References

1 Gustafsson, BI Kidd, M Chan, A Malfertheiner, MV Modlin, IM. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer, 2008, 113, 5-21. 2 Jemal, A Siegel, R Ward, E Hao, Y Xu, J Murray, T Thun, MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA a cancer journal for clinicians, 2008, 58, 71-96. 3 Sun, S Schiller, JH Gazdar, AF. Lung cancer in never smokers - a different disease. Nat Rev Cancer, 2007, 7, 778-90. 4 Hann, CL Rudin, CM. Fast, hungry and unstable finding the Achilles' heel of small-cell lung cancer. Trends in...

Patient positioning planning CT

For patient positioning, a commercial ORFIT thermoplastic mask system was used combined with a hand holder unit (Figure 6). The mask was prepared individually for each patient. Masking process was followed by the planning CT. CT examinations were performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation Cardiac 16 scanner, (Erlangen, Germany), using the routine planning CT technique. After the topogram the measurements were performed with the following parameters (standard for all patinets) - uniform...

Discussion

Achaete-scute homolog 1 (termed mASH1 in rodents, hASH1 in humans) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is important in early development of neural and neuroendocrine progenitor cells in many tissues 29 . The NeuroD gene is a bHLH gene and regulates neurogenesis, and it is reported that it maps to chromosome 2q32 30 . It is reported that hASH1 is expressed selectively in normal fetal pulmonary neuroendocrine cells 31 as well as in pulmonary LCNEC (56.7 ) and SCLC (71.8 )...

Improvements in Radiologic Techniques

At present, the most innovative area regarding radiological techniques is the ability to track cells and provide a non-invasive tumour imaging in-vivo. The supermagnetic nanoparticles are very promising because they can be easily detected by magnetic resonance (MRI). In this regard, several supermagnetic MRI contrast agents, based on ferric-oxide, perflourocarbon or quantum dots cores, have been developed and used in clinical diagnosis. Human cancer prostate xenografts have been tracked in mice...

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes are caused by factors produced by cancer cells that often act at a site distant from both the primary site and its metastases. Lung cancer, particularly SCLC, is the most common malignancy causing paraneoplastic syndromes. The common paraneoplastic syndromes associated with SCLC are Cachexia and Anorexia Presence of a tumor can be clinically suspected when patients report anorexia accompanied by marked weight loss. These symptoms may occur as a result of production of...

Metastatic Lesions of SCC

SCLC represents a group of highly malignant tumors giving rise to early and widespread metastasis at the time of diagnosis to sites such as lymph nodes, adrenal glands, liver, lung, brain, and bones 83 . The common sites for lymph node metastasis are cervical Figure 1 C and D and mediastinal Figure 2 A and B lymph nodes. Even if the external lymphadenopathy is not clinically evident, in a case of suspected lung cancer, the external lymph nodes should be assessed by imaging studies. In study of...