., Edwards, S., & Ippolito, M. F. (1997). Life stressors, neighborhood disadvantages, and resources: A focus on inner-city children's adjustment. Journal of Clinical and Child Psychology, 26, 130-144.
Duncan, G., & Aber, J. L. (1997). Neighborhood models and measures. In G. Duncan, J. Brooks-Gunn & J. L. Aber (Eds.), Neighborhood poverty: Context and consequences for children, Vol. 1(pp. 44-61). New York: Russell Sage.
Duncan, G. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Assessing the effects of context in studies of child and youth development. Educational Psychologist, 34, 29-41.
Duncan, G. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhoods and adolescent development: How can we determine the links? In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, and families (pp. 105-136). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Duncan, S. C., Duncan, T. E., & Strycker, L. A. (2002). A multilevel analysis of neighborhood context and youth alcohol and drug problems. Prevention Science, 3, 125-133.
DuRant, R. H., Cadenhead, C., Pendergrast, R. A., Slavens, G., & Linder, C. W. (1994). Factors associated with the use of violence among urban Black adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 612-617.
Dwyer, K. Osher, D., & Warger, C. (1998). Early warning, timely response: A guide to safe schools. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 13, 2004, from http://cecp.air.org/guide/guide.pdf
Eamon, M. K. (2001). Poverty, parenting, peer, and neighborhood influences on young adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Social Service Research, 28, 1-23.
Earls, F., McGuire, J., & Shay, S. (1994). Evaluating a community intervention to reduce the risk of child abuse: Methodological strategies in conducting neighborhood surveys. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18, 473-.
Eccles, J., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Eccles, J. S., Lord, S. E., Roeser, R. W., Barber, B. L., & Jo-szefowicz, D. M. H. (1997). The association of school transitions in early adolescence with developmental trajectories through high school. In J. Schulenberg, J. Maggs, & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 283-320). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Eitle, D., & Turner, R. J. (2002). Exposure to community violence and young adult crime: The effects ofwitnessing violence, traumatic victimization, and other stressful life events. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 39, 214-237.
Elliot, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 33, 389-426.
Elze, D. E., Stiffman, A. R., & Doré, P. (1999). The association between types of violence exposure and youths' metal health problems. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 11, 221-255.
Ennett, S. T., Flewelling, R. L., Lindrooth, R. C., & Norton, E. C. (1997). School and neighborhood characteristics associated with school rates of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 55-71.
Evans, G. W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59, 77-92.
Evans, G. W., & English, K. (2002). The environment of poverty: Multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional adjustment. Child Development, 73, 1238-1248.
Evans, G. W., Lercher, P., Meis, M., Ising, H., & Kofler, W. W. (2000). Community noise exposure and stress in children. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109, 1023-1027.
Fagan, J., & Wilkinson, D. (1998). Social contexts and functions of adolescent violence. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 55-93). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Farrell, A. D., & Bruce, S. E. (1997). Impact of exposure to community violence on violent behavior and emotional distress among urban adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 2-14.
Farrington, D.P. (1993). Understanding and preventing bullying. Crime and Justice, 17, 381-458.
Felson, R. B., Lika, A. E., South, S. J., & McNulty, T. L. (1994). The subculture of violence and delinquency: Individual vs. school context effects. Social Forces, 73, 155-173.
Flaherty, L. T. (2001). School violence and the school environment. In M. Shafii and S. L. Shafii (Eds.), School violence: Assessment, management, prevention (pp. 25-51). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Flannery, D. J. (1997). School violence: Risk, preventive intervention, and policy. Urban Diversity Series No. 109. New York: ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education.
Furstenberg, F. F. (1993). How families manage risk and opportunity in dangerous neighborhoods. In W. J. Wilson (Ed.), Sociology and the public agenda (pp. 231-238). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., Cook, T. D., Eccles, J., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Sameroff, A. (1999). Managing to make it: Urban families and adolescent success. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Garofalo, J., Siegel, L., & Laub, J. (1987). School-related victimizations among adolescents: An analysis of National Crime Survey (NCS) narratives. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 321-38.
Gerald, D. E., & Hussar, W. J. (2002). Projections of education statistics to 2012 (NCES 2002-030). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
Gershoff, E. T., & Aber, J. L. (2003). Youth violence in multilevel neighborhood context. Unpublished data, grant proposal funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Gershoff, E. T., Pedersen, S., Jones, & Aber, J. L. (2005). Creating neighborhood types for hierarchical analyses through the use of factor and cluster analyses for reduction of GIS-based data. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Gershoff, E. T., Pedersen, S., Ware, A., & Aber, J. L. (2004, March). Violence exposure and parenting impacts on behavior problems and risk behaviors in multilevel neighborhood context. In E. Gershoff (Chair), Advances in Measurement, Trajectory, and Multilevel Analyses of Violence Exposure and Adolescent Problem Behaviors and Achievement. Paper presented at the biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Adolescence, Baltimore, MD.
Goering, J. (2003). Comments on future research and housing policy. In J. Goering & J. D. Feins (Eds.), Choosing a better life?: Evaluating the moving to opportunity social experiment (pp. 383-407). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel statistical models (2nd ed.). New York: Halstead.
Gonzales, N. A., Cauce, A., Friedman, R. J., & Mason, C. A. (1996). Family, peer, and neighborhood influence on academic achievement among African American adolescents: One-year prospective effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 365-387.
Gorman-Smith, D., & Tolan, P. (1998). The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth. Development & Psychopathol-ogy, 10, 101-116.
Gottfredson, G., & Gottfredson, D. (1985). Victimization in schools. New York: Plenum.
Greenberg, M. T., Lengua, L. J., Coie, J. D., & Pinderhughes, E. E. (1999). Predicting developmental outcomes at school entry using a multiple-risk model: Four American communities. Developmental Psychology, 35, 403-417.
Grogger, J. (1997). Local violence and educational attainment. The Journal of Human Resources, 32, 659-682.
Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, R., & Spindler, A. (2003). Community violence exposure, social cognition, and aggression among urban elementary school children. Child Development, 74, 1561-1576.
Halliday-Boykins, C. A., & Graham, S. (2001). At both ends of the gun: Testing the relationship between community violence exposure and youth violent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 383-402.
Hedges, L. V., Laine, R. D., & Greenwald, R. (1994). Does money matter? A meta-analysis of studies of the effects of differential school inputs on student outcomes. Educational Researcher, 23, 5-14.
Hellman, D., & Beaton, S. (1986). The pattern of violence in urban public schools: The influence of school and community. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 102-127.
Henrich, C. C., Brown, J. L., & Aber, J. L. (1999). Evaluating the effectiveness of school-based violence prevention: Developmental approaches. SRCD Social Policy Report, 13, 1-17.
Hill, N. E., & Herman-Stahl, M. A. (2002). Neighborhood safety and social involvement: Associations with parenting behaviors and depressive symptoms among
African American and Euro-American mothers. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 209-219.
Hinton-Nelson, M. D., Roberts, M. C., & Synder, C. R. (1996). Early adolescents exposed to violence: Hope and vulnerability to victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 346-353.
Horn, J. L., & Trickett, P. K. (1998). Community violence and child development: A review of research. In P. K. Trickett & C. J. Schellenbach (Eds.), Violence against children in the family and community (pp. 103-138). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hoven, C. W., Duarte, C. S., Lucas, C. p., Wu, P., Mandell, D. J., Goodwin, R. D., Cohen, M., Balaban, V., Woodruff, B. A., Bin, F., Mei, L., Cantor, P. A., Aber, J. L., Cohen, P., & Susser, E. (2004). The broad reach of September 11: Psychopathology among New York City public school children six months later. Unpublished manuscript, Columbia University.
Howard, K. A., Flora, J., & Griffin, M. (1999). Violence-prevention programs in schools: State of the science and implications for future research. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8, 197-215.
Howell, J. C., & Lynch, J. P. (2000). Youth gangs in schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved January 16, 2004, from http://www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/ojjdp/183015.pdf
Hox, J. J. (2002). Multilevel analysis. Techniques and applications. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hsieh, C., & Pugh, M. D. (1993). Poverty, income inequality, and violent crime: A meta-analysis of recent aggregate data studies. Criminal Justice Review, 18, 182-202.
Ingersoll, R. M. (1999). The problem of underqualified teachers in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28, 26-37.
Jacobson, W. B. (2000). Safe from the start: Taking action on children exposed to violence. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.
Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. Lynn & Mc-Geary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (pp. 111-186). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jones, S. M. (2001). Youth exposure to community violence: Neighborhood and familial risk. Unpublished predis-sertation, Yale University.
Kalff, A. C., Kroes, M., Vles, J. S. H., Hendriksen, J. G. M., Feron, F. J. M., Steyaert, J., van Zeben, T. M. C. B., Jolles, J., & van Os, J. (2001). Neighbourhood level and individual level SES effects on child problem behaviour: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 55, 246-250.
Kataoka, S. H., Zhang, L, & Wells, K. B. (2002). Unmet need for mental health care among U.S. children: Variation by ethnicity and insurance status. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1548-1555.
Katz, L. F., Kling, J. R., & Liebman, J. B. (2003). Boston site findings: The early impacts of Moving to Opportunity. In J. Goering & J. D. Feins (Eds.), Choosing a better life?: Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity social experiment (pp. 177-211). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Kessler, R. C., Foster, C. L., Saunders, W. B., & Stang, P. E. (1995). Social consequences of psychiatric disorders, I: Educational attainment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1026-1032.
Klebanov, P. K., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1994). Does neighborhood and family poverty affect mothers' parenting, mental health, and social support? Journal of
Marriage and the Family, 56, 441-455.
Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Oskin, D., & Johnson, P. D. (1998). The role of social and cognitive processes in children's adjustment to community violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 199-209.
Kneese, C., Fullwood, H., Schroth, G., & Pankake, A. (2003). Decreasing school violence: A research synthesis. In M. S. E. Fishbaugh, T. R. Berkeley, & G. Schroth (Eds.), Ensuring safe school environments: Exploring issues—Seeking solutions (pp. 39-57). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Knitzer, J., Steinberg, Z., & Fleisch, B. (1991). Schools, children's mental health, and the advocacy challenge. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 102-111.
Krenichyn, K., Saegert, S., & Evans, G. W. (2001). Parents as moderators of psychological and physiological correlates of inner-city children's exposure to violence. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 581-602.
Ku, L., Sonenstein, F. L., & Pleck, J. H. (1993). Neighborhood, family, and work: Influences on the premarital behaviors of adolescent males. Social Forces, 72, 479-503.
Kuo, M., Mohler, B., Raudenbush, S. L., & Earls, F. J. (2000). Assessing exposure to violence using multiple informants: Application of hierarchical linear model. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 1049-1056.
Kupersmidt, J. B., Griesler, P. C., DeRosier, M. E., Patterson, C. J., & Davis, P. W. (1995). Childhood aggression and peer relations in the context of family and neighborhood. Child Development, 66, 360-375.
Kupersmidt, J. B., Shahinfar, A., & Voegler-Lee, M. E. (2002). Children's exposure to community violence. In A. M. La Greca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 381-401). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Steinberg, L. (1996). Ethnicity and community context as moderators of the relations between family decision making and adolescent development. Child Development, 67, 283-301.
Laub, J. H., & Lauritsen, J. L. (1998). The interdependence of school violence with neighborhood and family conditions. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 127-155). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lauritsen, J. L. (2003, November). How families and communities influence youth victimization. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Lee, V. E. (2000). Using hierarchical linear modeling to study social contexts: The case of school effects. Educational Psychologist, 35, 125-141.
Lee, V. E., Smerdon, B. A., Alfeld-Liro, C., & Brown, S. L. (2000). Inside large and small high schools: Curriculum and social relations. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22, 147-171.
Lee & Smith (1997). High school size: Which works best and for whom? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 205-227.
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309-337.
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). Moving on up: Neighborhood effects on children and families. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 209-230). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Linares, L. O., Heeren, T., Bronfman, E., Zuckerman, B., Au-
gustyn, M., & Tronick, E., (2001). A mediational model for the impact of exposure to community violence on early child behavior problems. Child Development, 72, 639-652.
Loeber, R., & Witkstrom, P. H. (1993). Individual pathways to crime in different types of neighborhoods. In D. P. Farrington, R. J. Sampson, & P. O. H. Wikstrom (Eds.), Integrating individual and ecological aspects of crime (pp. 169-204). Stockholm: National Council for Crime Prevention.
Ludwig, J., Duncan, G. J., & Ladd, H. F. (2003). The effects of MTO on children and parents in Baltimore. In J. Goering & J. D. Feins (Eds.), Choosing a better life?: Evaluating the moving to opportunity social experiment (pp. 153-175). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Lynch, M. (2003). Consequences of children's exposure to community violence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6, 265-274.
Marans, S., & Schaefer, M. (1998). Community policing, schools, and mental health: The challenge of collaboration. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 312-347). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, D. P., Mullens, J. E., & Moore, M. T. (2000). Monitoring school quality: An indicators report (NCES 2001-030). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Mayer, M. J., & Leone, P. E. (1999). A structural analysis of school violence and disruption: Implications for creating safer schools. Education and Treatment of Children, 22, 333-356.
Mayer, S. E., & Peterson, P. E. (Eds.). (1999). Earning and learning: How schools matter. Washington, DC: Russell Sage.
Mazza, J. J., & Reynolds, W. M. (1999). Exposure to violence in young inner-city adolescents: Relationships with suicidal ideation, depression, and PTSD symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 203-213.
McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311-346.
Menacker, J., Weldon, W., & Hurwitz, E. (1990). Community influences on school crime and violence. Urban Education, 25, 68-80.
Minino, A. M., & Smith, B. L. (2001). Deaths: Preliminary data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 49(12). Washington, DC: National Vital Statistics Program, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Morenoff, J. D., & Sampson, R. J. (1997). Violent crime and the spatial dynamics of neighborhood transition: Chicago, 1970-990. Social Forces, 76, 31-64.
Moses, A. (1999). Exposure to violence, depression, and hostility in a sample of inner city high school youth. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 21-32.
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Mplus User's Guide (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
Myers, M. A., & Thompson, V. L. S. (2000). The impact of violence exposure on African American youth in context. Youth and Society, 32, 253-267.
Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K. L., Sey-boldt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E., & Davino, D. (2003). What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58, 449-456.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). Condition of America's public school facilities: 1999 ( NCES 2000-032). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Revenues and expenditures by public school districts: School year 1999-2000 (NCES 2003-407). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
National Institute of Education. (1978). Violent schools-safe schools: The Safe Schools Study report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final Report (Pub. No. SMA-03-3832). Rock-ville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services.
New York Police Department CompStat Unit. (2004). City-wide: Report covering the week of 1/12/2004 through 1/18/2004. Compstat, 11(3). Retrieved February 5, 2004, from http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/pdf/chfdept/csc-ity.pdf
New York State Education Department. (2001, April). Project SAVE (safe schools against violence in education): Guidance document for school safety plans. Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, State Education Department.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2000). Children as victims. 1999 National report series. Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, Department of Education. (2004). Partnerships in Character Education: Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Federal Register Doc. 04-3989, file 2-23-04.
Olweus, D. (1995). Bullying or peer abuse at school: Facts and interventions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 196-200.
Osofksy, J. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist, 50, 782-788.
Osterman, K. (2002). Schools as communities for students. In G. Furman (Ed.), School as community: From promise to practice (pp. 167-195). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Otto, L. B., & Atkinson, M. P. (1997). Parental involvement and adolescent development. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 68-89.
Overstreet, S. (2000). Exposure to community violence: Defining the problem and understanding the consequences. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 7-25.
Parcel, T. L., & Dufur, M. J. (2001). Capital at home and at school: Effects on child social adjustment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 32-47.
Perera, F. P., Rauh, V., Tsai, W. Y., Kinney, P. L., Camann, D. E., Barr, D. B., Garfinkel, R., Tu, Y-H., Diaz, D., Dietrich, J., & Whyatt, R. M. (2003). Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multi-ethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 201-05.
Perez-Smith, A., Spirito, A., & Boergers, J. (2002). Neighborhood predictors of hopelessness among adolescent suicide attempters: Preliminary investigation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 32, 139-145.
Perry, K. E., & Weinstein, R. S. (1998). The social context of early schooling and children's school adjustment. Educational Psychologist, 33, 177-194.
Pinderhughes, E. E., Nix, R., Foster, M., Jones, D., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2001). Parenting in context: Impact of neighborhood poverty, residential instability, public services, social networks, and danger on parental behaviors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 941-953.
Prinz, R. J., Blechman, E. A., & Dumas, J. E. (1994). An evaluation of peer coping-skills training for childhood aggression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23,
Rankin, B. H., & Quane, J. M. (2002). Social contexts and urban adolescent outcomes: The interrelated effects of neighborhoods, families, and peers on African-American youth. Social Problems, 49, 79-100.
Rasbash, J., Browne, W., Goldstein, H., Yang, M., Plewis, I., Healy, M., Woodhouse, G., Draper, D., Langford, I., & Lewis, T. (2002). A user's guide to MLwiN. London: Multilevel Models Project, University of London.
Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., & Congdon, R. (2001). HLM 5: Hierarchical Linear and Nonlinear Modeling (2nd ed.). Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.
Reise, S. P., & Duan, N. (Eds.). (2003). Multilevel modeling: Methodological advances, issues, and applications. Mah-wah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. H., & Udry, J. R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 823-832.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E. (1990). Things I have seen and heard: An interview for young children about exposure to violence. Rockville, MD: Child and Adolescent Disorders Research Branch, Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Mental Health.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E. (1993a). Children as victims of and witnesses to violence in a Washington, D. C. neighborhood. In L. A. Leavitt & N. A. Fox (Eds.), The psychological effects of war and violence on children (pp. 281-301). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E. (1993b). The NIMH Community Violence Project: I. Children as victims of and witnesses to violence. Psychiatry, 56, 7-21.
Richters, J. E., & Martinez, P. E. (1993c). Violent communities, family choices, and children's chances: An algorithm for improving the odds. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 609-627.
Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2000). School as context of early adolescents' academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. The Elementary School Journal, 100, 443-471.
Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Strobel, K. R. (1998). Linking the study of schooling and mental health: Selected issues and empirical illustrations at the level of the individual. Educational Psychologist, 33, 153-176.
Rutter, M. (1980). School influences on children's behavior and development: The 1979 Kenneth Blackfan Lecture, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston. Pediatrics, 65, 208-220.
Ryan, R. M., & Grolnick, W. S. (1986) Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children's perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550-558.
St. George, D. M. M., & Thomas, S. B. (1997). Perceived risk of fighting and actual fighting behavior among middle school students. Journal of School Health, 67, 178-181.
Salzinger, S., Feldman, R. S., Stockhammer, T., & Hood, J. (2002). An ecological framework for understanding risk for exposure to community violence and the effects of exposure on children and adolescents. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7, 423-451.
Samples, F., & Aber, L. (1998). Evaluations of school-based violence prevention programs. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & . R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 217-252). New York: Cambridge
Sampson, R. J. (2001). How do communities undergird or undermine human development? Relevant contexts and social mechanisms. In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, and families (pp. 3-30). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774-780.
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Gannon-Rowley, T. (2002). Assessing "neighborhood effects": Social processes and new directions in research. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 443-478.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918-924.
Sandoval, J., & Brock, S. E. (2002). School violence and disasters. In J. Sandoval (Ed.), Handbook of crisis counseling, intervention, and prevention in the schools (2nd ed., pp. 249-270). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Schwab-Stone, M., Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Silver, D., Lichtman, J., & Voyce, C. (1999). No safe haven II: The effects of violence exposure on urban youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 359-367.
Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. J. (2000). Community violence exposure and children's social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 670-683.
Shahinfar, A., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Matza, L. S. (2001). The relation between exposure to violence and social information processing among incarcerated adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 136-141.
Shakoor, B. H., & Chalmers, D. (1991). Covictimization of African American children who witness violence: Effects on cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development. Journal of the National Medical Association, 83, 233-238.
Shaw, C., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sheley, J. F., McGee, Z. T., & Wright, J. D. (1992). Gun-related violence in and around inner-city schools. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 146, 677-682.
Sherman, L. W., Gartin, P. R., & Buerger, M. E. (1989). Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology, 27, 27-56.
Simons, R. I., Johnson, C., Beaman, J. J., Conger, R. D., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1996). Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 145-171.
Singer, M. I., Anglin, T. M., Song, L. Y., & Lunghofer, L. (1995). Adolescents' exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 477-482.
Small, S., & Supple, A. (2001). Communities as systems: Is a community more than the sum of its parts? In A. Booth & A. C. Crouter (Eds.), Does it take a village? Community effects on children, adolescents, andfamilies (pp. 161-174). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Snyder, H. N., & Sickmund, M. (1999). Violence after school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin (NCJ 178992) (pp. 1-8). Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice.
Staff, J., & Uggen, C. (2003). The fruits of good work: Early work experiences and adolescent deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 263-290.
Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S., Rhodes, H. J., & Vestal,
K. D. (2003). Prevalence of child and adolescent exposure to community violence. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 6, 247-264.
Stephens, R. D. (l998). Safe school planning. In D. S. Elliott, B. A. Hamburg, & . R. Williams (Eds.), Violence in American schools: A new perspective (pp. 253-289). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stiffman, A. R., Hadley-Ives, E., Elze, E., Johnson, S., & Doré, P. (1999). Impact of environment on adolescent mental health and behavior: Structural equation modeling. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69, 73-6.
Teitler, J. O., & Weiss, C. C. (2000). Effects of neighborhood and school environments on transitions to first sexual intercourse. Sociology of Education, 73, 112-132.
Thornton, T. N., Craft, C. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Lynch, B. S., & Baer, K. (2002). Best practices of youth violence prevention: A sourcebook for community action (rev.). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
Uehara, E. S., Chalmers, D., Jenkins, E. J., & Shakoor, B. H. (1996). African American youth encounters with violence: Results from the community mental health council violence screening project. Journal of Black Studies, 26, 768-781.
U.S. Department of Education. (2000). A back to school special report on the baby boom echo: Growing pains. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved January 5, 2004, from http://www. ed.gov/pubs/bbecho00/index.html.
U.S. Department of Education. (2003a, February). Choice Provisions in_No Child Left Behind. National Title I Directors' Conference. Washington, DC: No Child Left Behind, U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved from January 2, 2004, from http://www.ed.gov/admins/comm/ parents/choice03/edlite-index.html
U.S. Department of Education. (2003b). The facts about... School safety. Washington, DC: No Child Left Behind, U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 2, 2003, from http://www.ed.gov/nclb/freedom/safety/
Wandersman, A., & Florin, P. (2003). Community interventions and effective prevention. American Psychologist, 58, 441-448.
Warner, B. S., Weist, M. D., & Krulak, A. (1999). Risk factors for school violence. Urban Education, 34, 52-68.
Watson, M. S., Battistich, V., & Solomon, S. (1997). Enhancing students' social and ethical development in schools: An intervention program and its effects. International Journal of Educational Research, 27, 571-586.
Weimer, D. L., & Wolkoff, M. J. (2001). School performance and housing values: Using non-contiguous district and incorporation boundaries to identify school effects. National Tax Journal, 54, 231-253.
Weller, N. F., Kelder, S. H., Cooper, S. P., Basen-Engquist, K., & Tortolero, S. R. (2003). School-year employment among high school students: Effects on academic, social, and physical functioning. Adolescence, 38, 441-458.
Werthamer-Larsson, L., Kellam, S., & Wheeler, L. (1991). Effect of first-grade classroom environment on shy behavior, aggressive behavior, and concentration problems. American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 585-602.
Williams, J. H., Ayers, C. D., & Arthur, M. W. (1997). Risk and protective factors in the development of delinquency and conduct disorder. In M. W. Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (pp. 140-170). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wirt, J., Choy, S., Provasnik, S., Rooney, P., Sen, A., Tobin, R., Kridl, B., & Livingston, A. (2003). The condition of education: 2003 (NCES 2003-067). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 5, 2003, from http://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2003/2003067.pdf.
Was this article helpful?
Are You Feeling Stressed, Overwhelmed And Full Of Anxiety? You're Not Alone. But You Can Stop It... And Learn To Live A Stress Free Life. Stress Is The Number One Cause of Medical Problems In The United States Today. Anxiety Just Adds To Those Problems. But You Don't Have To Suffer Anymore. We Have The Answers You're Looking For.