References

1. Bloomfield VA, Crothers DM, Tinoco I. Nucleic Acids: Structures, Properties and Functions: Mill Valley: University Science Books, 1998.

2. Vologotskii AV. Topology and Physics of Circular DNA (Physical Approaches to DNA): Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1992.

3. Strey HH, Podgornik R, Rau DC, Parsegian VA. Colloidal DNA. Curr Op Coll Interf Sci 1998; 3:534-539.

4. Podgornik R, Strey HH, Parsegian VA. DNA-DNA interactions. Curr Opin Struct Biol 1998; 8:309-313.

5. Kabanov VA, Flegner P, Seymour LW. Self-assembling complexes for gene delivery: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

6. Lasic DD. Liposomes in Gene Delivery: >Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1997.

7. PodgornikR, Rau DC, Parsegian VA. Parametrization of direct and soft steric-undulatory forces between DNA double helical polyelectrolytes in solutions of several different anions and cations. Biophys. J 1994; 66:962-971.

8. Livolant F, Leforestier A. DNA mesophases. A structural analysis in polarizing and electron microscopy. Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 1992; 215:47-56.

9. Derjaguin BV, Churaev NV, Muller VM. Surface Forces. New York: Plenum, 1987.

10. Bloomfield VA. DNA condensation. Curr Opin Struc Biol 1996; 6:334-341.

11. Leikin S, Parsegian VA, Rau DC, Rand RP. Hydration forces. Annu Rev Phys Chem 1993; 44:369-395.

12. Darnell J, Lodish H, Baltimore D. Molecular Cell Biology. New York: Scientific American Books, 1990.

13. Cerritelli ME, Cheng N, Rosenberg AH, McPherson CE, Booy FP, Steven AC. Encapsidated conformation of bacteriophage T7 DNA. Cell 1997; 91:271-280.

14. Safinya CR, Koltover I, Radler J. DNA at membrane surfaces: An experimental overview. Curr Opin Colloid Interf Sci 1998; 1:69-77.

15. Mahanty J, Ninham BW. Dispersion Forces. London: Academic Press, 1976.

16. Safran SA. Statistical Thermodynamics of Surfaces, Interfaces and Membranes. New York: Addison Wesley, 1994.

17. Eisenberg D, Kauzmann W. The Structure and Properties of Water. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.

18. Parsegian VA, Rand RP, Fuller NL, Rau DC. Osmotic stress for the direct measurement of intermolecular forces. Methods Enzymol 1986; 127:400-416.

19. Marcelja S, Radic N. Repulsion of interfaces due to boundary water. Chem Phys Lett 1976; 42:129-130.

20. Rand RP, Parsegian VA. Hydration forces between phospho-lipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989; 988:351-376.

21. Kornyshev AA, Leikin S. Fluctuation theory of hydration forces: The dramatic effects of inhomogeneous boundary conditions. Phys. Rev. A 1998; 40:6431-6437.

22. Rau DC, Parsegian VA. Direct measurement of the intermolecular forces between counterion-condensed DNA double helices: Evidence for long range attractive hydration forces. Bio-phys J 1992; 246-259.

23. Parsegian VA. Long-range physical forces in the biological milieu. Ann Rev Biophys Bioeng 1973; 2:221-255.

24. Bernal JD, Fankuchen I. X-ray and crystallographic studies of plant virus preparations. J. Gen Physiol 1942; 25:111-165.

25. Verwey EJW, Overbeek JTG. Theory of the Stability of Lyo-phobic Colloids. New York: Elsevier, 1948.

26. Hill TL. Statistical Mechanics. Principles and Selected Applications. New York: Dover, 1956.

27. Andelman D. Electrostatic properties of membranes: The Pois-son-Boltzmann theory. In: Lipowsky R, Sackmann E, Eds. Structure and Dynamics of Membranes. Vol. 1B. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1995:603-642.

28. Landau LD, Lifshitz EM. The Classical Theory of Fields. 4th ed.: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1986.

29. McLaughlin S. Electrostatic potential at membrane solution interfaces. Curr Top Membr Transp 1985; 4:71-144.

30. Brenner SL, McQuarrie DA. Force balances in systems of cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Biophys J 1973; 13:301-331.

31. Parsegian VA, Rand RP, Fuller NL. Direct osmotic stress measurements of hydration and electrostatic double-layer forces between bilayers of double-chained ammonium acetate surfactants. J Phys Chem 1991; 95:4777-4782.

32. Kjellander R. Ion-ion correlations and effective charges in electrolyte and macroion systems. Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem 1996; 100:894-904.

33. Hunter RJ. Foundations of Colloid Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

34. Parsegian VA. Long range van der Waals forces. In: van Ol-phen H, Mysels KL, Eds. Physical Chemistry: Enriching Topics from Colloid and Interface Science, 1975:27-72.

35. Landau LD, Lifshitz EM. Statistical Physics Part 2: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1986.

36. Parsegian VA, Rand RP. Interaction in membrane assemblies. In: Lipowsky R, Sackmann E, Eds. Structure and Dynamics of Membranes. Vol. 1B. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1995:643-690.

37. Parsegian VA. Non-retarded van der Waals between aniso-tropic long thin rods at all angles. J Chem Phys 1972; 56: 4393-4397.

38. Brenner SL, Parsegian VA. A physical method for deriving the electrostatic interaction between rod-like polyions at all mutual angles. Biophys J 1974; 14:327-334.

39. Parsegian VA, Fuller N, Rand RP. Measured work of deformation and repulsion of lecithin bilayers. Proc Natl Acad Sci. USA 1979; 76:2750-2754.

40. Lipowsky R. Generic interactions of flexible membranes. In: Lipowsky R, Sackmann E, Eds. Structure and Dynamics of Membranes. Vol. 1B. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1995:521-596.

41. Helfrich W. Steric interactions of fluid membranes in multilayer systems. Z Naturforsch 1978; 33a:305-315.

42. Strey HH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R. Equation of state for polymer liquid crystals: Theory and experiment. Phys Rev E 1998; 59:999-1008.

43. Seifert U, Lipowsky R. Morphology of vesicles. In: Lipowsky R, Sackmann E, Eds. Structure and Dynamics of Membranes. Vol. 1A. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 403.

44. Podgornik R, Parsegian VA. Thermal—Mechanical fluctuations of fluid membranes in confined geometries: The case of soft confinement. Langmuir 1992; 8:557-562.

45. Podgornik R, Parsegian VA. Charge-fluctuation forces between rodlike polyelectrolytes: Pairwise summability reexam-ined. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 80:1560-1563.

46. Ha BJ, Liu AJ. Counterion-mediated attraction between two like charged rods. Phys Rev Lett 1997; 79:1289-1292.

47. Saenger W. Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure, Springer Verlag. 1984.

48. Rhodes D, Klug A. Helical periodicity of DNA determined by enzyme digestion. Nature 1980; 286:573-578.

49. Rill RL. Liquid crystalline phases in concentrated DNA solutions. In: Pifa-Mrzljak G, Ed. Supramolecular Structure and Function. New York: Springer, 1988:166-167.

50. De Gennes PG, Prost J. The Physics of Liquid Crystals. 2nd ed.. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

51. Hagerman PJ. Flexibility of DNA. Ann Rev Biophys Biophys Chem 1988; 17:265-286.

52. Pruss GJ, Drlica K. DNA supercoiling and prokaryotic transcription. Cell 1989; 56:521-523.

53. Grosberg AY, Khokhlov AR. Statistical Physics of Macromol-ecules (AIP Series in Polymers and Complex Materials): American Institute of Physics, 1994.

54. Rau DC, Lee BK, Parsegian VA. Measurement of the repulsive force between polyelectrolyte molecules in ionic solution: Hydration forces between parallel DNA double helices. PNAS 1984; 81:2621-2625.

55. Strey HH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R. Equation of state for DNA liquid crystals: Fluctuation enchanced electrostatic double layer repulsion. Phys Rev Lett 1997; 78:895-898.

Reich Z, Wachtel EJ, Minsky A. In vivo quantitative characterization of intermolecular interaction. J Biol. Chem 1995; 270: 7045-7046.

Barrat JL, Joanny JF. Theory of polyelectrolyte solutions. In: Prigogine I, Rice SA, Eds. Advances in Chemical Physics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995:1-66. Lyubartsev AP, Nordenskiold L. Monte Carlo simulation study of ion distribution and osmotic pressure in hexagonally oriented DNA. J Phys Chem 1995; 99:10373-10382. Oosawa F. Polyelectrolytes. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1971. Rouzina I, Bloomfield VA. Macro-ion Attraction due to Electrostatic Correlation between Screening Counterions. J Phys Chem 1996; 100:9977-9989.

Podgornik R, Strey HH, Rau DC, Parsegian VA. Watching molecules crowd: DNA double helices under osmotic stress. Biophys Chem 1995; 26:111-121.

Lindsay SM, Lee SA, Powell JW, Weidlich T, Demarco C, Lewen GD, Tao NJ, Rupprecht A. The origin of the A to B transition in DNA fibers and films. Biopolymers 1988; 17: 1015-1043.

Podgornik R, Strey HH, Gawrisch K, Rau DC, Rupprecht A, Parsegian VA. Bond orientational order, molecular motion, and free energy of high-density DNA mesophases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93:4261-4266.

Strandberg D. Bond-Orientational Order in Condensed Matter Systems. New York: Springer, 1992.

Durand D, Doucet J, Livolant F. A study of the structure of highly concentrated phases of DNA by X-ray diffraction. J. Phys. II France 1992; 2:1769-1783.

Kamien RD. Liquids with chiral bond order. J. Phys. II France 1996; 6:461-475.

Chaikin PM, Lubensky TC. Principles of condensed matter physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Leforestier A, Livolant F. DNA liquid-crystalline blue phases—Electron-microscopy evidence and biological implications. Mol Cryst Liquid Cryst 1994; 17:651-658. Wang L, Bloomfield VA. Small-angle X-ray scattering of sem-idilute rodlike DNA solutions: Polyelectrolyte behavior. Mac-romolecules 1991; 24:5791-5795.

Podgornik R, Rau DC, Parsegian VA. The action of interheli-cal forces on the organization of DNA double helices: Fluctuation enhanced decay of electrostatic double layer and hydration forces. Macromolecules 1989; 22:1780-1786. Frank-Kamenetskii MD, Anshelevich VV, Lukashin AV. Polyelectrolyte model of DNA. Sov Phys Usp 1987; 4:317-330. Tanford C. The Hydrophobic Effect. Formation of Micelles and Biological Membranes. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980.

Cevc G, Marsh D. Phospholipid bilayers: Physical principles and models Cell Biology: A Series of Monographs. Vol. 5, 1987.

Parsegian VA, Evans EA. Long and short range intermolecular and intercolloidal forces. Curr Opin Coll Interf Sci 1996; 1: 53-60.

Duzgunes N, Willshut L, Hong K, Fraley R, Perry C, Friends DS, James TL, Papahadjopoulos D. Physicochemical characterization of large unilamelar phospholipid vesicles prepared by reverse-phase evaporation. Biophys. Biochim. Acta 1983; 732:289-299.

Seifert U. Configurations of fluid membranes and vesicles. Adv Phys 1997; 46:13-137.

Small DM. The Physical Chemistry of Lipids. From Alkanes to Phospholipids. New York: Plenum Press, 1986. Gruner SM, Parsegian VA, Rand RP. Directly measured deformation energy of phospholipid H2 hexagonal phases. Faraday Disc 1986; 81:213-221.

79. Daoud M, Williams CE. Soft Matter Physics. New York: Springer, 1999.

80. Lasic DD. Liposomes: From Physics to Applications. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1993.

81. Parsegian VA, Podgornik R. Surface-tension suppression of lamellar swelling on solid substrates. Colloids Surf. A Phys-icochem. Eng. Asp 1997; 129-130:345-364.

82. Roux D, Safinya CR. A synchrotron X-ray study of competing undulation and electrostatic interlayer interactions in fluid multimembrane lyotropic phases. J Phys—Paris 1988; 49: 307-318.

83. Leneveu DM, Rand RP, Gingell D, Parsegian VA. Apparent modification of forces between lecithin bilayers. Science 1976; 191:399-400.

84. Parsegian VA. Reconciliation of van der Waals force measurements between phosphatidylcholine bilayers in water and between bilayer coated mica surfaces. Langmuir 1993; 9: 3625-3628.

85. Gouliaev N, Nagle JF. Simulations of interacting membranes in soft confinement regime. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 81: 2610-2613.

86. Rand RP, Parsegian VA. Hydration forces between phospholipid bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1989; 988:351-376.

87. Petrache HI, Gouliaev N, Tristram-Nagle S, Zhang R, Suter RM, Nagle JF. Interbilayer interactions from high-resolution X-ray scattering. Phys Rev E 1998; 57:7014-7024.

88. Felgner PL, Barenholz Y, Behr JP. Nomenclature for synthetic gene delivery systems. Hum Gene Ther 1997; 8:511-512.

89. Safinya CR. Structure of lipid-DNA complexes: Supermolecu-lar assembly and gene delivery. Curr Op Struc Biol 2001; 11: 440-448.

90. Barenholz Y. Liposome application: Problems and prospects. Curr Opin Coll Inter Sci 2001; 6:66-77.

91. Radler JO. Structure and phase behavior of cationic-lipid DNA complexes. In: Holm C, Kekicheff P, Podgornik R, Eds. Electrostatic effects in soft matter and biophysics. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2001:441-458.

92. Ilies MA, Balaban AT. Recent developments in cationic lipid-mediated gene delivery and gene therapy. Expert Opin Ther Patents 2001; 11:1729-1751.

93. Ilies MA, William AS, Balaban AT. Cationic lipids in gene delivery: Principles, vector design and therapeutical applications. Curr Pharm Des 2002; 8:125-133.

94. Audouy S, Hoekstra D. Cationic-mediated transfectionin vitro and in vivo. Mol Membr Biol 2001; 18:129-143.

95. Felgner PL, Gadeck T, Holen M. Lipofectin: a highly efficient lipid-mediated DNA transfection procedure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84:7413-7417.

96. Felgner PL, Ringold GM. Cationic liposome-mediated transfection. Nature 1989; 337:387-388.

97. Tempelton NS. Developments in liposomal gene delivery systems. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2001; 1:1-4.

98. Fraley R, Subramani S, Berg P, Papahadjopoulos D. Introduction of liposome-encapsulated SV40 DNA into cells. J Biol Chem 1980; 255:10431-10435.

99. Lasic DD, Templeton NS. Liposomes in gene therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 1996; 20:221-266.

100. Lasic DD, Strey H, Stuart MCA, Podgornik R, Frederik PM. The structure of DNA-liposome complexes. J Am Chem Soc 1997; 119:832-833.

101. Radler JO, Koltover I, Salditt T. Structure of DNA-cationic liposome complexes: DNA intercalation in multilamellar membranes in distinct interhelical packing regimes. Science 1997; 275:810-814.

102. Koltover I, Salditt T, Radler JO. An inverted hexagonal phase of cationic liposome-DNA complexes related to DNA release and delivery. Science 1998; 281:78-81.

103. Salditt T, Koltover I, Rädler O. Self-assembled DNA-catio-nic-lipid complexes: Two-dimensional smectic ordering, correlations, and interactions. Phys Rev E 1998; 58:889-904.

104. Salditt T, Koltover I, Radler J, Safinya CR. Two dimensional smectic ordering of linear DNA chains in self-assembled DNA-cationic liposome mixtures. Phys Rev Lett 1997; 79: 2582-258.

105. Radler JO, Koltover I, Jamieson A, Salditt T, Safinya CR. Structure and interfacial aspects of self-assembled cationic lipid-DNA gene carrier complexes. Langmuir 1998; 14: 4272-4283.

106. Sackmann E. Physical basis of self-organization and function of membranes: Physics of vesicles. In: Lipowsky R, Sackmann E, Eds. Structure and Dynamics of Membranes. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1995:213-304.

107. Tarahovsky YS, Khusainova RS, Gorelov AV. DNA initiates polymorphic structural transitions lecithin. FEBS Lett 1996; 390:133-136.

108. Ghirlando R, Wachtel EJ, Arad T, Minsky A. DNA packaging induced by micellar aggregates: A novel in vitro DNA condensation system. Biochemistry 1992; 31:7110-7119.

109. Gershon H, Ghirlando R, Guttman SB, Minsky A. Mode of formation and structural features of DNA-cationic liposome complexes used for transfection. Biochemistry 1993; 32: 7143-7151.

110. May S, Ben-Shaul S. DNA-lipid complexes: Stability of honeycomb-like and spaghetti-like structures. Biophys J 1997; 73:2427-2440.

111. Dan N. The structure of DNA complexes with cationic liposomes—Cylindrical or lamellar. Biophys Biochim Acta 1998; 1369:34-38.

112. Sternberg B, Sorgi FL, Huang L. New structures in complex-formation between DNA and cationic liposomes visualized by freeze-fracture electron-microscopy. FEBS Lett 1994; 356: 361-366.

113. Sternberg B. New structures in complex formation between DNA and cationic liposomes visualized by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. FEBS Lett 1994; 356:361-366.

114. Simberg D, Danino D, Talmon Y, Minsky A, Ferrari ME, Wheeler CJ, Barenholz Y. Phase behaviour, DNA ordering, and size instability of cationic lipoplexes. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:47453-47459.

115. Pitard B, Aguerre O, Airiau M, Lachages AM. Virus-sized self-assembling lamellar complexes between plasmid DNA and cationic micelles promote gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997; 94:14412-14417.

116. Boukhnikashvili T, Aguerre-Chariol O, Airiau M, Lesieur S, Ollivon M, Vacus J. Structure of in-serum transfecting DNA-cationic lipid complexes. FEBS Lett 1997; 409: 188-194.

117. Templeton NS, Lasic DD, Frederik PM, Strey HH, Roberts DD, Pavlakis GN. Improved DNA: Liposome complexes for increased systemic delivery and gene expression. Nat Biotech 1997; 15:647-652.

118. Record TM, Anderson CF, Lohman TM. Thermodynamic analysis of ion effects on the binding and conformational equilibria of proteins and nucleic acids: The roles of ion association or release, screening, and ion effects on water activity. Q Rev Biophys 1978; 11:103-178.

119. Bruinsma R. Electrostatics of DNA-cationic lipid complexes: Isoelectric instability. Eur. Phys. J. B 1998; 4:75-88.

120. Wagner K, Harries D, May S. Counterion release upon cationic lipid-DNA complexation. Langmuir 2000; 16:303-306.

121. Barreleiro PCA, Olofsson G, Alexandridis P. Interaction of DNA with cationic vesicles: a calorimetric study. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000; 104:7795-7802.

122. Kennedy MT, Pozharski EV, Rakhmanova VA, MacDonald RC. Factors governing the assembly of cationic phospho-lipid-DNA complexes. Biophys J 2000; 78:1620-1633.

123. Huebner S, Battersby BJ, Grimm R, Cevc G. Lipid mediated complex formation: Reorganization and rupture of lipid vesicles in the presence of DNA as observed by cryoelectron microscopy. Biophys J 1999; 76:3158-3166.

124. Dan N. Multilamellar structures of DNA complexes with cationic liposomes. Biophys J 1997; 73:1842-1846.

125. Harries D, May S, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A. Structure, stability and thermodynamics of lamellar DNA-lipid complexes. Biophys J 1998; 75:159-173.

126. Parsegian VA, Gingell D. On the electrostatic interaction across a salt solution between two bodies bearing unequal charges. Biophys J 1972; 12:1192-1204.

127. Mitrakos P, Macdonald PM. DNA-induced lateral segregation of cationic amphiphiles in lipid bilayer membranes as detected via 2H NMR. Biochemistry 1996; 35:16714-16722.

128. Bandyopadhyay S, Tarek M, Klein ML. Molecular dynamics study of a lipid-DNA complex. J Phys Chem B 1999; 103: 1007-1008.

129. Garidel P, Johann C, Blume A. Thermodynamics of lipid organization and domain formation in phospholipid bilayers. J Liposome Res 2000; 10:131-158.

130. Koltover I, Wagner K, Safinya CR. DNA condensation in two dimensions. PNAS 2000; 97:14046-14051.

131. Dubois M, Zemb Th, Fuller N, Rand RP, Parsegian VA. Equation of state of a charged bilayer system: Measure of the entropy of the lamellar-lamellar transition in DDABr. J Chem Phys 1998; 18:7855-7869.

132. Bostrom M, Williams DRM, Ninham B. Specific ion effects: Why DLVO theory fails. Phys Rev Lett 2001; 87: 168103-1-4.

133. Fang Y, Yang J. Two-dimensional condensation of DNA molecules on cationic lipid membranes. J Phys Chem B 1997; 101:441-449.

134. Mou J, Czajkowsky DM, Zhang Y, Shao Z. High-resolution atomic force microscopy of DNA: The pitch of the double helix. FEBS Lett 1995; 371:279-282.

135. May S, Harries D, Ben-Shaul A. Lipid demixing and protein-protein interactions in the adsorption of charged proteins on mixed membranes. Biophys J 2000; 79:1747-1760.

136. Dan N. Formation of ordered domains in membrane-bound DNA. Biophys J 1996; 71:1267-127.

137. Fang Y, Yang J. Effect of cationic strength and species on 2-D condensation of DNA. J Phys Chem B 1997; 101:3453-3456.

138. Safinya CR, Sirota EB, Roux D, Smith GS. Universality in interacting membranes: The effect of cosurfactants on the interfacial rigidity. Phys Rev Lett 1989; 62:1134-1137.

139. Szleifer I, Kramer D, Ben-Shaul A, Roux D, Gelbart MW. Curvature elasticity of pure and mixed surfactant films. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 60:1966-1969.

140. Gawrisch K, Parsegian VA, Hajduk DA, Tate MW, Gruner SM, Fuller NL, Rand RP. Energetics of a hexagonal-lamellar-hexagonal-phase transition sequence in dioleoylphosphatidy-lethanolamine membranes. Biochemistry 1992; 31: 2856-2864.

141. KozlovMM, Leikin S, Rand RP. Bending, hydration and intersticial energies quantitatively account for the hexagonal-lamellar-hexagonal reentrant phase transition in dioleoylphosphati-dylethanolamine. Biophys J 1994; 67:1603-1611.

142. Chen Z, Rand RP. Comparative study of the effects of several n-alkanes on phospholipid hexagonal phases. Biophys J 1998; 74:944-952.

143. May S, Harries D, Ben-Shaul A. The phase behavior of ca-tionic lipid-DNA complexes. Biophys. J 2000; 78: 1681-1697.

144. Schiessel H, Aranda-Espinoza H. Electrostatically induced undulations of lamellar DNA-lipid complexes. Eur Phys J E 2001; 5:499-506.

145. Harries D. Electrostatic interaction between macromolecules and mixed lipid membranes. Ph.D. dissertation/—/. Jerusalem. Israel: The Hebrew University, 2001.

146. Battersby BJ, Grimm R, Huebner S, Cevc G. Evidence for three-dimensional interlayer correlations in cationic lipid-DNA complexes as observed by cryo-electron microscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1372:379-383.

147. Artzner F, Zantl R, Rapp G, Radler JO. Observation of a rectangular columnar phase in condensed lamellar cationic lipid-DNA complexes. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 81:5015-5018.

148. O'Hern CS, Lubensky TC. Sliding columnar phase of DNA lipid complexes. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 80:4345-4348.

149. Golubovic L, Golubovic M. Fluctuations of quasi-two-dimensional smectics intercalated between membranes in multila-mellar phases of DNA cationic lipid complexes. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 80:4341-4344.

150. Podgornik R, Zeks B. Coupling between smectic and twist modes in polymer intercalated smectics. Phys Rev Lett 1998; 80:305-308.

151. Hui SW, Langner M, Zhao Y-L, Patrick R, Hurley E, Chan K. The role of helper lipids in cationic liposome-mediated gene transfer. Biophys J 1996; 71:590-59.

152. Zuidam NJ, Lerner DH, Margulies S, Barenholz Y. Lamel-larity of cationic liposomes and mode of preparation of li-poplexes affect transfection efficiency. Biophys Biochim Acta 1999; 1419:207-220.

153. Meidan VM, Cohen JS, Amariglio N, Hirsch-Lerner D, Barenholz Y. Interaction of oligonucleotides with cationic lipids: the relationship between electrostatics, hydration and state of aggregation. Biochem Biophys Acta 2000; 1464:251-261.

154. Artzner F, Zantl R, Radler Jo. Lipid-DNA and lipid-polyelec-trolyte mesophases: Structure and exchange kinetics. Cell Molec Biol 2000; 46:967-978.

155. Wiethoff CM, Smith JG, Koe GS, Middaugh CR. The potential role of proteoglycans in cationic lipid-mediated gene deliv ery—Studies of the interaction of cationic lipid-DNA complexes with model glycosaminoglycans. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:32806-32813.

156. Zabner J, Fasbender AJ, Moninger T, Poellinger KA, Welsh MJ. Cellular and molecular barriers to gene transfer by a ca-tionic lipid. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:18997-19007.

157. Lin AJ, Slack NL, Ahmad A, Koltover I, George CX, Samuel CE, Safinya CR. Structure and structure-function studies of lipid/plasmid DNA complexes. J. Drug. Targeting 2000; 8: 13-27.

158. Hirsch-Lerner D, Barenholz Y. Probing DNA-cationic lipid interactions with the fluorophore trimethylammonium di-phenyl-hexatrien (TMADPH). Biochim Biophys Acta 1998; 1370:17-30.

159. Tang F, Hughes JA. Use of dithiodilycolic acid as a tether for cationic lipids decreases the cytotoxicity and increases transgene expression of plasmid DNA in vitro. Bioconjug. Chem 1999; 10:791-796.

160. Byk G, Wetzer B, Frederic M. Reduction sensitive lipopolya-mines as a novel nonviral gene delivery system for modulated release of DNA with improved transgene expression. J Med Chem 2000; 43:4377-4387.

161. Balasubramaniam RP, Bennett MJ, Aberle AM, Malone JG, Nantz MH, Malone RW. Structural and functional analysis of cationic transfection lipids: The hydrophobic domain. Gene Ther 1996; 3:163-172.

162. Weltzer B, Byk G, Frederic M. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer. Biochem J 2001; 356:747-756.

163. Zanta MA, Belguise-Valladier P, Behr JP. Gene delivery: A single nuclear locallisation signal is sufficient to carry DNA to the cell nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96:91-96.

164. Cartier R, Reszka R. Utilization of synthetic peptides containing nuclear localization signal for nonviral gene transfer systems. Gene Ther 2002; 9:157-167.

165. Wheeler JJ, Palmer L, Ossanlou M. Stabilized plasmid-lipid particles: Construction and characterization. Gene Ther 1999; 6:271-281.

0 0

Post a comment