In the United States the provisions of Title V of the Social Security Act (SSA) have their origins in the First Maternity and Infant Act (or Sheppard-Towner Act) of 1921, a grant-in-aid program that provided federal funds to states for the establishment of maternal and infant welfare and hygiene agencies. Passed in 1935, Title V extended new funding to states to provide maternal and child health services, specifically for early detection, treatment and rehabilitation for ''conditions which lead to crippling,'' child welfare services, and vocational rehabilitation. Among the more important changes that have occurred to Title V since it was passed are the establishment of special projects in 1963, the consolidation of categorical MCH services into the Maternal and Child Health Block Grant in 1981, and the move toward greater accountability in 1989. By the end of the twentieth century, Title V, a $870-million program, remained the statutory basis of maternal and child health services in state and local health departments across the United States.
See also: POVERTY
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