I

Identical twins. See Twin studies Identity development, 197-199, 198 Erikson and, 140 gender-role development, 164 generation gap, 165 psychosocial development, 384—385 Illicit drug use, 392

See also Substance abuse Imaginary audience, 199-200 Imaginary playmates, 200-201 Imitation, 238-239 Immigration

Asian Americans, 28-30 Hispanic Americans, 189 Immunization, 201-204, 202, 203 rubella, 350 schedules, 202 statistics, 203 Implicit memory, 257 See also Memory In vitro fertilization, 204-205

See also Reproductive technologies Inclusion of special needs children, 336

See also Mainstreaming Income adolescent employment, 138-139 day care spending, 111 effects on children, 315-317 See also Poverty Individuals with Disabilities Education

Act (IDEA), 130, 205, 245, 267 Induced abortion. See Abortion Inductive reasoning, 205 Infancy, 206-210, 207, 323 anger, 24

cognitive development, 89 crying, 104 deafness, 178, 180 emotional development, 133-134 gender-role development, 162 Healthy Start, 176-177 intelligence testing, 217 language development, 228,

229-230, 342 maltreatment of, 78-79 mortality, 210 motherese, 278-279 motor development, 279 nutrition, 284

parent-child relationships, 292 psychoanalytic theory, 414 reading, 342 resiliency, 346-347

sensorimotor period of development, 383, 415 sleeping patterns, 370 social development, 377 touch stimulation, 355 working mothers, 439-440 See also High risk infants; Premature infants Infant-caregiver attachment. See

Attachment Infant-directed talk. See Motherese Influence of peer groups, 157-158 Information-processing theories, 90-91 Inhalers (asthma), 31 Injuries, 210-217

death rates, 212, 214, 215 exercise, 143 prevention, 216 Instrumental conditioning, 237, 413 Intelligence, 153-154, 217-219

See also Gifted children Intelligence testing, 217-218 Binet and, 51 Cattell and, 73 mental age, 260 mental retardation, 265-266 racial and ethnic differences,

340-341 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), 431-432 Internalizing disorders, 263-264 Internet, 219

Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for postpartum depression, 313 Interval schedules (conditioning), 238 Intimacy and dating, 109 Intra-achievement discrepancy (learning disabilities), 241 Intracognitive discrepancy (learning disabilities), 241 Iron intake during pregnancy, 319 Irritant tears, 103

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