In conclusion, day care is an important issue in the United States given the increasing numbers of working mothers. Given the low prevalence of high quality care and the potential effects of low quality care, an important task for workers in early childhood is to increase the availability of high quality care. In addition, parents who choose to use day care must carefully search for and select high quality care for their children.


Helburn, Suzanne, Mary L. Culkin, John Morris, et al. Cost, Quality, and Child Outcomes in Child Care Centers Public Report. Denver: University of Colorado, 1995. Kontos, Susan, Carollee Howes, Marybeth Shinn, and Ellen Galin-sky. Quality in Family Child Care and Relative Care. New York: Teachers College Press, 1995. Kotch, Jonathan B., and Donna Bryant. ''Effects of Day Care on the Health and Development of Children.'' Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2 (1990):883-894. McCartney, Kathleen, and Deborah Phillips. ''Motherhood and Child Care.'' In Beverly Birns and Dale F. Hay eds., The Different Faces of Motherhood. New York: Plenum, 1988. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Network. ''Infant Child Care and Attachment Security: Results of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care.'' Child Development 68 (1997):860-879. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Network. ''The Relation of Child Care to Cognitive and Language Development.'' Child Development 71 (2000):960-980.

Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen, Margaret R. Burchinal, Richard M. Clifford, et al. The Children of the Cost, Quality, and Outcomes Study Go to School Technical Report. Chapel Hill, NC: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, 2000. Pungello, Elizabeth P., and Beth Kurtz-Costes. ''Why and How Working Women Choose Child Care: A Review with a Focus on Infancy.'' Developmental Review 19 (1999):31-96.

Smith, Kristin. Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Fall 1995. Current Population Reports, P70-70. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000.

U.S. Census Bureau. Record Share of New Mothers in Labor Force, Census Bureau Reports. Press Release, October 24, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau, 2000.

Elizabeth P. Pungello Daniel J. Bauer

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