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DNA immunization holds great promise for providing safe and inexpensive vaccines for many infectious pathogens and cancer. The direct injection of foreign genes by genetic immunization has resulted in specific immune responses that exhibit characteristics of protective immunity against a number of infectious agents in a variety of animal models. For example, genetic vaccination cassettes targeting each of HIV-1's 3 major genes (env, gag, and pol), regulatory genes, and accessory genes have been developed and studied in small animals, primates, and humans. DNA vaccine constructs for cancer-targeting tumor-specific antigens have also been studied in a variety of animal models. Developing successful vaccines for HIV-1 or cancer will likely involve targeting multiple anti-genic components to direct and empower the immune system. Such a collection of immunization cassettes should be capable of stimulating broad immunity against both humoral and cellular epitopes, thus giving a vaccine the maximum ability to deal with viral immune escape or tumor growth. DNA vaccines can be combined with other vaccines, including recombinant protein, poxvirus, adenovirus, and others, to further enhance initial immune responses. In addition, the potential of the molecular adjuvant coadministration to dramatically enhance and regulate the antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses induced by DNA immunogens represents important

Figure 9 A summary of each cytokine coadministration effect on antibody (y axis), T helper (x axis), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses (z axis). Each cytokine is plotted on the 3-dimensional axis, according to its effects on the 3 modes of immune response. A summary of each molecular adjuvant coadministration effect on antibody (y axis), T helper (x axis), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses (z axis) is shown. Each adjuvant is plotted on the 3-dimensional axis, according to its effects on the 3 modes of immune response.

Figure 9 A summary of each cytokine coadministration effect on antibody (y axis), T helper (x axis), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses (z axis). Each cytokine is plotted on the 3-dimensional axis, according to its effects on the 3 modes of immune response. A summary of each molecular adjuvant coadministration effect on antibody (y axis), T helper (x axis), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses (z axis) is shown. Each adjuvant is plotted on the 3-dimensional axis, according to its effects on the 3 modes of immune response.

new avenues for vaccine and immune therapeutic exploration. Although further studies are warranted, these studies collectively support that optimized combinations of DNA expression cassettes coding for env, gag/pol, accessory proteins, cos-timulatory molecules, cytokines, chemokines, or other vaccine modulators may provide the basis for an effective vaccination strategy against infectious diseases and cancer.

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