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Parallel play, 291, 310-311

See also Play; Social development Parasomnias, 371

Parent-child relationships, 291-294, 293, 297

adolescence, 10, 135-136 adolescent employment, 139 emotional development, 133-134 sibling relationships, 364-365 social development, 380 See also Fathers; Mothers and motherhood Parent management training (PMT) of ADHD, 262

Parental consent for abortion, 2 Parental leave, 294-295 Parenting, 295-300, 298

cognitive development, effect on children', 91 fathers' roles, 148-152 friendship, effects on, 157 Ginott and, 167-168 inductive reasoning, 205 infants' social development, 377 laissez-faire style, 227 poverty, 315

resiliency of children, 347 sibling relationships, 363-365 single-parent families, 367, 368 stepfamilies, 387 temperamental children, 409 twin studies, 420-421 working mothers, 438-439 Parenting styles, 296-297 Pavlov, Ivan, 235-236 Peers, 10

adolescence, 9-10 aggressive interaction, 20-21 conformity, 98 grief support, 115 social development, 377-378 See also Friendship Perception of others, 375 Personal Responsibility and Work

Opportunity Act, 433-434 Personality characteristics and temperament, 154, 408 Personality development, 300-305, 301, 304

Perspective and cognitive development theory, 88, 89-90 Pets, 305

Phenotype, 305-306 Phenylketonuria (PKU), 306

See also Birth defects Physical condition of mother and prenatal development, 332 Physical development, 306

failure to thrive, 145-146 infants, 206 milestones, 273, 273 Physical education programs, 142 Physical fitness, 141 Physical growth, 306-308, 308 Physical therapy, 131 Physicians abortion training and services, 3 AIDS/HIV testing, 4 Piaget, Jean, 308-309, 309

cognitive development theory, 88,

88-90, 208, 383, 415-416 egocentrism, 132 object permanence, 288-289 Three Mountain Task, 417-418 Picture walks (reading), 343 Placenta, 309, 328 Planned Parenthood, 3 Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992), 2 Play, 309-312, 311

social development, 377-378 toys, 418-419 Pneumococcal-conjugate vaccine, 203 Polio vaccine, 202-203 Political reasoning, 376 Positive reinforcement (operant conditioning), 237, 345 Postpartum depression, 312-315, 313 Poverty, 315-317, 316

African Americans, 14-15 delinquency, 117-118 single-parent families, 367 social class, 373 working mothers, 438-439 Pre-speech vocalizations, 45-46 Preconceptual care, 327 Pregnancy, 317-322, 320 fathers, support of, 150 malnutrition, 246 maternal health, 248 prematurity, 322-324 teenagers, 402-405, 403 Pregnancy tests, 318 Premature infants, 187-188, 188,

322-324, 323, 348 Prenatal care, 249, 323, 323, 324-328, 326

Prenatal development, 328-333, 329 gender-role development, 162 malnutrition, 246 mental retardation, 266 milestones, 320-321 teratogens, 331 Preschool, 333-336, 335 Preschoolers deafness, 178

emotional development, 134 friendships, 157

gender-role development, 162-163 nutrition, 284-285

parent-child relationships, 292 psychoanalytic theory, 414 reading, 342-343 sleeping patterns, 370-371 social-cognitive development, 375 Pretend play, 311 See also Play Preterm birth, 61-62 Prevention programs child maltreatment, 80 substance abuse, 392-393 violence, 428 Primate research, 173 Proprioception, 356 Prosocial behavior, 336-337

observational learning, 239 social development, 378 Proximal-distal principle (motor development), 279-280 Psychoanalytic theory

Erikson and, 140, 415 Freud and, 155-156, 414-415 Psychological characteristics domestic violence abusers and victims, 125-126 stress coping methods, 390 Psychological Corporation, 74 Psychosocial development Erikson and, 140 failure to thrive, 146 stages, 383-385, 384 Psychosocial function asthmatic children, 32 birth defects, children with, 57 Psychotherapy and postpartum depression treatment, 313 Puberty, 8-9, 337 Public opinion and support early intervention programs, 132 fathers and fatherhood, 151 teenage pregnancy, 404 Punishment (operant conditioning), 237

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