Ad Vaccine Carriers

The strong humoral and cellular immune response to the expressed transgene suggests that adenovirus vectors may be effective as vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer. It is possible that there is an inflammatory response to Ad capsids or to residual Ad gene expression that enhances the immune response over that obtained by expression from a plasmid vector. Alternatively, the ability of Ad to directly infect dendritic cells in vivo (78,149) and express the antigen gene may result in antigen presentation by the class I pathway. Examples of exploiting the cellular antitransgene response include eliciting a cellular immune response to tumor antigens as discussed earlier. This property may also be useful in elimination of virus-infected cells (150-152) or malaria (153). It is clear that antigens expressed by Ad also elicit a strong humoral immunity that can be used to block initial infection by viruses (154,155). In the context that most humans have been infected by wild-type adenoviruses and have preexisting antibodies (156), it is possible that use of Ad derived from other mammals may provide more effective vaccines (157,158).

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