Oblimersen an antiBcl2 antisense ODN in clinical evaluation

A validated molecular target by itself is of no direct therapeutic use, without an effective and safe drug interfering with that target. In addition, the lack of specificity of a drug towards a single target can be misleading regarding the functional role of a protein within a cell. There were always some manifested concerns about the Bcl-2-unrelated effects elicited by G3139 ODN. In vitro, G3139 ODN cytotoxicity in PC3 prostate cancer cells is independent of Bcl-2 downregulation and correlates...

In vitro modulation of Bcl2

The idea that Bcl-2 directly regulates survival in SCLC probably came from previous reports either mentioning the development of chemoresistance upon overexpression of Bcl-2 238, 263 or of cytotoxic effects or chemosensitization upon Bcl-2 downregulation by 2009 ODN 264-266 , together with the strong evidence of its anti-apoptotic role in hematological diseases. However, the therapeutic value of BCL2 silencing in SCLC is still ambiguous. We have recently observed that downregulation of Bcl-2...

Case

A 69-year-old man presented with painless gross hematuria. The patient's medical history was significant for cigarette smoking and urinary tract infection. Ultrasound and CT revealed an irregular soft-tissue mass in the dome with irregular thickening of the bladder wall, and pelvic lymphadenopathy (Figure 3). Cystoscopy confirmed the above findings and TURBT revealed an invasive PSCC of the bladder. The bone scan showed multiple skeletal metastases. PSCC from other organs was excluded. The...

Role of chemotherapy

Since the 1980's SCLC has been well-known to be an exquisitely chemosensitive tumor. The current standard chemotherapy regimen for LS-SCLC is a combination of cisplatin-etoposide. Though concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the current standard of care for patients with LS-SCLC, no accepted consensus regarding what the most appropriate chemotherapy regimen for this patient group exists. Three separate published meta-analyses or systematic reviews have attempted to clarify this issue. Pujol's...

Clinical Features Due to Regional Spread of Tumor

Dyspnea, dysphagia, and hoarseness occur as a result of compression of trachea, esophagus and recurrent laryngeal nerve respectively by a centrally placed tumor or enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, or due to lymphatic obstruction. The longer intra thoracic course of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve makes it more susceptible to compression from left-sided tumors compared to right-side lesions. Dysphagia usually occurs with both solids and liquids, and may be complicated by recurrent aspiration...

Endobronchial Ultrasound Needle Aspiration Ebustbnabiopsy [18

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) utilizes the passage of ultrasound devices attached to a fibreoptic bronchoscope inside the airways and the lung for exploration of the structures of airway walls, the surrounding mediastinum, and the lungs. Histological diagnosis of small peripheral lesions can be achieved more efficiently by EBUS guidance than with blind needle aspiration, without the need for radiological equipment or risk of radiation exposure. EBUS-TBNA has 75 sensitivity and 83 accuracy for...

Trans Thoracic Needle Aspiration TTNA and Transthoracic Needle Biopsy TTNB

TTNA using fluoroscopy or CT guidance is the investigation of choice to sample peripherally placed pulmonary lesions. The overall sensitivity and specificity of TTNA for diagnosing peripheral lung cancers is 90 and 97 , respectively. The sensitivity for smaller (> 2 cm) and larger tumors (< 2 cm) is statistically similar (95 and 91 , respectively).16 Sensitivity is higher for CT scan guided than for fluoroscopy-guided procedures (92 versus 88 ). Adding automated cutting (core needle biopsy)...

Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma EPSCC

Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) has been recognized as a clinicopathological entity, distinct from the small cell carcinoma of the lung 32, 33 . Some of the histopathologically proved reports on extrapulmonary sites of involvement by SCC are skin 34-36 , sinonasal region 37, 38 , parotid 39, 40 , minor salivary glands of the tongue 41 , larynx 42 breast 43, 44 , thymus 45 , pleura 45 , esophagus 46-48 , stomach 49, 50 , extrahepatic bile duct 4 , gallbladder 51, 52 , ovary 53-55 ,...

References

1 Gustafsson, BI Kidd, M Chan, A Malfertheiner, MV Modlin, IM. Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer, 2008, 113, 5-21. 2 Jemal, A Siegel, R Ward, E Hao, Y Xu, J Murray, T Thun, MJ. Cancer statistics, 2008. CA a cancer journal for clinicians, 2008, 58, 71-96. 3 Sun, S Schiller, JH Gazdar, AF. Lung cancer in never smokers - a different disease. Nat Rev Cancer, 2007, 7, 778-90. 4 Hann, CL Rudin, CM. Fast, hungry and unstable finding the Achilles' heel of small-cell lung cancer. Trends in...

Patient positioning planning CT

For patient positioning, a commercial ORFIT thermoplastic mask system was used combined with a hand holder unit (Figure 6). The mask was prepared individually for each patient. Masking process was followed by the planning CT. CT examinations were performed on a Siemens Somatom Sensation Cardiac 16 scanner, (Erlangen, Germany), using the routine planning CT technique. After the topogram the measurements were performed with the following parameters (standard for all patinets) - uniform...

Discussion

Achaete-scute homolog 1 (termed mASH1 in rodents, hASH1 in humans) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is important in early development of neural and neuroendocrine progenitor cells in many tissues 29 . The NeuroD gene is a bHLH gene and regulates neurogenesis, and it is reported that it maps to chromosome 2q32 30 . It is reported that hASH1 is expressed selectively in normal fetal pulmonary neuroendocrine cells 31 as well as in pulmonary LCNEC (56.7 ) and SCLC (71.8 )...

Improvements in Radiologic Techniques

At present, the most innovative area regarding radiological techniques is the ability to track cells and provide a non-invasive tumour imaging in-vivo. The supermagnetic nanoparticles are very promising because they can be easily detected by magnetic resonance (MRI). In this regard, several supermagnetic MRI contrast agents, based on ferric-oxide, perflourocarbon or quantum dots cores, have been developed and used in clinical diagnosis. Human cancer prostate xenografts have been tracked in mice...

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Uncut Men Black

Paraneoplastic syndromes are caused by factors produced by cancer cells that often act at a site distant from both the primary site and its metastases. Lung cancer, particularly SCLC, is the most common malignancy causing paraneoplastic syndromes. The common paraneoplastic syndromes associated with SCLC are Cachexia and Anorexia Presence of a tumor can be clinically suspected when patients report anorexia accompanied by marked weight loss. These symptoms may occur as a result of production of...

Metastatic Lesions of SCC

SCLC represents a group of highly malignant tumors giving rise to early and widespread metastasis at the time of diagnosis to sites such as lymph nodes, adrenal glands, liver, lung, brain, and bones 83 . The common sites for lymph node metastasis are cervical Figure 1 C and D and mediastinal Figure 2 A and B lymph nodes. Even if the external lymphadenopathy is not clinically evident, in a case of suspected lung cancer, the external lymph nodes should be assessed by imaging studies. In study of...