Cat Spraying What You Can Do

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. More here...

Cat Spray No More Summary

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Cat Spray Stop

Susan Westinghouse is the creator of the cat spray stop program. She is an avid veterinarian and cat expert with lots of years of experience. She claims that the guide offers a broad outline and precise approaches targeted at preventing your cat from spraying, despite your cat's stubborn or persistent personality. According to her, it contains the exclusive TTS Taste, Touch, Smell method for pinning the issue, therefore the guide works to stop the cat from spraying and discourages him to ever repeat the bad behavior in the future. It is an e-book that comes with two bonuses attached to it. The first bonus is a nutritional program that will help your cat lose unnecessary weight, while the second bonus is an essential oil recipe for cats that will help to reduce their stress level. This program is suitable for any owner who lives with a cat that has bad litter box habits and often sprays. Susane Westinghouse's guide is characterized by ease of use and it contains a ton of helpful tips that make the process a lot easier both for you and your furry companion. The program is spread across six chapters that take you through a comprehensive tour in how you can solve this annoying problem now, while also learning how to keep it from coming back to haunt you later on in the future. More here...

Cat Spray Stop Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Susan Westinghouse
Price: $37.00

The voyager and the monk

Why are there so many different types of organisms in the world What makes a particular organism, such as a cat, produce more cats and not, say, dogs Why do some kittens in a litter look just like their mother while others don't Answers to questions such as these came from two brilliant and original thinkers of the 19th century Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel. These two men set off an explosion of ideas and debates that rumble on today, and are still felt in some of the controversy surrounding biotechnology. They also created two of modern biology's great cornerstones evolution and genetics.

Crosscontamination and adequate cooking

Touching farm animals has been identified as the source of STEC transferred either directly to humans or food cross-contaminated without washing hands (Belongia et al., 2003). Cats are the primary source of Toxoplasma gondii and may contaminate humans directly or through human consumption of infected food animals (Dubey, 1986).

Escherichia coli O157H7

Differences between strains of E. coli lie in the combination of different antigens they possess. There are three types of antigens the somatic lipopolysaccharide antigen (O), the flagellar antigens (H), and the capsular antigens (K). There are approximately 174 O antigens, 56 H antigens, and 103 antigens that have been identified. There are several stains of E. coli that have been isolated. The enteric E. coli are divided on the basis of virulence properties into enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC), verotoxigenic (VTEC), entero-hemorrhagic (EHEC), and enteroaggregative (EaggEC). ETEC can be found in humans, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and horses EPEC is found in humans, rabbits, dogs, cats, and horses EIEC and EAggEC are only found in humans VTEC is found in pigs, cattle, dogs, and cats while EHEC is found in humans, cattle, and goats and attack porcine strains that colonize the gut in a manner similar to human EPEC strains (Fratamico et al.,...

Within Task Learning versus Previously Acquired Knowledge

The latter view would have it that the format of the familiarization novelty-preference procedure better lends itself to an interpretation that can be understood in terms of category formation. Infants are presumed to construct the category representation as more and more exemplars from the familiar category are presented (Mareschal, French, & Quinn, 2000). Even by this reasoning, however, it is difficult to completely rule out the possibility that knowledge access does not facilitate the performance of the participating infants. Consider, for example, 3- to 4-month-olds presented with cats or horses and then tested with exemplars from contrasting animal categories such as birds, dogs, tigers, giraffes, and zebras. Given that young infants are not likely to have observed (at least directly) animals such This issue of whether the experiments are investigations into category formation or possession has been addressed in two ways. First, because a number of studies conducted by Quinn...

Categorization of Humans

To investigate whether young infants represent humans as a category that is differentiated from nonhuman animal species, Quinn and Eimas (1998) familiarized a group of 3- to 4-month-old infants with photographic exemplars of 12 humans, both men and women, depicted in a variety of standing, running, or walking poses, and in earth tone (i.e., nonpastel) clothing. Each infant was then tested with a novel human paired with a cat, and a different novel human paired with a horse. The expectation was that infants would in each case prefer the novel instance of the novel category (i.e., novel cat or horse) over the novel instance from the familiar human category. To the investigators' surprise, the infants did not prefer novel cats or horses to novel humans. It is possible that an a priori preference for humans could have interfered with novel category preferences for cats and horses, but a control experiment pairing humans with cats and humans with horses over a series of spontaneous...

Category Representations of Humans versus Nonhuman Animals Exemplars versus Prototypes

An additional experiment conducted by Quinn and Eimas (1998) provided further evidence that infants represent humans differently from nonhuman animal species. Because 3- to 4-month-olds have greater exposure to human than to nonhuman animals, even if the set of humans is limited to parents or immediate family members, it is an arguable consequence that infants represent the highly familiar human exemplars individually. Also plausible is the view that the less frequently encountered animals are represented by means of a summary prototype (Quinn, 1987). To investigate these possibilities, one group of 3- to 4-month-olds was familiarized with 12 humans, and another with 12 cats. Both groups were administered two preference tests. A novel cat was paired with a novel human in one (the test of categorization), and a novel member of the familiar category was paired with a familiar member of the familiar category in the other (a test of exemplar memory). The results revealed a significant...

Perceptual Cues for a Category Representation of Humans

Experiment followed from the investigation of whether infants formed category representations for nonhuman animal species based on information from the whole animal, head, or body (Quinn & Eimas, 1996a). Three- and 4-month-old infants were familiarized with 12 exemplars of humans or 12 exemplars of cats, and tested with a novel human versus a novel cat. Within the human and cat conditions, the infants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups Whole Animal, Head Only, and Body Only. In the Whole Animal Group, infants were familiarized and tested with entire, intact stimuli (head + body). In the Head Only group, only the heads of the stimuli were visible the body information had been occluded. In the Body Only group, only the bodies of the stimuli were visible the head information had been occluded. Examples of the stimuli are presented in Figure 5.8. The particular form of the asymmetry, a category representation for cats that excludes humans and a category...

Creating an environment in which Alexander could learn language

I left the building thinking that I had to find another, more effective way of reaching my son. I wasn't worried about his lack of co-operation during the pretend play game. Pretend play is an activity during which we copy real-life events that we like or in which we pretend to be people we like. I wondered whether Alexander could play a game of pretend drinking or pretend eating when in real life he never drank out of a cup or joined us for a meal. Alexander liked eating grated cheese and he pretended to eat it like a cat. He seemed to have fun pretending to be a cat and showed no interest in pretending to be daddy How could I encourage him to eat like us humans - not like cats

Is The Draw A Figure Test A Valid Measure Of Sexual Abuse

Dave has four more cats than Sue (a) Dave's cats Sue's cats - 4 (b) Dave's cats + 4 Sue's cats (c) Dave's cats - 4 Sue's cats (d) Dave's cats + 2 5 Sandy had six cats. Two were run over by a truck, but then one of the others had four kittens. How many cats did Sandy have in the end

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Abrus precatorius plants are seen growing wild throughout all tropical forests, and are propagated through seeds. Traditionally the seeds were used for decorative and gold-weighing purposes. The plant is used in traditional herbal formulations to treat many ailments, mainly scratches, sores, and wounds caused by dogs, cats, and mice. In addition, it is also used to treat leucoderma, tetanus, and rabies (Chopra et al., 1956). The dry seeds are powdered and taken one teaspoonful once a day for 2 days to cure worm infections. Various African and Indian tribes use the powdered seeds as oral contraceptives. They have also been used against chronic eye diseases, and particularly against trachoma (Acharya, 2004). As well as the seeds, the leaves and roots of the plants are also used for medicinal purposes.

Pathologypathophysiology

Most CSD begins with a scratch from the claw or tooth of a kitten younger than six months of age. It can also be inflicted by an adult cat, or from contact of the animal's saliva with broken skin or the eye. Previous investigations into the responsible organism identified a family of a-proteobacteria based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences (6). Currently it is believed that Bartonella henselae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative organism in CSD. In California, about 40 of cats carry Bartonella (9). Fleas are the vector transmitting the infection between cats, with bacteria subsequently found in the animal's saliva. In cats, the carrier state is generally asymptomatic (although experimental inoculations have produced a mild illness with fever, anemia, and transient neurological dysfunction) and an animal may carry the bacteria for months. The disease seems to rarely occur following a dog scratch or even from porcupine quills, cactus spines, or rosebush thorns. Most cases of...

BSE Epidemic and Relationship to Variant CJD

Although the most probable route of transmission of BSE to humans was through diet, other possibilities were considered, such as through medicines, including vaccines, that contained products prepared from cattle and through contact with cattle (butchers, farmers, abattoir workers). In addition, transmission through an intermediate species, such as cats, and transmission to cattle and humans from a third species, such as from scrapie in sheep, were also considered as possible methods of transmission. A UK case-control study was established in 1998 to examine these and other risk factors for vCJD (see above, Ward et al., 2006).

Returning to Guangdong

In hundreds of cramped stalls that stink of blood and guts, wholesale food vendors tend to veritable zoos that will grace Guangdong Province's tables snakes, chickens, cats, turtles, badgers, frogs. And, in summertime, sometimes rats, too. They are all stacked in cages one on top of another which in turn serve as seats, card tables for the poor migrants who work there.35 Scientists found it easy to imagine how a virus could move from such animals to people in the crowded and filthy conditions of the market stalls, where sick and dying animals were cramped together in filthy cages in close proximity to stall workers. To test that theory, researchers collected specimens from eight different wild animals sold at the market and found varied strains of the coronavirus in all eight animals, including civet cats and rats being butchered in the stalls.

General Health Benefits

Partial replacement of fishmeal with spirulina showed significant increases in growth of two Indian major carps (16). Both livability and performance indices of broilers fed spirulina were shown to increase (17). Humoral and cell-mediated immune functions of chicks were also enhanced by inclusion of S. platensis in their diet (18). The stimulatory effects of spirulina on the immune system have prompted some workers to call it a ''probiotic.'' Based on enhanced macrophage phagocytic functions, the group of Qureshi proposed that spirulina supplementation may improve disease resistance potential in cats (19) and chickens (20) and nitrite production in chick macrophages by increased nitric oxide synthase activity (21). A water-soluble, high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from food-grade spirulina was found to be immunostimulatory resulting in increased mRNA levels of interleukin-1h and tumor necrosis factor-a (22). A finding of great clinical significance was that an acqueous extract of...

Infraslow Potential Oscillations In An Isolated Strip Of Cortex

Burns (1951a, b) showed that in the absence of artificial stimulation there is no spontaneous electrical activity in the strip of the isolated cortex, but electrical oscillations arise in response to stimulation of the strip and then become damped after a few minutes. The author concluded that excitation must reached the cortex through the afferent pathways if the so-called spontaneous activity is to develop. Several other investigators confirmed the absence of electrical activity in isolated strips of cortex. For example, activity of the cortex of cats, dogs, and man (Echlin et al., 1952) in the absence of anesthesia and with intact

Cardiovascular Effects

In vitro studies using isolated frog and guinea pig heart preparations, as well as in vivo studies on dogs and cats, report increased myocardial contractility and stroke volume. In vitro and in vivo studies on rats report an antiarrhythmic action and a significant cardioprotective effect during cardiac ischaemia (al Makdessi et al 1996, 1999, Jayalakshmi & Devaraj 2004, Min et al 2005, Veveris et al 2004).

Parasite invasion strategies

Very often the parasite does not just passively wait in its host for the trophic event to occur but actively promotes it, often in a very sophisticated way (Fig. 11.1). A number of trophically transmitted parasites can influence the behaviour of their host in ways that increase the likelihood of the host being hunted down by the corresponding predator. For example, the Toxoplasma gondii protozoan, whose final hosts are felines, reduces the fear of cats in parasitized rats (Berdoy et al., 2000), while in parasitized mice and humans (the incidence of Toxoplasma in humans reaches a global average of around 30 ) it decreases psychomotor performance of hosts and lengthens the reaction time of infected mice and humans (Webster, 2001 Havlicek et al., 2001). In humans (as opposed to other primates or mice), a longer reaction time (observed in computerized simple reaction time tests) does not increase the chances of Toxoplasma's transfer into the intestine of a feline (i.e. infection does not...

Problems And Directions For The Future

The use of VSV-G pseudotyped retroviruses may eventually circumvent problems with low titer and low numbers of receptors. As noted previously, VSV-G particles can be efficiently concentrated to high titers without loss of activity (151,152). Since the VSV-G receptor is a membrane phosholi-pid (150), it would appear that there should be fewer problems with low receptor numbers. Problems associated with the toxicity of VSV-G env have slowed the development of VSV-G mediated gene therapy (149), but recent work with concentrated and purified VSV-G vectors has shown great promise in model systems (152,177,178). Other oncoretroviruses have been isolated from cats and sheep with novel envelopes that may recognize more abundant receptors on human HSC. For example, oncoretroviruses pseudotyped with the feline RD114 virus envelope have been shown to give high levels of gene transfer in canine models (241).

Narcissus tazetta Linn

The rhizome is rich in sesquiter-penoids. The crude drug gave an oil (yield 2.5 v w), which contains d-nardostachone, valeranone and jata-mansone as the major ketonic sesqui-terpenes. The oil potentiated phenobarbital narcosis in rats, reduced brain serotonin content and decreased the conditioned avoidance performance in cats.

Dietary Sources of Phosphorus

A conservative estimate is that most adults in the United States consume an extra 200-350 mg of phosphorus each day from these sources and cola beverages. Therefore, the total phosphorus intakes for men and women are increased accordingly. Because the typical daily calcium intake of males is 600-800 mg and that of females is 500-650 mg, the Ca P ratios decrease from approximately 0.5-0.6 to less than 0.5 when the additive phosphates are included. As shown later, a chronically low Ca P dietary ratio may contribute to a modest nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is considered less important in humans than in cats. Table 1 provides representative values of calcium and phosphorus in selected foods and the calculated Ca P ratios. Only dairy foods (except eggs), a few fruits, and a few vegetables have Ca P ratios that exceed 1.0.

Consumption studies and safety data

Much higher levels of bLF have been administered orally to mice and rats, as high as 20 g L of milk for fourteen days and 20 g kg diet for thirty weeks, respectively, with no known side effects. Subcutaneous or intraperitoneal administration of bLF also support the safety of bLF when it is given by more sensitive routes of delivery. Bovine LF has been given as a single intraperitoneal dose to rats at 100 mg kg body weight with no known adverse effect. Other animal species, including cats, pigs, calves, and monkeys have been given bLF orally with no detrimental effects.

Metabolic Functions of Taurine

14.5.2.3 Taurine and Heart Muscle Cardiomyopathy is a major problem in taurine-deficient cats, and after prolonged deficiency, there is a failure of contractility, leading to heart failure. Heart muscle concentrates taurine from the bloodstream, and the heart can synthesize taurine by oxidation of cysteamine, although not by the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase pathway. Pharmacologically, taurine affects drug-induced cardiac arrhythmias by depressing the hyperirritability caused by loss of potassium - a digitalis-like action that suggests an effect on membrane permeability and ion flux, and perhaps especially on the maintenance of stable intracellular concentrations of calcium (Nittynen et al., 1999 Militante et al., 2000).

HT agonists exercise duration

The results from the above studies are consistent in implicating an elevation in central 5-HT in the genesis of the 'central fatigue' associated with exercise, defined as 'a progressive exercise-induced reduction in voluntary activation of muscle' (Gandevia et al. 1995). The site(s) at which 5-HT is elevated in humans remains to be identified, but sustained exercise in rats demonstrated increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus and brainstem but not in four other areas studied (Blomstrand et al. 1989). Other studies in rats have also shown that administration of 5-HT produced a dose-related decrease in running (Bailey et al. 1992), and an improvement in performance by addition of an antagonist (Bailey et al. 1993). In cats, injection of 5-HT into the lateral ventricle of the brain produced 'lethargy' and 'diminished muscular tone' (Gaddum and Vogt 1956).

Francisella Tularensis

Pasteurellosis A bacterial disease transmitted by cats or dogs, who harbor the bacteria PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA in the mouths and throats. About 90 percent of cats, and about half of all dogs, are colonized. Cause The disease is usually transmitted by the bite or scratch of an infected cat dog bites are much less likely to cause an infection. About half of the people who are bitten by cats develop the infection. It's also possible (although very unlikely) to pick up this infection simply by breathing in the bacteria, if the victim lives in close proximity with a pet.

The Possible Essentiality of Taurine

Taurine is a dietary essential in the cat, which is an obligate carnivore with a limited capacity for taurine synthesis from cysteine. On a taurine-free diet, neither supplementary methionine nor cysteine will maintain normal plasma concentrations of taurine, because cats have an alternative pathway of cysteine metabolism reaction with mevalonic acid to yield felinine which is excreted in the urine. The activity of cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in cat liver is very low.

Sources of further information and advice

Welberg j w, monkelbaan j g, de vries e g, muskiet f a, cats a, oremus e t, boersma-van ek, van rijsbergen h, van der meer r, mulder n h and kleibeuker j h (1994), 'Effects of supplemental dietary calcium on quantitative and qualitative fecal fat excretion in man', Ann. Nutr. Metab., 38, 185-191. wosje k s and kalkwarf h j (2004), 'Lactation, weaning, and calcium supplementation effects on body composition in postpartum women', Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80, 423-429.

Requirements and Signs of Deficiency

The most characteristic clinical signs of severe niacin deficiency in humans are dermatosis (hyper-pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, desquamation - especially where exposed to the sun), anorexia, achlorhydria, diarrhea, angular stomatitis, cheilosis, magenta tongue, anemia, and neuropathy (headache, dizziness, tremor, neurosis, apathy). In addition to the pellagra caused by dietary deficiency or imbalance, there are also reports of disturbed niacin metabolism associated with phenylketonuria, acute intermittent porphyria, diabetes mellitus, some types of cancer (carcinoid syndrome), thyrotoxicosis, fever, stress, tissue repair, renal disease, iron overload, etc. The picture in other species is not radically different however, deficient dogs and cats typically exhibit 'black tongue' (pustules in the mouth, excessive salivation) and bloody diarrhea, pigs exhibit neurological lesions affecting the ganglion cells, rats exhibit damage to the peripheral nerves (cells and axons), and fowl exhibit...

Absorption and Metabolism of Carotenoids

2.2.2.2 Limited Activity of Carotene Dioxygenase The intestinal activity of carotene dioxygenase is relatively low, so that in many species (including human beings) a relatively large proportion of ingested f -carotene may appear in the circulation unchanged. In general, herbivores have higher activity of carotene dioxygenase than omnivores. In some carnivores, such as the cat, there is virtually no carotene dioxygenase activity, and cats are unable to meet their vitamin A requirements from carotene (Lakshmanan et al., 1972). Species with high intestinal activity of carotene dioxygenase have white body fat, whereas in species with lower activity, body fat has a yellow tinge. Although the activity of carotene dioxygenase in most species is probably adequate to

Pathogen control in vivo

Effects of oral administration of bLF on intractable stomatitis in feline immunodeficiency virus (FlV)-positive and FIV-negative cats, and phagocytosis of neutrophils in healthy and ill cats was tested (Sato et al., 1996). Bovine LF (40 mg kg ot body weight) was applied topically to the oral mucosa of cats with intractable stomatitis daily for 14 days and improvement of clinical signs of disease (pain-related response, salivation, appetite, and oral inflammation) was evaluated. Assay of neutrophil phagocytosis was examined before and 2 weeks after starting LF treatment, using nonopsonized hydrophilic polymer particles. Bovine LF could improve intractable stomatitis and concurrently enhanced the host defense system. Topical application of bLF to oral mucus membrane was suggested useful as a treatment for intractable stomatitis also for FIV-positive cats.

Categorization of Animal Species and Artifacts

In a series of studies, young infants have been shown to form category representations for a variety of animal species and furniture artifacts (reviewed in Quinn, 2002c). In the experiments investigating young infants' category representations of various animal species, 3- and 4-month-olds familiarized with instances of 12 domestic cats, representing different breeds and depicted in a variety of stances, will generalize familiarization to novel instances of domestic cats, but show novel category preferences for birds, dogs, horses, tigers, and even female lions (Eimas & Quinn, 1994 Eimas, Quinn, & Cowan, 1994 Quinn, Eimas, & Rosenkrantz, 1993). Examples of the cats and dogs are shown in Figure 5.7. In addition, same-aged infants familiarized with 12 horses will generalize to novel horses, but display novel category preferences for cats, giraffes, and zebras (Eimas & Quinn, 1994). These findings indicate that young infants can form separate representations for cats and...

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Pantothenic acid is essential for all mammalian species so far studied, namely humans, bovines, pigs, dogs, cats, and rodents, as well as for poultry and fish. Pantothenate deficiency signs in animals are relatively nonspecific and vary among species. Deficiency in young animals results in impaired growth, and requirement estimates based on maximum growth rates are between 8 and 15 mg per kg diet. Rats that are maintained on a diet low in pantothe-nate exhibit reduced growth, scaly dermatitis, alopecia, hair discoloration and loss, porphyrin-caked whiskers, sex organ disruption, congenital malformations, and adrenal necrosis. Deficient chicks are affected by abnormal feather development, locomotor and thymus involution, neurological symptoms including convulsions, and hypoglycemia. Pigs exhibit intestinal problems and abnormalities of dorsal root

The Importance of Allergy in Asthma

In children, most exacerbations of asthma correspond with episodes of viral upper respiratory tract infection (14), while in adults about 50 of exacerbations are associated with rhinovirus infection (15). Anecdotally, exposure to cats or horses can trigger severe acute episodes of asthma, but the role of pollens in triggering acute episodes seems less certain. Asthma admissions to U.K. hospitals are actually lower during the grass pollen hay fever season than in the three months preceding or following the hay fever season (16), although epidemics of acute asthma associated with thunderstorms are probably triggered by inhalation of fragmented pollen grains (17).

California encephalitis See encephalitis California

While there are several different forms of Campylobacter, the most common is C. jejuni, which accounts for 99 percent of all Campylobacter infections. Campylobacteriosis is caused by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the bacteria only a small amount is necessary to cause illness. It can survive in undercooked food such as chicken, lamb, beef, or pork, and in water and raw milk. The disease may also be spread by the diarrhea of affected young dogs or cats.

Singleunit recording

The best known application of this technique was by Hubel and Wiesel (1962, 1979). They used it with cats and monkeys to study the neurophysiology of basic visual processes. Hubel and Wiesel found there were simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex, but there were many more complex cells. These two types of cells both respond maximally to straight-line stimuli in a particular orientation (see Chapter 4). The findings of Hubel and Wiesel were so clear-cut that they constrained several subsequent theories of visual perception, including that of Marr (1982 see Chapter 2).

Auditory Physiology

The information computed by these lower brainstem structures is used by higher centers of the midbrain, such as the inferior and superior colliculi, to guide orienting movements toward sounds. For more conscious spatial perception in higher mammals, including humans, auditory cortex seems to be indispensable, as cortical lesions almost completely abolish the ability to judge the direction of sound in space. Neurons in the primary auditory cortex of cats show tuning to the spatial location of a sound presented in free field (Imig, Irons, and Samson 1990). Most recently, an area in the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES), which is part of the cat's parietal cortex, has been postulated to be crucially involved in sound localization (Korte and Rauschecker 1993, Middlebrooks et al. 1994). Functional neuroimaging studies in humans also demonstrate specific activation in the posterior parietal cortex of the right hemisphere by virtual auditory space stimuli (Rauschecker 1998a,b). cochlear...

From Brain to Mind

Hubel and Weisel measured the electrical activity of single neurons within the visual cortex of sleeping and waking cats, while the cats were looking at different light and dark patterns projected on a screen. Action potentials from different neurons in different parts of the eye respond to light or dark, the edges of objects, or motion. Some groups of neurons fire when the cat is looking at straight lines lying at different angles. Others respond to lines of different lengths. Others respond to different colors, and some respond to the direction of movement of lines. Neurons that respond to lines with a specific orientation are in the striate cortex (area IV) along horizontal lines and perpendicular columns. Perception of color completes the creating of emergent consciousness by the brain. Nowhere in the brain is there an image analogous to those obtained by a camera.

Distinctive Features

Phonological rules and processes depend on the classes of sounds defined by distinctive feature values, and so the notion possible phonological process is, in part, determined by the universal feature theory. The English plural suffix is a typical example. This suffix agrees in the value of voice with the sound at the end of the noun -voice in caps, chiefs, cats, tacks versus +voice in labs, shelves, pads, bags. This suffix is pronounced with a vowel if the noun ends in a +strident consonant, characterized by turbulent airflow and consequent s -like hissing noise passes, roses, lashes, garages. Classes like these +voice , -voice , and +strident are frequently encountered in the phonological processes of the world's languages. In contrast, logically possible but featurally arbitrary classes like pbsk are rarely or never needed to describe phonological processes.

Human Tse Diseases

BSE has also been transmitted to other species by the feeding of contaminated meat and bone meal to ungulates and large felines in zoos and probably also to domestic cats. Transmission to humans has also been suggested by the appearance of variant CJD (vCJD) in over 84 younger humans primarily in the United Kingdom. The similarity in pathology and in laboratory tests lends support to this interpretation (Bruce et al., 1997 Hill et al., 1997). At present one cannot be certain whether the vCJD cases represent the beginning of a much larger epidemic in humans or whether they are unusual cases of transmission across a rather resistant species barrier. At the molecular level, at least, the interactions between PrPBSE and human PrPC that lead to human PrP-res formation are rather inefficient (Raymond et al., 1997). However, this apparent molecular species barrier is clearly only one of multiple factors that are likely to influence the extent of BSE transmissions to humans. In contrast to...

Penicillins

Pets and infectious disease Pet owners can point to a plethora of benefits from their furry cats and dogs, including reduced stress, higher survival rates, increased self-confidence, and improved self-esteem among children. But pets can also carry very real health risks. In addition to love, cats, dogs, birds, reptiles, and other small animals can transmit diseases to humans. Rabies Currently epidemic among certain wild animals in the northeast, rabies can be transmitted to humans by a bite from a rabid animal. In the Northeast, canine rabies is controlled and the main source of infection is from bats, although unvaccinated cats and other wildlife are also sources. Vaccination of pet dogs and cats is imperative to stop the spread of this deadly disease. In humans bitten by an infected animal, the disease can be prevented if treatment with rabies shots is begun immediately. Ringworm Cats (especially long-haired kittens), dogs, horses, and cows can all pass on this fungal skin disease...

Figure

This structural resemblance is often termed analogical. Typically, linguistic descriptions do not have this analogical property because the relationship between a linguistic symbol and that which it represents is arbitrary (de Saussure, 1960). There is no inherent reason why small, furry, household pets should be labelled by the word cats. If the English language had developed along other lines, cats might well have been designated by the word sprogdorfs. Even onomatopoeic words (like miaow) that seem to resemble the sound they represent are really arbitrary, as evidenced by their failure to be used in every language. In Irish, for example, the word for miaow is meamhlach (pronounced me-av-loch).

Neural Plasticity

Much of the original work on neural plasticity in the central nervous system was done in the context of experience-dependent plasticity in the period of postnatal development during which cortical connections, functional architecture, and receptive field properties continue to be refined. Hubel and Wiesel (1977) showed that in the visual system, the balance of input from the two eyes, known as ocular dominance, can be influenced by keeping one eye closed, which shifts the balance toward the open eye, or by induced strabismus (where the two eyes are aimed at different points in the visual field), which blocks the development of binocular cells. The substrate of these changes is an alteration in the extent of thalamocortical axonal arbors, which, immediately after birth, are undergoing a process of collateral sprouting and pruning. The plasticity of these arbors, of ocular dominance columns, and of the ocular dominance of receptive fields, is under experience-dependent regulation for a...

Phenylketonuria 391

Cat breeds can become infected with the parasite cats become infected by killing and eating small rodents. Most children contract the disease not from cats, however, but from raw meat. The meat becomes infected because sheep and cattle graze in pastures contaminated by cats. The disease, which rarely causes symptoms, can be treated with antibacterial drugs.

Quantifiers

Sentences (Ss) such as All cats are grey consist of a predicate are grey and a noun phrase (NP) all cats, itself consisting of a noun cats and a determiner (Det), of which the quantifiers all, some, and no are special cases. Semantically we treat both the noun and the predicate as denoting proper ties of individuals, and we interpret the S as True in a situation s if the individuals with those properties (in s) stand in the relation expressed by the quantifier. Different quantifiers typically denote different relations. ALL (we write denotations in upper case) says that the individuals that have the noun property (CAT) are included in those with the predicate property (GREY). SOME says that the individuals with the CAT property overlap with those that are GREY NO says there is no overlap. EXACTLY TEN says the overlap has exactly ten members. MOST, in the sense of MORE THAN HALF, expresses a proportion The overlap between CAT and GREY is larger than that between CAT and NON-GREY that...

Assay of Vitamin C

As shown in Figure 13.2, ascorbate is an intermediate in the gulonolactone pathway of glucuronic acid metabolism. In those species for which ascorbate is not a vitamin, this is a major pathway of glucuronic acid catabolism, and ascorbate is a metabolic intermediate whose rate of synthesis and turnover bear no relation to physiological requirements for ascorbate per se. In these species, rates of ascorbate synthesis and turnover range between 5 mg per kg of body weight per day (cats and dogs) and 30 to 40 mg per kg per day (goats, rats, and mice). Metabolic stress and the administration of xenobiotics

Sperry Roger Wolcott

Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913-1994), who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1981, made pathfind-ing contributions to the sciences of brain and mind through half a century. His experiments on nerve regeneration, on cortical mechanisms of perception and learning in split-brain cats and monkeys, and on hemispheric modes of consciousness in commissurotomy patients, display outstanding creativity and skill. The intrinsic factors of nerve net patterning and in psychological action and awareness that Sperry discovered are fundamental to cognitive science. Surgical skills that he developed in operating on small fish enabled Sperry to attempt direct interference with corti-cocortical circuits in the cat by delicate subpial slicing of white matter to test various field theories of form perception. He proved that high-acuity vision of form must involve fiber loops leaving and returning to the cortex. Then, his interest in intrinsic whole-brain function in awareness led, by...

Concluding Remarks

I will briefly summarize the part on allergy and gastrointestinal disease before we go on with the last three talks on nutrition in the preterm baby. The first part of the meeting focused on allergy and Dr. Wahn gave us an introductory lecture showing the complex interaction between the genetic background and the environmental determinants leading to allergic manifestations and to the allergic phenotype, and several times he certainly stressed the importance of cats.

Piaget and cognition

Accommodation is almost the other side of the coin to assimilation. It means changing or modifying an existing way of thinking to take into account new information or input. In the example of the cat and the dog, the child will soon accommodate to other refinements not only the difference between cats and dogs but also the differences between cats and kittens, domestic cats and wild cats, and so on. All of the balances that develop in thought, including the processes of assimilation and accommodation, are upset when a new stage is reached.

The Parasomnias

Degeneration of lower brainstem nuclei like the PPN and periceruleal nucleus. Specifically, on the basis of the studies in cats, several brainstem areas such as lat-erodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTN), perilocus ceruleus region (peri-LC), nucleus reticularis magnocellularis, and the ventrolateral reticulospinal tracts, in addition to the PPN, have been implicated (13). Lesions in the peri-LC regions lead to REM sleep without atonia and, in one of the first cases of RBD to come to autopsy, there was a marked reduction in the number of neurons in LC, whereas an increased number of neurons in the PPN and LDTN were observed (42). The authors suggested that RBD could have been caused by decreased cholinergic activity of the LC and reduced disinhibition of the PPN and LTDN. However, this is controversial, as others have noted depletion of neuro-melanin neurons in LC and depleted choline-acetyl transferase neurons in the LDTN and PPN in multiple system atrophy cases (43). Furthermore, why...

Summary

The difference between artifacts and natural kinds might arise when we consider goal-driven actions. Simple artifacts, at least, such as cups, are designed so that information relevant for microinteractions is congruent with functional information. Probably responses to natural kinds are more frequently mediated by goals than response to artifacts, as we typically act with natural kinds in different ways and have to extract different affor-dances depending on our goals - we typically drink from glasses, while we can feed, caress, and perform surgery on cats. This could explain why natural kinds activate the visual areas of the cortex more than tools. Accessing more perceptual properties may guarantee more action flexibility (Parisi, personal communication, 2001).

Toxic Effects

AFs are potent liver toxins, and their effects in animals vary with dose, length of exposure, species, breed, and diet or nutritional status. These toxins may be lethal when consumed in large doses sub-lethal doses produce a chronic toxicity, and low levels of chronic exposure can result in cancer, primarily liver cancer, in many animal species. AFB1, the most potent and most commonly occurring AF, is acutely toxic to all species of animals, birds, and fishes tested. Sheep and mice are the most resistant, whereas cats, dogs, and rabbits are the most sensitive species. Chronic aflatoxicosis is characterized by bile duct proliferation, periportal fibrosis, icterus, and cirrhosis of liver. Prolonged exposure to low levels of AFB1 leads to hepatoma, cholangiocarcinoma, or hepatocellular carcinoma and other tumors. The molecular basis for the toxicology of aflatoxin has been reviewed by Wild and Turner.

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