Eccles et al Expectancy Value Theory

Eccles and her colleagues have elaborated and tested an expectancy-value model of achievement-related choices and engagement, (Eccles, 1987 Eccles Parsons et al., 1983 Eccles, Adler, & Meece, 1984 Eccles & Wigfield, 1995 Meece, Wigfield, & Eccles, 1990 Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). The most recent version of this model is depicted in Figure 14.1. Expectancies and values are assumed to di- Figure 14.1 General model of achievement choices. Figure 14.1 General model of achievement choices....

Jay Belsky

The topic of the infant's emotional tie to mother has been a focus of theorizing for hundreds if not thousands of years. Freud, however, is probably responsible for modern scientific interest in the topic, as he asserted that the relationship between mother and baby served as a prototype that would shape the remainder of the developing individual's life, especially his capacity to love and to work. But it is John Bowlby, the eminent British psychiatrist, who broke from the ranks of Freudian...

Young Childrens Event Recall

Although very young children lack the verbal skills to describe their memory for past events, several paradigms using behavioral measures have yielded a wealth of data on infants' and toddlers' memory (a) response-contingency tasks, (b) deferred imitation tasks, and (c) elicited imitation tasks. The results from these various lines of research provide compelling evidence that from infancy children are capable of retaining information from novel experiences over intervals from a few days (at 2...

Reenactment

One way children are reminded of a past event is by physically repeating all or part of the event at another time. This procedure, reenactment, is similar to multiple training trials in that children physically reproduce some or all of the actions they learned in the past. We consider reenactment to be the most complete and concrete type of reminder. Not only do children actively participate in their retraining, but they interact directly with the experimenter, providing additional context for...

Conceptual and Methodological Issues

Despite the popularity of the area of emotion regulation, the field has a number of challenges ahead. Tackling these conceptual and methodological challenges will help to increase our understanding of emotion regulation processes and their potential for predicting behavioral and emotional outcomes. A first methodological challenge is disentangling emotion and emotion regulation. For example, when one observes a child engaging in toy play in a delay situation, is the child successfully...

Categorization of Animal Species and Artifacts

In a series of studies, young infants have been shown to form category representations for a variety of animal species and furniture artifacts (reviewed in Quinn, 2002c). In the experiments investigating young infants' category representations of various animal species, 3- and 4-month-olds familiarized with instances of 12 domestic cats, representing different breeds and depicted in a variety of stances, will generalize familiarization to novel instances of domestic cats, but show novel...

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Scores on HOME are also associated with social development. A major component of social competence is the ability of a child to enter into and sustain social relations. Bakeman and Brown (1980) followed 21 preterm and 22 full-term Black low-income children from 9 months to 3 years of age. The Responsivity scale from the Infant-Toddler HOME predicted both social participation (involvement with others) and social competence (ability to navigate the social world smoothly, gaining both material and...

Good Continuation

When considering the relevance of the Quinn et al. (1993, 2002) demonstrations of infant Gestalt-like grouping via lightness and form similarity for understanding the early development of object recognition abilities more generally, two limitations become apparent. First, the stimuli used in the Quinn et al. studies are more like surface textures than they are like objects (Spelke, Breinlinger, Jacobson, & Phillips, 1993 Spelke, Gutheil, & Van de Walle, 1995). Second, in many natural...

Social Influences in the First Years of Life

Cristofaro Eileen T. Rodriguez Marc H. Bornstein Children's understanding and production of their first words is undeniably one of the most heralded achievements in early development. The onset of language officially marks the transition from infancy (which derives from the Latin root infans, meaning unable to speak) to early childhood, and radically alters the child's social world. Words enable children to share meanings with others and to participate in...

Theoretical Foundations

Figure 12.3 depicts the Embedded Model that I have used to conceptualize children's developing understanding of spatial-graphic representations. Although the figure is graphically complex and requires an extended discussion to explicate it completely (see Liben, 1999), the core ideas are relatively straightforward and can be highlighted here briefly. Most broadly, the model rejects a simple transparency view that assumes a viewer (here the child) automatically sees through the representation...

Pubertal Status Effects

Examining links between pubertal status and adjustment involves comparisons of outcomes among adolescents at different levels or stages of key external signs of pubertal development (e.g., breast growth, pubic hair, testicular changes). Pubertal staging is usually indexed by some measure of Tanner stages that range from no signs of development to completed development. Pubertal status is considered important because it signifies that the adolescent is more adult-like in appearance, which may...

Hormone Effects

Findings from studies that focus on pubertal hormones and adjustment reveal that effects vary across study, by gender, by hormone, and by outcome. In research focused on hormone-behavior links in girls only, findings indicate that increases in estradiol, specifically during the most rapid period of increase during puberty, have been associated with negative affect (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1989 Warren & Brooks-Gunn, 1989). Estradiol levels increase dramatically during puberty, and they...

Potential Explanations for the Decreasing Age of Pubertal Onset

Several hypotheses that have been proposed that focus on environmental factors as an explanation for the earlier age of pubertal onset in girls. One such hypothesis is that exposure to environmental toxins may mimic estrogens in the body and thus stimulate pubertal development. Two epidemics of early puberty, one in Italy and the other in Puerto Rico, are suspected to have been caused by exposure to estrogens in food, specifically meat and poultry (Fara et al., 1979 Saenz de Rodriguez,...

Potential Reasons for Ethnic Differences in Age of Pubertal Onset

A finding across three large-scale studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s, the PROS study (Her-man-Giddens et al., 1997), NHANES III (Wu et al., 2002), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (Morrison et al., 1994), is that African American girls begin breast and pubic hair development about a year earlier than White girls and begin menses about half a year earlier. The reasons for the earlier age of secondary sexual characteristic onset for African American...

Examining Pathways Between Pubertal Effects and Adjustment in Girls

Proposed pathways between pubertal effects and adjustment were examined in a study of 100 adolescent girls between the ages of 10 to 14 (Graber, Brooks-Gunn, & Warren, in press). Girls were from well-educated, middle to upper-middle class families in a major northeastern urban area. Measures of pubertal status included Tanner ratings for breast and pubic hair development. Pubertal timing comparisons were made for early maturing versus other girls girls were classified as early using norms...

Spatial Understanding Vantage Point

As discussed earlier and as illustrated in Figure 12.2, any given representation has a particular vantage point that is determined by the combination of viewing distance, viewing angle, and viewing azimuth. Our empirical work has addressed children's developing appreciation of vantage point by examining their ability to distinguish among images that depict the same referent from different vantage points, and to produce representations that fit certain vantage-point specific qualities. As one...

Active Covariance

While the concept of active covariance (niche picking) has been the focus of much theoretical speculation (e.g., Plomin, 1994 Scarr & McCartney, 1983), remarkably little research exists that actually documents how individuals with different temperaments act in ways that result in their inhabiting different types of contexts. One of the few examples we have of the process of active temperament-context covariance is seen in the work of Matheny (1986), showing how more active children, or...

Michelle D Leichtman

Interviewer Can you tell me about a memory from your childhood Participant No, I have forgotten all that. Interviewer Can you remember any events that occurred when you were young Participant Incidents mean . . . whom are memories for . . . Interviewer Doesn't matter. Try telling me about one or two things. Participant Can't remember all those things. Excerpt from an interview with a rural Indian goatherd, translated from the regional language, Kanada Over the past decade, researchers...

Emotion Related Regulation Conceptualization

Despite abundant interest in recent years in emotion-related regulation, there is little consensus on its conceptualization or definition. Campos and colleagues suggested that emotion regulation can take place at three general loci at the level of sensory receptors (input regulation), at central levels where information is processed and manipulated (central regulation), and at the level of response selection (labeled output regulation Campos et al., 1994). Thompson (1994) defined emotion...

Pubertal Timing Effects

A large body of literature involves studies examining links between pubertal timing and adjustment in adolescents, mainly because there is substantial variation among individuals regarding when puberty begins and how it progresses (Tanner, 1970). Girls typically exhibit the external manifestations of puberty about 1 or 2 years earlier than boys. Early-maturing girls can therefore develop 3 to 6 years ahead of boys as well as developing earlier than on-time or late-maturing girls. Variations in...

Robert D Kavanaugh

Research on pretend play and theory of mind has accumulated rapidly over the past 25 years and for much of that time psychologists and philosophers have debated the question of how the two topics are related. The debate began in earnest with Leslie's (1987) paper in which he outlined the case for pretend play as an early index of metarepresentational thought that assists the child in the later development of a theory of mind. Leslie's (1987) theoretical stance generated a good deal of interest...

Conclusions

Perhaps the most significant fact about long-term event memory that contemporary developmental research has revealed is the sheer complexity of the web of factors that support it. Early theorists might have been surprised to learn that as evidence for a biological contribution to event memory performance has become more detailed and compelling, so has evidence for an environmental contribution. Theory and limited empirical inquiry focusing on the influence of maturational factors on long-term...

Sex Linked Preferences

The evidence is mixed concerning the development of children's sex-typed preferences for concrete toys and activities. Similar to the issue with assessing stereotype knowledge, the results seem to depend on the type of measure employed (see Aubry et al., 1999). For example, when asking children to make conscious choices based on verbal questions, children show sex-typed preferences as early as 3 years with well-established preferences by age 5 (Carter & Levy, 1988 Coker, 1984 Martin &...

Empathyrelated Responding And Prosocial Behavior

Numerous philosophers and psychologists have suggested that empathy-related processes motivate prosocial behavior (Blum, 1980 Hoffman, 2000 Hume, 1777 1966 Staub, 1979) that when people experience others' negative emotions, they are likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, in 1982 Underwood and Moore published a review in which they found, contrary to most theories, no empirical relation between empathy and prosocial behavior. Upon careful consideration of this literature, it became...

The Fragility of Childrens Understanding of Scale Models

Despite the apparent simplicity of the model, very young children have great difficulty using it. These results are summarized in Figure 8.1. Children younger than 3 years of age usually perform very poorly (only about 20 correct retrievals). The difficulty that children encounter cannot be attributed to forgetting the location of the toy that they observed being hidden. Almost all children succeed on the memory-based search in which they return to the model to retrieve the miniature toy. Thus,...

Summary

There are several important findings emerging from the studies examining young infants' abilities to form category representations for pictorial exemplars of nonhuman animals, furniture, and humans. First, infants can form both basic-level category representations for natural animal species and furniture artifacts. Second, representations for nonhuman animals are formed on-line during the course of an experiment, based on perceptual attribute or part information, and structured with...

Concreteness and the Dual Representation Hypothesis

What accounts for the fragility of young children's comprehension of the relation between the room and the model In several studies we have demonstrated that the concreteness of the model is actually Short-Delay-First M ed ium-Del ay-Fi rst Figure 8.2 The effect of delay on children's use of a model. The initial delay led to much worse performance, even on the subsequent shorter days. a cause of children's difficulty in using it as a symbol. Highly attractive and salient objects may be...

Characteristics of Neighborhoods and Schools that Impact the Mental Health and Risk Behavior of Children and Youth

Through the lens of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1986), there are likely countless microsystem (directly experienced), mesosystem (cross-context), exosystem (indirectly experienced), and macrosystem (cultural) aspects of neighborhoods and schools that can affect child and youth development. Indeed, a wide variety of neighborhood and school characteristics has been linked empirically with child outcomes. The literature has yet to fully identify the dynamic...

The Big Three Components of Effective Youth Development Programs

What are the specific actions taken by youth development programs that make them effective in promoting the Five Cs Catalano et al. (1999) find that the preponderant majority (about 75 ) of effective positive youth development programs focus on what Lerner (2004) termed the Big Three design features of effective positive youth development (YD) programs. YD programs involving the Big Three provide 1. Opportunities for youth participation in and leadership of activities that 2. Emphasize the...

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

This line of research has shown that well-timed reminders are highly effective in extending young children's event memory. We have also shown that a variety of types of reminders are effective for children from 14 to 24 months of age. Children at 18 months can be reminded of an event they experienced 8 to 10 weeks in the past by reenacting a subset of the same actions, by viewing someone perform some of the same actions, by viewing a video of someone else performing the actions, viewing a...

Social Cognitive Theory

Bussey and Bandura's (1999) most recent account proposes that children's development of sex-typed knowledge and competencies is promoted by modeling, enactive experience, and direct tuition. As in previous versions of their theory, observational learning continues to take center stage as the major conveyor of gender-typed information. Through cognitive functions such as attentional and representational processes, symbolic conceptions derived through modeling are able to be translated into...

Preparation for Bias

We use the term preparation for bias to refer to such practices as parents' efforts to promote their children's awareness of racial bias, and to prepare them to cope with prejudice and discrimination. These efforts have also been emphasized as a critical component of racial ethnic socialization. Several scholars have suggested that enabling children to navigate around racial barriers and to negotiate potentially hostile social interactions are normative parenting tasks within ethnic minority...

Development of Representational Insight The Object Retrieval Task

Extensive research by DeLoache and her colleagues has examined young children's understanding of symbolic media using an object retrieval task. In the scale model object retrieval task, young children are familiarized with a laboratory playroom and then shown a scale model of that room and its contents. Children's attention is drawn to the similarities between the room and the model of the room. Then, children watch as a toy is hidden in the scale model. They are subsequently told that the big...

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

The majority of studies on the psychological meaning of pubertal change were conducted in the 1970s and 1980s more current research has not examined this issue. The meaning of menarche to girls has been examined the most extensively, as menarche is a salient and singular event (Brooks-Gunn & Petersen, 1983 Brooks-Gunn & Ruble, 1982 Greif & Ulman, 1982 Koff, Rierdan, & Sheingold, 1982). In studies conducted by Brooks-Gunn and Ruble (1982), girls were interviewed within two or three...

Physical Changes of Puberty

In females, secondary sexual characteristic development is a result of estrogens from the ovaries. Breast budding is generally the first sexual characteristic to appear, and is most commonly classified by Marshall and Tanner's (1969) 5 stages of development, as illustrated in Table 16.1. Breast development begins in the United States between ages 8 and 13, with a mean age of 9.96 for White girls and a mean age of 8.87 for African American girls (Herman-Giddens et al., 1997). The process of...

Reinstatement With Representational Reminders

Our recent research has focused on children's ability to use information presented in various media as reminders of past events. With a video simulation reminder, children watch a video tape of an event instead of a live model. With photograph reminders, children view photographs of past events with or without accompanying verbal narration. Finally, in a model simulation experiment, children view an experimenter perform the actions using a small-scale model replica of the room and props used in...

Children Often Fail to Grasp the Relation Between Manipulatives and Written Representations

From a teacher's point of view, the goal of using a manipulative is to provide support for learning more general mathematical concepts. However, this is no guarantee that children will see the manipulative in this way. Previous work on the use of manipulatives has documented numerous examples of mismatches between teachers' expectations and students' understandings. Even when young children do learn to perform mathematical operations using manipulatives, their knowledge of the two ways of...

Examining Effects of Earliest Pubertal Changes on Mood in Preadolescent Girls

Our group has conducted an exploratory investigation in order to examine pubertal and hormonal effects on mood during the time when pubertal hormones are expected to be increasing prior to and along with early changes in secondary sexual characteristics (Archibald, Graber, & Brooks-Gunn, 2004). Participants were 76 preadolescent girls of varied ethnic backgrounds White (n 36), African American (n 25), and Latina (n 15). Girls were recruited in 1995 from public and parochial schools from...

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

In light of the complexity and subtlety of racial ethnic socialization processes, it seems quite likely that the messages parents intend to communicate differ from the messages children actually receive (or report receiving). That is, children can miss, misinterpret, or ignore parents' communications about race, and parents can selectively remember and report only those messages that they intend to send and those messages that they would like their children to receive. In fact, in a study...

Conclusion

We opened this chapter with questions regarding the processes by which family poverty influences children's development. To what extent does family income or its economic conditions make a unique contribution to children's development, above and beyond the many other conditions associated with poverty (e.g., parent education, family structure) Does the source of income (i.e., employment vs. welfare receipt) matter for children's development What proximal conditions and experiences in the home...

The Five Cs of Positive Youth Development

In our theoretical discussions of the Five Cs (Lerner, 2004 Lerner et al., 2005, we have suggested that they may be latent constructs that capture the essence of to-be-developed indicators of the numerous mental, behavioral, and social relational elements that could comprise positive youth development (PYD). Initially proposed by Little (1993), these theoretical latent constructs were first discussed as Four Cs, i.e., competence, confidence, (positive social) connection, and character. Eccles...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based...

Contextual Models

Another proposed pathway linking pubertal changes with adjustment takes social factors such as familial support and peer relations into account. The biological and social changes of puberty may vary systematically with the family, peer, school, or neighborhood contexts in which they occur (Petersen & Taylor, 1980). Different contexts may amplify or attenuate the effects of pubertal factors on adjustment. Factors that have been shown to amplify negative effects of pubertal timing include...

Conclusion and Future Directions

In this chapter, we have presented a model of the development of emotional self-regulation in infancy and toddlerhood that is organized around the construct of autonomy. In our framework, we focus on children's emotional responsiveness as well as the strategies children use to modulate that responsiveness. We argue that movement along a continuum of autonomy toward more active, flexible strategies for regulating affect is a natural phenomenon fueled by children's innate propensities to master...

Intrinsic Motivation Theories

The theories described in this section deal with the distinction when intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. When individuals are intrinsically motivated they do activities either because they enjoy doing them or because they want to do them. When extrinsically motivated, individuals do activities for instrumental or other reasons, such as receiving a reward. Two basic assumptions about behavior underlie Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory (1) the assumption that humans are...

Emotional Responsiveness and Self Regulatory Strategies

We posit that the capacity for emotional self-regulation is composed of two interrelated processes emotional responsiveness and emotional self-regulation strategies (Grolnick, Bridges, & Connell, 1996). Emotional responsiveness represents the degree to which an individual responds both expressively and experientially to arousing events. This process is evident in characteristics of an individual's emotional expressions, such as intensity, latency to respond, and duration. Emotional...

Eccles Wigfield and Colleagues Work on Subjective Task Values

Eccles and her colleagues have elaborated the concept of subjective task value. Building on earlier work on achievement values (e.g., Battle, 1966), intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (e.g., Deci, 1975 Gottfried, 1990), and on Rokeach's (1979) view that values are shared beliefs about desired end-states, Eccles (Parsons) et al. (1983) outlined four motivational components of task value attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value, and cost. Like Battle (1966), they defined attainment value...

Cross National Similarities and Differences

The idea of studying how young people think about what it means to become an adult is fairly new, and as previously noted, until recently studies on this topic have been limited mostly to White Americans representing the American majority culture. However, several papers have come out recently that provide insights into how people in a variety of different cultures think about what it means to be an adult and consider their responses in the context of the distinctive characteristics of their...

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

Cognitive-oriented theorists view children as active constructors of knowledge who seek, interpret, and act on information in an effort to match their behavior to their understanding of gender (Martin, 1993 Martin, 2000 Martin & Dinella, 2002 Martin et al., 2002, 2004 Martin & Ruble, 2004 Ruble, 1994). This idea was proposed by Kohlberg (1966) when he first outlined his cognitive-developmental theory of gender development. In his view, children's understanding of gender emerges as...

Marion K Underwood Lara Mayeux Mikal Galperin

Most girls and boys care deeply about fitting in and getting along during the middle childhood years, especially with their same gender peers. Many desperately want to have someone to play with or to talk to at recess, to sit with at lunch, to choose them first for teams, and to support them when they feel left out or excluded. Forming and maintaining high quality peer relationships in middle childhood requires considerable skill in emotion regulation, particularly in coping with anger in peer...

Fantasy Narratives At

In the fantasy narrative task, children were required to enter the terrain of pretense and symbolic talk. With the support of toys and a provided beginning for the plot, children had to construct a coherent story using talk in combination with enactment and sound effects. Because an adult partner also participated in this fantasy task, children could narrate relatively autonomously, or they could rely on their more competent partner to introduce and reintroduce play characters and to prompt for...

Learned Helplessness

As defined by Dweck and Goetz (1978), learned helplessness . . . exists when an individual perceives the termination of failure to be independent of his responses (p. 157). Learned helplessness has been related to individuals' attributions for success and failure Helpless individuals are more likely to attribute their failures to uncontrollable factors, such as lack of ability, and their successes to unstable factors (see Dweck & Goetz, 1978). Dweck and her colleagues have documented several...

Laura M DeRose Jeanne Brooks Gunn

The onset of adolescence is considered a crucial developmental transition marked by a confluence of changes (Brooks-Gunn, 1984 Graber & Brooks-Gunn, 1996 Hamburg, 1974). In addition to the drastic physical changes that occur, the adolescent decade is defined by the restructuring of social roles, expectations, and relationships within the family, peer group and school environment (Feldman & Elliott, 1990 Graber & Brooks-Gunn, 1996). The pubertal transition is considered an impetus for...

The Effect of Gender Labels on Exploration Preferences and Performance Exploration

The three studies that have examined the effects of gender stereotypes on children's exploration have found that children are more likely to approach same-sex labeled toys when compared to opposite-sex labeled toys (Bradbard & Endsley, 1983 Bradbard, Martin, Endsley, & Halverson, 1986 Masters, Ford, Arend, Grotevant, & Clark, 1979). For example, Bradbard et al. (1986) measured the amount of time 4 to 9-year-old children tactually explored novel objects after they were provided with...

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

In addition to having close friends and belonging to a group, children also value acceptance by larger peer groups such as their school classmates, neighborhood playmates, or members of their athletic teams. Sociometric status refers to the degree of a child's social acceptance by a group, as determined by nominations from other group members. Moreno (1934) pioneered the study of sociometry by visiting school classrooms and asking children to vote for those they would most like to sit beside....

Self Efficacy Theory

Bandura has also proposed a social cognitive model of motivated behavior that emphasizes the role of perceptions of efficacy and human agency in determining individuals' achievement strivings. Ban-dura (1977) defined self-efficacy as individuals' confidence in their ability to organize and execute a given course of action to solve a problem or accomplish a task. In his more recent writings (Bandura, 1994), Bandura characterizes self-efficacy as a multidimensional construct that can vary in...

Robert H Bradley Robert F Corwyn

When Gamini finished surgery in the middle of the night, he walked back through the compound into the east buildings, where the sick children were. The mothers were always there. Sitting on stools, they rested their upper torso and head on their child's bed and slept holding the small hands____He watched the children, who were unaware of their parents' arms. Fifty yards away in Emergency he had heard grown men scream for their mothers as they were dying____He turned away from every person who...

The Empirical Composition of the Five Cs and Their Association With YD Programs

Certainly, given the idea that participation in YD programs is associated with PYD, a direct demonstration of the relation between participation in youth development programs and positive youth development would be quite significant for planning and implementing efforts to promote healthy adolescent development. However, as made clear in the Eccles and Gootman (2002) National Academy of Sciences report, as well as by other reviews of the literature of youth development (e.g., Blum, 2003 Lerner,...

L Oriana Linares Nicole A Morin

Exposure to community violence was first identified in the early 1990s as a problem of epidemic proportion in the United States affecting the lives of a substantial number of children and youth (USDHHS PHS, 1992). Although serious violent crime against youth has decreased in major U.S. cities during the past decade (Brener, Simon, Krug, & Lowry, 1999), a substantial number of families with limited resources continue to live in inner city neighborhoods characterized by high levels of...

Promotion of Mistrust

We use this term to refer to parental practices that discourage children from interacting with people of other racial-ethnic groups or that foster a sense of distrust across racial-ethnic boundaries. In our view, it is distinct from preparation for bias in that it does not incorporate messages regarding strategies for coping with and overcoming prejudice and discrimination (e.g., you have to be better you have to do more). Mistrust may be communicated in parents' warnings to children about...

Important Issues to Consider When Measuring Puberty

The appropriate measure(s) of puberty to use in a study must be purpose-dependent (Hayward, 2003). Indicators of puberty are correlated, but not equivalent, as each indicator captures a different aspect of the pubertal process (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 Graber et al., 1996). Each indicator involves limitation in how it is measured. For example, validity of Tanner self-ratings may vary by degree of body image disturbance (Hick & Katzman, 1999 Litt, 1999) and cross-sectional measurements...

The Scale Model Task

Our task (DeLoache, 1987) for studying symbolic development is quite simple We ask young children to use a scale model to find a hidden toy. Usually, the model and the room look very much alike except for size the walls are the same colors, and the furniture in the model and the room are upholstered with the same fabric. Moreover, there is a high degree of spatial similarity as well. All of the objects in the model are usually placed in the same relative spatial positions as in the room. We...

Gender Development Two Cultures Theory

Whereas peer relations researchers have been inconsistent at best in examining the role of gender, gender development scholars have proposed an elegant theoretical framework that could fruitfully guide research in this area, called Two Cultures or Two Worlds Theory (see Maccoby, 1998 for a comprehensive presentation of the theory, and Underwood, 2003, for a discussion of how this framework could inform research on children's peer relations). The most fundamental claim of Two Cultures Theory is...

Concluding Remarks

There continues to be only a small body of developmental research on the friendships of racial and ethnic minorities (Fitzgerald et al., 1995 Garcia Coll et al., 2000, 1996 Graham, 1992, 1994). This is especially troubling given the centrality of peer relationships during adolescence. Moreover, few studies have examined the ways in which contexts or settings shape adolescent friendships (and vice versa) or the ways in which friendships are experienced within diverse contexts. Thus, longitudinal...

Carollee Howes Linda

A careful observer and listener can find young children exploring peer relations in all sorts of public spaces from playgrounds to grocery stores. Children barely able to toddle play peek-a-boo, run-and-chase, or simple pretend games like I am pulling you in my wagon. We are going to the store. By 3 or 4 years of age, play becomes sophisticated with elaborate scripts and costumes. Children can say and act out. We are going camping, and pretend that there is a bear, and you are the baby in your...

Peer Social Influence

Although parents are without a doubt extremely powerful socialization agents, we believe that our understanding of peer relations in middle childhood can also be augmented by understanding more about peer social influence. Developmental researchers have long been aware of the importance of peer relationships for the socialization of children (e.g., Hartup, 1983 Kupersmidt & Dodge, 2004), and ample evidence exists that children who are successful in their peer relationships have better...

David H Uttal Linda L Liu Judy S DeLoache

The ability to understand and use symbols is one of the defining characteristics of being human. Symbols allow us to think about information that is not available to direct sensory experience. Symbol systems such as language also allow us to communicate with others and thus provide the foundation for learning. Similarly, numbers allow us to think about and mentally manipulate abstract representations rather than having to rely on the actual physical quantities. It is not surprising that the...

Emotional Self Regulation in Infancy and Toddlerhood

McMenamy Carolyn O. Kurowski How do young children calm themselves when they are upset What factors contribute to children's abilities to modulate distress and to rev up when it is playtime What are the consequences for adaptive behavior of being facile at managing distress These questions fall under the broad rubric of emotion regulation, and, more particularly, the development of emotional self-regulation. This topic cuts across traditionally separate areas in...

The Nature Etiology and Consequences of Individual Differences in Temperament

Over the past 10 years the increasing importance of temperament as both a critical developmental outcome and as a moderator and predictor of other developmental outcomes is mirrored by the increasing number of books and major review chapters devoted to this domain (e.g., Guerin, Gottfried, Oliver, & Thomas, 2003 Halverson, Kohnstamm & Martin, 1994 Molfese & Molfese, 2000 Rothbart & Bates, 1998 Wachs & Kohnstamm, 2002). Given this wealth of information, a very obvious question is...

Emotion Regulation and Later Adaptation

In this section, we explore some implications of our model of emotional self-regulation for later adaptation. Included are possible links between early emotion regulation processes and later social competence, coping, and psychopathology. The attainment of a reasonable level of emotional self-regulation can be considered a major developmental task of toddlerhood and early childhood (Kopp, 1989). Consistent with the developmental psychopathology perspective, effective negotiation of this issue...

Cindy Faith Miller Hanns Martin Trautner Diane N Ruble

Gender serves as one of the most significant identifying labels throughout the life span. While originally a child's sex is based primarily on chromosomal and genital distinctions, this category will follow the child from the birthing room, operating as a life-long functional tag that will influence virtually every aspect of her or his experience. Our society uses sex categories to divide names, public restrooms, pronoun usage, school lines, toys, room decor, clothing and appearance options,...

Tuned In or Tuned

Parents' and Children's Interpretation of Parental Racial Ethnic Socialization Practices Diane Hughes Meredith A.Bachman Diane N. Ruble Andrew Fuligni Over the past decade, developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how children come to understand their own and other individuals' social group memberships and the consequences of such understandings for childhood and later life outcomes (Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001 Downe, 2001 Kiesner, Cadinu, Poulin, & Bucci, 2001...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering...

Conclusion Of Youth Risk Behavior

It is clear from the literature summarized here that characteristics of the neighborhoods in which children live and the schools they attend can impact children's mental health and their likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors. Disadvantaged neighborhoods and schools leave children without adequate opportunities for positive engagement with adults and thus disposed to disruptive behavior and susceptible to negative peer influence. Violence in neighborhoods and schools can exact clear tolls on...

Social Cognitive Perspective

Social-cognitive analyses of the pretend play-theory of mind relationship offer a broad conceptual framework that attempts to integrate relevant childhood experiences (e.g., role play) with the cognitive requirements (e.g., symbolic function) necessary for pretense and mental state knowledge. By definition a social-cognitive analysis is an inclusive approach that draws on the work of a variety of different researchers and theorists. To date, Lillard (2001a) has offered the most detailed social-...

Niobe Way Bronwyn E Becker Melissa L Greene

Theory and research have repeatedly underscored the importance of friendships in satisfying adolescents' desire for intimacy enhancing their interpersonal skills, sensitivity, and understanding and contributing to their cognitive and social development and psychological adjustment Crockett, Losoff, amp Petersen, 1984 Csikszentmihalyi amp Larson, 1984 Hartup, 1996 Savin-Williams amp Berndt, 1990 . During adolescence, the significance of friendships becomes even more paramount as adolescents...

Methods of the 4H Study

In the first wave of the 4-H Study, we secured cooperation from sites in 40 cities or towns located in 13 states that, together, provided regional, rural-urban, racial ethnic, and religious variation. In turn, in order to identify the association between community-based YD programs and PYD, we sought also to develop a sample that would reflect variation of youth participation in such organizations and in other types of school- and community-based youth activities i.e., in programs that did not...

Young Peoples Conceptions of Adulthood

When does a person become an adult in American society How does the conception of the transition to adulthood held by today's young Americans compare to the conceptions held by people in traditional cultures and in previous centuries of American and Western society Anthropologists have found that in most cultures, and particularly in the more traditional, non-Western cultures of the world, marriage is often designated explicitly as the event that marks the transition from boy to man and from...

Marika N Ripke Aletha C Huston

The United States faces a social problem of major proportions child poverty. In 2002 approximately 12 million, or one in six children in the United States, lived in poverty Bureau of the Census, 2003 U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2002 . Compared to other industrialized nations, the United States has both a high percentage of children in poverty and a large disparity between incomes of the rich and poor. The poorest U.S. children are very poor indeed, and the richest are very...