Eye Exercises for People With Cataracts

Easy Clear Vision

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Present Understanding Of Dry Eye Disease And Implications For Therapy

Nomenclature Eye Picture

A recent international workshop designed to collate and critique in an evidence-based manner the accumulated knowledge concerning dry eye disease and its treatment published a comprehensive report in 2007.1 The Dry Eye Workshop provided guidance to clinicians and researchers regarding the definition, classification, epidemiology, and research findings, and treatment guidelines for dry eye disease. The consensus definition of dry eye disease was stated to be that dry eye is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface.2 This definition expands the scope of the disease to include effects on visual acuity and discomfort and damage to the ocular surface through both inflammation of the tissues and hyperosmolarity of the tear film.3 The classification...

Uveitis and Visual Impairment

About 80 to 90 of patients with uveitis are positive for ANA. ANA-positive girls presenting with oligo-articular disease below the age of two years have up to a 95 likelihood of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Uveitis can cause other forms of eye pathology such as glaucoma and cataracts. Iatrogenic cataract formation from long-term steroid use may also be troublesome in patients requiring oral corticosteroids for disease control.

Cataracts and Photoreceptors

Several micronutrients, especially those that can have antioxidant functions in living tissues, have recently been investigated in relation to possible protection against degenerative eye diseases, such as cataract. Studies in animal models have suggested, albeit indirectly, that riboflavin status may be important here, and several recent epidemiologi-cal studies, including an intervention study in one region of China, have supported the suggestion that

Management Of Dry Eye Disease

An effective strategy for the management of dry eye disease includes attention to the patient's lifestyle and specific pharmacologic intervention. The aggravating factors to dry eye and predisposition to symptoms of irritation are well known. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor.35 Such activities as prolonged reading, prolonged staring at a video display terminal, airplane flight, and the use of antihistamines or anticholinergic medications all increase symptoms by worsening tear film stability and volume.36,37 Often simple modification of these behaviors or the use of room humidifiers to increase ambient humidity helps to reduce symptoms, but rarely do such adjustments completely control symptoms. Ensuring that there is no intercurrent blepharitis or inflammation of the anterior eyelid margin is essential. Nevertheless, topical or systemic medications are necessary adequately to treat the disease. The guidelines proposed by the Delphi Panel and the Dry Eye Workshop based on...

Ophthalmic Diseases

AAV vectors may be well suited for efficient long-term treatment of ocular diseases because they efficiently and stably transduce retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor cells following subretinal injection (93,252-257). Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited retinal degenerative diseases that lead to progressive reduction in visual field extent and impairment of visual acuity. The disease is triggered by mutations in various genes that cause degeneration and death of photoreceptors by apoptotic pathways (258). Control of angiogenesis in the retina is essential to the preservation of vision. Ocular neovascularization (NV) is a major threat to vision and a complicating feature of many eye diseases, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinopathy of prematurity. Regulation of vascularization in the mature retina involves a balance between endogenous positive growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor), and...

Prevention Of Cataracts

Numerous observational and prospective clinical studies have been performed to examine the effect of vitamin C alone or in combination with other antioxidants on cataract. Several epidemiological studies have identified an association between vitamin C and cataract incidence (Ferrigno et al 2005, Jacques & Chylack Jr 1991, Jacques et al 1988, Valero et al 2002) however, studies investigating whether supplementation is protective have produced mixed results (Chasan-Taber et al 1999, Chylack Jr et al 2002, Hammond & Johnson 2002, Jacques et al 1997, 2001, Kuzniarz et al 2001, Seddon et al 1994, Taylor et al 2002).

TABLE 4 Eye Disease in GCA

A retrospective study of eye disease occurring in 161 patients over a 17-year period provides a useful perspective of this complication (15). Visual manifestations occurred in about 26 of patients, and loss of vision in at least one eye occurred in about 15 (Table 4). Twenty-four patients had permanent vision loss in 92 of these, anterior ischemic optic neuritis was the cause. Central retinal artery occlusion occurred in 8.3 of patients as the cause of permanent visual loss, and occipital infarction caused by vertebral basilar stroke occurred in one patient (4.2 ). These authors noted that patients positive for HLA-DRB1 * 04 had visual manifestations more commonly than those who did not the phenotype was found in 42 of patients versus 26 of controls (15).

Principles for organizing an eye health system for the care of diabetic retinopathy

Accuracy of examination results If diabetic retinopathy is suspected after screening, a decision must be made about the overall management for a given level of diabetic retinopathy. In many developing countres, there are too few persons to provide even basic eye care to the population, let alone specialized eye care for patients with diabetes and related blindness prevention. Involving non-ophthalmic health care providers in varous aspects of eye care for patients with diabetes is a viable alternative. Appropriate follow-up intervals Significant problems have been encountered in ensurng regular follow-up of patients with diabetic retinopathy High rates of follow-up have, however, been reported with the use of vans and trained photographic readers using reference standard photographs to provide immediate feedback to patients. By directly addressing patient convenience, access and feedback, this system might serve as a model for a 'marketing' approach for patient-centred detection of...

Evaluation and improvement of eye care for patients with diabetes mellitus

In assessing approaches to improving the care system, it is important to (i) determine the purpose of the proposed system, for example, to screen for a threshold referral level of retinopathy or to provide guidance in management (ii) assess the performance of the system relative to that of the gold standard, in order to identify trade-offs (ii) assess the success and actual performance of different eye care systems in various settings and (iv) understand how patients perceive the benefits of the system. From the perspective of health policy, it should be shown that a traditional or non-traditional proposal for care offers significant benefits over the existing system, sufficient to justify any additional costs. The performance of systems for eye care for patients with diabetes, even in developed countres, leaves much to be desired. Application of a systems approach to the current systems indicates that alternatives should be explored to improve performance in every area of eye care...

Conduct International research into systemic deficiencies in health and eye care that contribute to blindness from

Improvements to increase the cost-effectiveness of eye care for diabetes patients are a global necessity. Blindness due to diabetic retinopathy occurs in part because factors important to both patients and health care providers have not been recognized or incorporated into current diabetes education, screening and treatment programmes. Systems analyses are needed in various cultures to understand better why patients with diabetic retinopathy go bind, particularly when the technical knowledge and services to prevent the condition exist. Operations research is needed for comprehensive, evidence-based characterization of the contributions of significant factors and their interactions to blindness among patients with diabetic retinopathy. Within a standardized protocol, focus group methods can give detailed insight about bind and non-blind patients with retinopathy, members of their families or social support systems and diabetes and eye care providers, including information on the actual...

Agerelated Cataract Prevention

Age-related cataract is an important public health problem because approximately 50 of the 30-50 million cases of blindness worldwide result from leaving the condition untreated (Jacques 1999). The mechanisms that bring about a loss in transparency include oxidation, osmotic stress, and chemical adduct formation (Bunceetal 1990). Besides traditional risk factors such as diabetes, nutrient deficiency is also being considered, particularly those with antioxidant properties. Cataract was shown to be associated with riboflavin deficiency in animals in the 1930s and subsequently with deficiencies of amino acids, vitamins and some minerals (Wynn & Wynn 1996). This has been confirmed in human studies whereby lens opacities have been associated with lower levels of riboflavin, vitamins A, C and E, iron, and protein status (Leske et al 1995, Mares-Perlman et al 1995). Glutathione reductase is a key enzyme involved in lens protection. Riboflavin levels indirectly influence glutathione reductase...

Macular Degeneration and Cataracts

The eye is at particular risk of oxidative damage due to high oxygen concentrations, large amounts of oxidizable fatty acids in the retina, and exposure to ultraviolet rays. In Western countries, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among older people. Cataracts are also widespread among the elderly and occur when the lens is unable to function properly due to the formation of opacities within the lens. These develop when proteins in the eye are damaged by photooxidation these damaged proteins build up, clump, and precipitate. It has been proposed that antioxidants may prevent cellular damage in the eye by reacting with free radicals produced during the process of light absorption. The results of intervention trials in this area have also been mixed. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study in the United States investigating the effects of combined antioxidant vitamins C (500 mg), E (400IU), and -carotene (15 mg) with and without 80 mg zinc daily for 6...

Alternatives in eye care for patients with diabetes mellitus

All treatment should be consistent with uniform international standards. The International Council of Ophthalmology guidelines for diabetic retinopathy care (52) (See Annex 4.) give detailed information about the expected performance of ophthalmologists who treat diabetic retinopathy. Education can improve the performance of health care providers, including non-eye care professionals, although long-term data on persistence are lacking. Use of photographic standards might be an alternative that would also enhance the performance of all systems to detect and follow-up cases of diabetic retinopathy.

Cataracts

The importance of ICS increasing the risk of cataracts is evident when the widespread use of ICS in the adult population is considered together with the prevalence of cataracts, which represent the most common cause of blindness in the world (73,74). The dose-response relationship of ICS and cataracts has recently been defined in the large population-based case-control study based on the U.K. General Practice Research Database (75). Higher doses and longer duration of exposure to ICS were associated with an increased risk of cataract, but there was minimal risk associated with ICS prescribed within the therapeutic dose-response range. After adjustment for systemic steroid use and consultation rate, the relative risk of cataract was 1.18 for the dose range 800-1600 mg day and 1.69 for the very high-dose range of asthmatic patients taking 1600 mg day of BDP or equivalent. For the relatively small proportion of people prescribed daily doses of 1600 mg or more, 41 of their risk of...

Eye Problems

Cataracts In cataracts damage to the protein of the lens of the eye clouds the lens and impairs vision. Oxidation of the lens from exposure to the sun and other sources in the environment is partly responsible for the destruction and nothing can reverse the situation once it has developed. Nutrient deficiencies, selenium, for example, may contribute to cataract formation. Symptoms are blurred or hazy vision, seeing spots, or the feeling of a film over the eye. Vitamin C supplementation may help improve vision. Glutathione, an antioxidant, is found to be especially lacking in cataracts as well as vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid. Vitamin A and the carotenoids are important for eye health, lutein a carotenoid is found in the lens. Foods containing these antioxidants are fruits and vegetables, spinach and other green leafy vegetables, broccoli, asparagus, legumes, avocados, oranges, dark berries, plums, and cherries. The herb bilberry is high in antioxidants, 240 to 480 mg of extract...

Eye Strain

A double-blind study involving 75 patients with eye strain caused by viewing a computer screen found that GSE 300 mg daily significantly improved objective and subjective measures (Bombardelli & Morazzoni 1995). Grapeseed extract (Endotelon' ) has also been shown significantly to improve visual adaptation to and from bright light in a dual centre study involving 100 volunteers (Boissin et al 1998, Corbe et al 1988). A dose of 200 mg daily over 5 weeks was used. It has been proposed that GSE increases rhodopsin content of the retina or accelerates its regeneration after exposure to bright light.

Complications And Prognosis

While sarcoidosis frequently pursues an unpredictable clinical course, its prognosis may correlate with specific types of disease onset and patterns of clinical manifestations. For example, acute onset of erythema nodosum with symptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy usually has a self-limited course, while insidious onset of disease and extrapulmonary lesions are often followed by inexorable progression of pulmonary fibrosis (30). In the head and neck, complications of sarcoidosis include hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, chronic sinusitis, infection, decreased visual acuity and blindness, hoarseness, upper respiratory obstruction, stridor, cranial nerve palsies, and pituitary dysfunction. The complications of the persistent ocular inflammation are described above, but it should be emphasized that sarcoidosis is a significant cause of blindness in the United States.

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Vitis vinifera is thought to be native to the area near the Caspian Sea in southwestern Asia. The Phoenicians carried wine cultivars to Greece, Rome and southern France, and the Romans spread the grape throughout Europe. Spanish missionaries brought Vinifera grapes to California in the 1700s and found that they grew very well there. The medicinal and nutritional value of grapes has been known for thousands of years. Egyptians consumed grapes at least 6000 years ago, and several ancient Greek philosophers praised their healing power. European folk used an ointment from the sap of grapevines to cure skin and eye diseases. Grape leaves were used to stop bleeding, inflammation and pain. Unripe grapes were used to treat sore throats and dried grapes were used to heal consumption, constipation, and thirst. The round, ripe, sweet grapes were used to treat a range of health problems including cancer, cholera, smallpox, nausea, eye infections, and skin, kidney and liver diseases.

Agerelated Macular Degeneration

A 2002 Cochrane review assessed the effects of antioxidant vitamin and or mineral supplementation on the progression of ARMD and found that evidence of effectiveness is currently dominated by one large trial that showed modest benefit in people with moderate to severe signs of the disease who were administered antioxidant vitamins and zinc together (Evans 2002). More recently, results of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study were published (AREDS 2001 ), which showed that high-dose vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc supplementation delayed the progression from intermediate to advanced disease by 25 over 5 years. The 11 centre, doubleblind, prospective study involved 3640 volunteers aged between 55 and 80 years who were randomly divided into four treatment groups, receiving either antioxidant supplements (500 mg vitamin C, 400 international units (IU) vitamin E, and 1 5 mg beta carotene daily), zinc oxide and cupric oxide (80 mg elemental zinc, 2 mg elemental copper daily),...

Localized Scleroderma

(with loss of hair from the scalp and eyebrows), ptosis, uveitis, cataract, keratopathy, and seizures may occur (95,96). Atrophy of the tongue and abnormal or stunted growth of the teeth can be seen (95,96). Intracerebral calcification and white-matter changes have been identified on imaging (95,98).

Biosynthesis Of Betanin

Betanin Pigment

Prickly pear has long been known in traditional medicine for treating a number of pathologies from ulcer, fatigue, and dyspnea to glaucoma, liver conditions, and wounds (11,13). Studies with different models and several experimental conditions provided some scientific basis for the popular use of this plant. Various preparations from fleshy stems (cladodes) have been tested for treatment of diabetes symptomatology in animal models (14,15), or in humans (16). The mechanism for this action is still unknown some results, however, preclude a role for dietary fiber (15). Other studies revealed beneficial effects against ethanol-induced ulcer (17), in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (18,19), and in hypercholesterolemia in humans (20) and guinea pigs (21). Diuretic activity of cladode, flower, and fruit infusions has been shown in rats (22). Obviously, other investigations are required to gain insight into the active agents in this plant and the mechanisms involved in all the...

The Representation Of The Eye On The

However, the most interesting evolution in the identification of points areas related to eye disorders concerns two points reported in 1959 by Dr Xu Zuo-Lin of Beijing in the first Chinese clinical validation on ear acupuncture (see Fig. 1.11). The points were located on the posterior-lateral and anterior-internal edge of the intertragic notch and called by the author respectively astigmatism and glaucoma. The points were then placed definitely on the external border of the intertragic notch and renamed Eye 1 and 2 by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Medicine. Their common and unique indication was 'pseudomyopia', intending by this perhaps a defect in sight simulating myopia. The points were included in the standardization process and renamed as anterior and posterior intertragic points with the respective Pinyin of pingjianqian and pingjianhou. Their main indication was changed to 'ametropia' but further disorders were added too such as glaucoma and conjunctivitis. A further...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Symptoms Symptoms, which usually appear eight hours to eight days after ingestion, begin with nausea and vomiting, watery or bloody explosive diarrhea and stomach cramps, weakness, vision problems, headache, and difficulty swallowing. Those with weakened immune systems may have more serious diarrhea and may take longer to recover. Young children have more serious symptoms, and those children already malnourished or weak will be much sicker.

Disorders of Galactose Metabolism Clinical Manifestations

Classically, the term 'galactosemia' was associated with an inherited disorder of galactose utilization characterized by malnutrition, liver disease, cataracts, and mental retardation, resulting from the specific deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl-transferase. However, other enzymatic defects with variations of clinical presentation can also lead to galactosemia (Table 1). Thus it is preferably better to refer to these abnormalities of metabolism by the specific enzymatic deficiencies which are described below. Cataracts symptoms Cataracts Cataracts have been observed within a few days of birth. These may be found only on slit-lamp examination and can be missed with an ophthalmoscope, since they consist of punctate lesions in the fetal lens nucleus. Several hypotheses have been postulated to account for their formation and are mentioned above. It seems conclusive that the initiator of the process in rats is galactitol and not galactose 1-phosphate. Galactose 1-phosphate...

Cauterization Of The

Cauterize Ear

If we limit our research to ancient Europe, there are traces in folk medicine which indicate that the external ear also had some significance in the prevention of disease. One noteworthy folk tradition is the custom of wearing earrings to improve sight or to prevent eye disease. Sailors of the European coasts and mountaineers of the central Alps shared this tradition, even though contact between these two populations was exceedingly rare in previous centuries. The custom, passing from one generation to the next, was popular in the valleys of Switzerland, Austria and northern Italy, and a common saying there, even in recent times, was 'gold fits good sight', referring of course to the wearing of a gold earring.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying phenolic compounds of oilseeds, their skins, hulls, and oil cake meals, because they represent potentially health-promoting substances and have industrial applications. Due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and preservative properties, phenolic acids, which account for 30 of total dietary plant polyphenols, have an important role in plant resistance towards diseases, in human health maintenance (inhibition of oxidative damage diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cataracts, and age-related functional decline), and in prevention of food deterioration. In many cases, aldehyde analogs are also grouped with, and referred to, as phenolic acids. Phenolic compounds occur in free and bound forms. Bound phenolics may be linked to various plant components through ester, ether, or acetal bonds, and are typically involved in cell-wall structure. For this...

Plantago major L Plantaginaceae Common Plantain Whitemans Foot Daun Sejumbok

Nica Granatum

Traditional Medicinal Uses The Greeks and Romans used it as an astringent, to heal wounds, asthma, fever and eye disorders. 5 In Brazil, it has been used to treat skin ulceration (cutaneous leishmaniasis) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. 6 P. major has been used in Turkey in the treatment of ulcers by taking the powdered dried leaves together with honey daily before breakfast. 7 Infusion of the leaf has been taken for diarrhoea, ulcers, bloody urine, digestive disorders, and excess mucous discharge. The American Indian groups make use of a poultice of the leaves for pain, swelling, cuts, wounds, sores, infections, blisters, insect bites, snakebites and haemorrhoids. 5 Its seeds are used to induce sweating, increase flow of urine, treat diarrhoea, dysentery, rheumatism, malaria, asthma, kidney problems, bladder diseases, gonorrhoea and piles. 3 Its roots are used to treat fever, respiratory infections and constipation. 5 The Commision E approved the internal use of plantain for...

What and where systems

The other half of the double dissociation consists of some patients with visual agnosia (see Chapter 4). This is a condition in which there are severe problems with object recognition. DF is the most studied patient having visual agnosia coupled with fairly good spatial perception. In spite of having reasonable visual acuity, DF was unable to identify any of a series of a selection of drawings of common objects. However, as was pointed out by Milner, Carey, and Harvey (1991), DF had little difficulty in everyday activity such as opening doors, shaking hands, walking around furniture, and eating meals. she could accurately reach out and grasp a pencil orientated at different angles.

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

As regards the specific areas representing the end organs of an allergic reaction, it may be noticed that patients with seasonal rhinoconjuncti-vitis due to grass pollen, besides the Shen men area, show two further areas tender to pressure (Fig. 5.30A). The first is an area presumably representing the liver we know about the importance given by TCM to the Liver meridian for treating eye dysfunctions. Another sensitized area is that around the intertragic notch which in my opinion represents the end organ eye-nose of the allergic reaction. According to the Chinese, the anterior and posterior intertragal notches hold indications related to the eye, for example glaucoma and conjunctivitis, but the representation of the nose below the intertragic notch has never been reported by the main schools (see also below).

Phyllanthus amarus Schum Thonn

Phyllanthus Amarus

Traditional Medicinal Uses The aerial part of the plant is used for various conditions. In Chinese medicine, the plant is made into a tea to cure kidney problems, venereal diseases, stones in the kidneys and bladder. The Malays use it to increase menstrual flow, reduce fever and cure colic. It is used by the Indians as a fish poison. 5 Indians also use the plant as liver tonic to treat liver ailments, ascites, j aundice, diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fever, conditions of the urogenital tract, eye disease, scabies, ulcers and wounds. 12 In Vietnam, it is used to induce sweating, and increase menstrual flow. It is also prescribed for toothache, muscle spasms and gonorrhoea. It is considered a diuretic, colic remedy and abortifacient in Southeast Asia. 5 It is also commonly used in Benin, Africa, as folk medicine against malaria. 13

Promotion Of Remineralization And Reversal Of The Demineralization Process

Sjogren Wound

Increasing the amount of saliva in the mouth may be achieved in those individuals who have functioning salivary glands by means of the use of sugar-free hard candies or lozenges (Salive), sugar-free chewing gum, or by the use of a muscarinic agonist. A xylitol- containing gum or candy may have additional clinical benefit (Xylichew, Spry, TheraGum,). Pilocarpine tablets, Cevimeline capsules, or Bethanachol may be prescribed to increase saliva production. These medications are contraindicated in those who are pregnant or have a history of uncontrolled asthma, gastrointestinal ulcer, acute iritis or narrow angle glaucoma, and they may not be suitable for those who have unstable cardiovascular disease. Some individuals decide to discontinue the prescribed muscarinic agonist because of intolerable adverse effects, including sweating. In these cases, it is possible to titrate the medication (ie, pilocarpine, by cutting the 5 mg or 7.5 mg pill to a final dose of 2.5 to 3.75 mg three times...

Confidence And Appearance Stereotypes

Self-perception theory asserts that we know our own attributes in the same way that we know about the attributes of others. If that is the case, then stereotypes about appearance that affect our judgments of others should affect our judgments of ourselves as well. Certainly stereotypes are powerful determinants of our judgments of others. For example, more attractive people are routinely judged to be smarter and more humorous and to have performed better at a variety of tasks (Dion, Berscheid, & Walster, 1972). Tall people are more likely to be seen as leaders conversely, people who have achieved leadership positions are judged to be taller than they actually are (Jackson & Ervin, 1992 Montepare, 1995 Wilson, 1968). Unfortunately for experimental design purposes, most stereotypical aspects of appearance, such as attractiveness or height, are not easily manipulated. Fortunately, one is. This is the stereotype that people who wear glasses are more intelligent. To...

Indications Caper Bush

Adenopathy (f BIB JLH) Aging (f BIB) Allergy (1 X15799005) Amenorrhea (f DEP) Arteriosclerosis (f BIB BOU) Arthrosis (f BIB) Bleeding (f BOW) Cancer (f1 BIB) Cancer, abdomen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, bladder (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, colon (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, groin (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, head (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, kidney (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, neck (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (f1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (f1 FNF JLH) Cataract (f BIB) Chill (f BIB BOU) Cirrhosis (f WO2) Cold (f BIB) Conjunctivosis (f BOW) Cough (f BOW GHA) Cramp (1 HOS) Cystosis (f JLH) Dengue (f BIB HJP) Diabetes (f GHA) Diarrhea (f BOW BOU) Dropsy (f BIB BOU DEP) Dysentery (f BIB) Dysmenorrhea (f BIB) Earache (f BI2 GHA) Enterosis (f BOW) Erythema (1 X15799005) Fever (f BOU) Fracture (f BIB) Ganglion (f BOU) Gastrosis (f BOW GHA) Gout (f DEP SKJ WO2) Headache (f BIB) Hepatosis (f1 JLH HOS WO2) Hyperacidity (f MKK) Impotence (f BOU) Induration (f JLH) Infection (f BOW BOU) Infertility (f BIB BOU)...

Xanthophylls Lutein and Zeaxanthin

Free radical damage is also linked to the development of cataracts. Cataracts remain the leading cause of visual disability in the US and about one-half of the 30-50 million cases of blindness throughout the world. Although cataracts are treatable, blindness occurs because individuals have either chosen not to correct the disease or do not have access to the appropriate medical treatment. Several epidemiological studies have shown inverse associations between the risk of cataracts and carotenoid intake. However, these studies also present inconsistencies with regard to the different carotenoids and their association with cataract risk. Lutein and zea-xanthin are found in the lens and are thought to protect cells in the eye against oxidative damage, and consequently prevent formation of cataracts. However, to date, there is no evidence that any carotenoid supplement can protect against cataract development. Eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, good sources of many antioxidants...

Biochemistry and Physiology of Galactose

The main pathway of galactose metabolism in humans is the conversion of galactose to glucose, without disruption of the carbon skeleton. The name 'galactosemia' has been associated with a syndrome of toxicity associated with the administration of galactose to patients with an inherited disorder of galactose utilization, leading to multiple clinical manifestations, including malnutrition, mental retardation, liver disease, and cataracts. The clinical manifestations are linked to specific enzymatic defects. Thus the term 'galactosemia' should be qualified by the specific defect. Three enzymatic steps are required to metabolize galactose to UDP-glucose. Two alternate pathways, oxidation and reduction, are used in the absence of enzymes of the main route. Patients with classical galactosemia have markedly elevated levels of galactitol in plasma and urine, which remain above age-matched control levels after treatment with galactose-free diet, whereas high urinary galactose levels return to...

Think I am a good candidate for gastric bypass surgery What do I need to do to obtain insurance coverage for this

Ship with your primary care doctor, he or she will know about your weight loss attempts and will be treating you for any of your obesity-related illnesses or conditions (elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes or prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, or cataracts).

Integration of information

Tovee (1996) raises various problems with oscillation-binding theory. Oscillation only seems to occur with moving stimuli, and so the theory cannot apply to static stimuli. In addition, the evidence suggests that oscillations develop too slowly and last for too long for them to contribute to object perception. Tovee argued that there may be less of a binding problem than has sometimes been supposed. The fact that there is only high visual acuity for stimuli presented to the fovea of the retina (combined with attentional focusing) creates almost a tunnel vision effect, where only the visual information from the centre of the visual field

Streptobacillus moniliformis

Kidney inflammation (acute glomerulonephritis) is another possible complication of strep throat, which can appear from 10 days to 6 weeks after the throat infection. The bacteria do not directly infect the kidneys instead, the body's immune system response can damage the kidney's filtering mechanism. Warning signs of impending kidney problems include swelling of hands, face, and feet dark or bloody urine headaches vision problems and decreased urinary output. Children usu-

Combined Oral Contraceptives

It is unusual to have serious side effects, but if you do, call your nurse or doctor right away. These serious effects may be signalled by abdominal pain, very bad headaches, unusual pain in your legs, chest pain, eye problems like blurred vision, or difficulty breathing. Vision Problems. Double vision, loss of vision, eye pain or swelling, or discomfort while wearing contact lenses are rare side effects of the Pill. If any of these symptoms occurs, you should stop taking the Pill, use another method, and talk with your physician.

Listeria monocytogenes

Treatment Diethylcarbamazirie has been the preferred drug for the past 40 years, and usually cures the disease, and may also be useful as a preventive measure. The drug kills both worms and microfilariae. However, it should be used with caution in patients with heavy infestations of worms, since this can provoke eye problems. Antihistamines and prednisone may be needed to ease allergic reactions due to the disintegration of microfilariae.

Plate Iii Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Otic Eczema

Plates IIIC and IIID Telangiectasia and spots on the lower border of the right ear lobe where two descending creases are going to meet together (C) paleness of the corresponding part of the left ear lobe (D) in a 66-year-old female affected by glaucoma and hypertensive retinopathy. Plates IIIC and IIID Telangiectasia and spots on the lower border of the right ear lobe where two descending creases are going to meet together (C) paleness of the corresponding part of the left ear lobe (D) in a 66-year-old female affected by glaucoma and hypertensive retinopathy.

Congenital Constitutive Diarrheal Disorders

Atrophy Microvilli

In IED TE, massive watery diarrhea develops within the first days after birth in a way similar to MVA MVID. Stool volumes are highly variable (100-200 ml kg body weight day) with stool electrolyte concentrations of sodium of 100-140 mmol l 6, 7 . All children are highly dependent on par-enteral nutrition. There is no past history of hydramnios or other antenatal or neonatal particularities. It is striking that in our experience most children with IED TE have consanguineous parents and or affected siblings and some of them died during the first months of life with severe diarrhea of unknown origin. Upon clinical examination, no malformations are observed however, some children have somewhat rigid hair and a subgroup of patient shows clinical signs of photophobia. Distinct ophthalmologic examination reveals the presence of superficial keratitis in these children. The degree of severity of IED TE is more variable compared to MVA MVID with most children developing a severe course...

Clinical Manifestations

Ocular manifestations are associated with lacrimal gland dysfunction. Many patients with SS cannot cry. The symptoms of ocular dryness may manifest as itching, grittiness, a sandy sensation, photophobia, eye fatigue, decreased visual acuity, discharge, a sensation of film across the eye, photosensitivity, and conjunctival injection. Ocular symptoms may be exacerbated by air-conditioning, computer use, cigarette smoke, low humidity, and medication with anticholinergic effects. It should be noted that tear flow rates are often not correlated with ocular discomfort. That is, individuals with objective signs of severe dry eyes may have minimal complaints. Because tears contain antimicrobial components, the loss of tears predisposes to ocular infections, including blepharitis, bacterial keratitis, and conjunctivitis, which can further exacerbate the sensation of dryness. In addition to the decreased volume of tears, there is a change in the mucous component. Filamentary keratitis can occur...

Indications Camelthorn

Abscess (f BIB KAB) Adenopathy (f JLH UPW) Anorexia (f BIB SAY) Arthrosis (f GHA) Asthma (f BIB) Atherosclerosis (1 WO3) Bacteria (1 WO2) Biliousness (f DEP) Bleeding (f BIB) Bronchosis (f BIB) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f JLH) Cancer, gland (f JLH) Cardiopathy (1 X1305866) Cataract (f GHA PAY) Catarrh (f PAY) Cerebrosis (f BIB) Constipation (f PAY) Corneosis (f BIB) Cough (f DEP PAY) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 SAY X15138016) Enterosis (f UPW) Epistaxis (f BIB) Fever (f PAY) Gastrosis (f PAY) Gingivosis (f PAY) Halitosis (f PAY) Headache (f BIB WO3) Hematachezia (f PAY) Hemicrania (f BIB KAB) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB) High Blood Pressure (1 WO3) High Cholesterol (1 WO3) High Triglycerides (1 WO3) Impotence (f PAY) Infection (f1 PAY WO2) Jaundice (f GHA) Leprosy (f BIB KAB) Migraine (f BIB) Nephrosis (f PAY) Obesity (f1 BIB KAB WO3) Odontosis (f PAY) Opacity (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f KAB) Pain (f1 GHA WO3 X15507342) Polyp (f JLH) Pulmonosis (f JLH PAY WO3) Rheumatism (f PAY WO2)...

Development of the Self Concept

I have br own eyes and br own hair. And I have br own eyebrows. I am nine years old. I LOVE sports. I have seven people in my family. I have gr eat eyesight and I have lots of friends. I will be 10 in September. I live at 1923 Pinecr est. I am a boy . I have an uncle that is almost 7 feet tall. My school is Pinecr est and my teacher is Mrs V . I play Hockey.

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

The Chinese herb Jue-ming-zi has been used in many traditional Chinese medical prescriptions. C. tora was first recorded in Shen-Nung-Pen-Tsao-Ching as upper category, and in the successive Pen-Tsao of descending dynasties. It is used to remove ''heat'' from the liver and improve visual acuity, to moisten the supposedly dry digestive apparatus, and to facilitate bowel movement as a laxative. Previous studies on C. tora show its therapeutic effects on hypertension (7,8), on hypercholesterolemia (9,10), as an antihepatotoxin (11), an antimicrobial (12-14), on blood platelet coagulation (15), on the eyes, and in constipation (16). This herb has been reported to contain many active substances, including chrysophenol, emodin, rhein, etc. (17). Recently many researchers have studied the antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of C. tora. Choi et al. (18) reported that anthraquinone aglycons and naphthopyrone glycosides from C. tora had inhibitory activity against aflatoxin B1 in the Ames...

Antioxidant Properties

Spirulina has a very high content of h-carotene and is believed to owe some of its potent antioxidant activity to it (29). The total carotenes in it have been shown to have a bioavailability comparable to other sources. In two very large-scale human trials with preschool children in South India, spirulina feeding led to an increase in serum retinol levels (30) and a significant decrease in '' Bitot's spot,'' a symptom of vitamin A deficiency (31). This finding is very important in view of the prevalence of blindness and eye diseases among children of the Third World caused by vitamin A deficiency.

Neurocutaneous syndromes

Neurofibromatosis (NF) One of the most common neurocutaneous syndromes that primarily affects the growth and development of nerve cells, causing tumors or neurofibromas that produce skin changes, bone deformities, eye problems, and other complications, especially in the brain. In 1882 neurofibromatosis (NF) was first described in medical literature by Dr. Friedrich von Recklinghausen, and the disease was known as Von Recklinghausen's disease for many years. NF affects more than 100,000 Americans, making this condition more common than cystic fibrosis, hereditary muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, and tay-sachs disease combined.

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Crack Cocaine Effects Teeth

FIGURE 31 Mucous membrane pemphigoid. Middle-aged edentulous adult female with history of stomatitis of six months duration involving the upper and lower alveolar ridges. Observe the broad, confluent, ulcerated pseudomembrane-covered zones extending from the crest of the alveolar ridge to the reflection of the labial vestibule. An ophthalmologic workup was negative for ocular mucosal disease involvement. Direct immunofluorescence findings showed IgG and C3 deposits at the basement membrane zone. Source Courtesy of Charles Dunlap, DDS. FIGURE 31 Mucous membrane pemphigoid. Middle-aged edentulous adult female with history of stomatitis of six months duration involving the upper and lower alveolar ridges. Observe the broad, confluent, ulcerated pseudomembrane-covered zones extending from the crest of the alveolar ridge to the reflection of the labial vestibule. An ophthalmologic workup was negative for ocular mucosal disease involvement. Direct immunofluorescence findings showed IgG and...

What can happen if my diabetes is not properly treated and controlled

The longer-term consequences of less than adequate diabetes control are the result of damage to the small (micro) and larger (macro) vessels of the circulation. The most common manifestations are diabetic eye disease (retinopathy), which is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults in the United States diabetic kidney disease (nephropathy), which is the leading cause of severe kidney failure necessitating dialysis or transplantation in working-age adults in the United States and nerve damage (neuropathy), which is present in about 1 out of 3 people with diabetes at the time of diagnosis and in over 7 out of 10 by the time diabetes has been present for 10 years. Both retinopa-thy and nephropathy can be entirely without symptoms

Leukotriene Modifiers Safety Considerations

Standard asthma treatments may be complicated by several adverse effects. For instance, p-agonists may cause tachycardia, palpitations, and headaches. Theophylline has a very narrow toxic-therapeutic window, interacts with many medications, and may cause tremors, nausea, and several other ill effects. While systemic corticosteroids have a myriad of adverse effects, including hyperglycemia, growth retardation, hypertension, insomnia, and edema, even inhaled corticosteroids pose risks, including cataracts, thrush, adrenal suppression, and bone loss (162,163). In contrast, the leu-kotriene modifiers continue to have an excellent safety profile and offer the

Solanaceae Nightshade family

Lycium is both a food and a medicine, and the berries can be eaten daily, dried if fresh isn't available, with claimed improvement in strength, eyesight, and male sexual performance. They are safe even in quantity, with no reported safety issues, except when somebody has problems with nightshade family plants, such as potato or tomato. Regular use of lycium berries can help improve night vision, reduces excessive watering of the eyes, and delays the onset of cataracts and glaucoma. The berries also stimulate lubrication of dry, red, or painful eyes, and prevent macular degeneration. eyesight

Ivclinical Indications

Extract is much more recent and results from research inspired not by traditional medicine but linked instead to the development of pharmacology. A first extract was marketed in 1965 in Germany by Dr. Willmar Schwabe Company. EGb 761 was first registered in France in 1974 and sold in 1975 by Institut Ipsen (now Ipsen Pharma) under the trademark Tanakan and in Germany as Rokan by Intersan in 1978 and as Tebonin forte by Dr. Willmar Schwabe Company in 1982. Its first therapeutic indications involved circulatory disturbances. More recently, the therapeutic effects that have been studied most are those affecting the psychobehavioral disorders associated with aging. These include cognitive disturbances, such as age-related memory disorders (grouped together today as mild cognitive impairment, MCI), or dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. Whether these various indications (Alzheimer's disease, in particular), are included in the approved indications varies from country to country. EGb 761...

Hay William Howard MD 18661940 Creator of the Hay Diet in 1911 the original inspiration for food combining

In his interest to improve national health and decrease mortality, Hay became more interested in natural medicine. He resolved, to take such things as he believed were intended by nature as foods for men after he cured himself of Bright's disease (now known as nephritis, or kidney disease) (Hay 1933 13). He also lost weight by changing his diet, and at the end of three months he was able to run long distances without distress. His weight decreased from 225 lbs. to 175 lbs years seem to fall away from him, and he felt younger and stronger than before for many years (Hay 1934 14). He accomplished this all by eating foods in their natural, unprocessed state and not eating to excess Proportion the amounts to the real desire at the time do not try to eat the whole because it is offered a mistake that is often made by those following suggested diets (Hay 1934 158). In addition, he believed that exercise is needed to keep us clean inside, and to enjoy all these periods as only one can do who...

Stevensjohnson syndrome

Stevens Syndrome Disease

The remaining interventions are similar to those of patients suffering thermal burns thermal environmental control, fluid replacement, pain control, nutritional support, and antibacterial treatment when needed. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are needed when the trachea and bronchi are involved. Anticoagulation has been recommended, because thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aggressive management by an ophthalmologist is necessary. Mortality rates for SJS range from 5 to 10 and increase to 30 to 40 for cases of TEN. Most patients die of sepsis or pulmonary involvement. SJS and TEN can produce significant ocular sequelae, including severe visual loss in a significant number of patients, requiring intensive involvement of an ophthalmologist. Residual skin discoloration, persistent erosions of the mucous membranes, phimosis, abnormal nail regrowth, and synechiae of the genital mucosae can also occur.

Recognition of Zinc Deficiency in Developing Countries

The detection of zinc deficiency in populations and the recognition of its association with health outcomes have been somewhat more challenging for zinc than for other nutrients, contributing to the delay in efforts to control it. The ability to diagnose zinc deficiency in individuals using biochemical measures is somewhat limited. For example, the concentration of zinc in serum or plasma may not diminish until the depletion of zinc is more advanced, making it less useful for diagnosing mild to moderate zinc deficiency states in individuals. Other possible biochemical indicators of zinc status have not been consistently demonstrated to reflect change in zinc status. These limitations may have subsequently dampened enthusiasm for evaluating zinc status at the population level. Furthermore, the health conditions that are clearly associated with zinc deficiency (e.g., childhood growth stunting, common childhood infections, and mortality described in further detail below) are general in...

Applications In Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

And chemical properties of bambara groundnut. All data reported are based on ethno-botanical information obtained from local communities. In many parts ofAfrica, bambara has recognized medicinal uses. Seeds are currently used in Burkino Faso to overcome numerous human diseases (Nacoulma-Ouedraogo, 1996). In north-eastern Nigeria, the seeds are not only consumed as food, but also used for medicinal purposes (Atiku, 2000). Seeds are used by the Igbos tribe in Nigeria to treat venereal diseases, and, according to the Luo tribe in Kenya, seeds are also used to overcome diarrhea. The consumption of roasted seeds is recommended in the treatment of polymenorrhea. The cooking water of BG seeds is used as drink, as a remedy for internal bruising here, in order to speed up the resorption of hematomas, sufferers are advised to drink seed flour diluted in water. Crushed seeds mixed with water are also administered to treat cataracts.

Pigmentation disorders

This condition is caused by an inherited absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, resulting in white hair, pink skin and eyes. The pink colour is produced by underlying blood vessels which are normally masked by pigment. Other clinical signs of this condition include poor eyesight and sensitivity to light.

Ophthalmic Conditions

Idlh Clip Image

Bilberry preparations have been used to improve poor night vision, light adaptation and photophobia, myopia and to prevent or retard diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and cataracts. Primarily the collagen-enhancing and antioxidant activities of bilberry provide a theoretical basis for these indications. Visual acuity and light adaptation A systemic review of 12 placebo-controlled trials (5 RCTs and 7 placebo-controlled non-randomised trials) concluded that the 2007 Elsevier Australia A significant improvement in visual performance has been demonstrated for bilberry extract in people with retinitis pigmentosa and hemeralopia (inability to see distinctly in bright light), suggesting that effects may be more pronounced in cases of impaired visual acuity (Gloria & Peria 1966, Junemann 1967). Glaucoma In one small study of eight patients, a single oral dose of 200 mg bilberry anthocyanosides was shown to improve glaucoma, as assessed by electroretinography (Caselli 1985)....

Indications Black Mustard

Abscess (f DAW) Adenopathy (f JLH) Ague (f DEM) Alopecia (f DAW) Ameba (f DAW) Amenorrhea (f FEL) Angina (f FEL HHB) Anorexia (f DAW DEM KAB) Apoplexy (f FEL) Arthrosis (1 FNF) Asthma (f DEM) Bite (f CEB) Bloat (f DAW) Boil (f DAW) Bronchosis (f HHB PH2) Cancer (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, colon (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, liver (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, neck (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, sinew (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, skin (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, spleen (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, throat (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, uterus (1 FNF JLH) Cancer, wrist (1 FNF JLH) Cardiopathy (f HHB PH2) Chest cold (f HJP) Cholera (f FEL) Circulosis (f PH2) Cold (f DAW DEM WIN) Congestion (f DAW FEL) Constipation (f DAW FEL) Cough (f DAW) Cramp (f DAW) CVI (f PH2) Depression (f HJP) Dermatosis (f DAW) Dropsy (f HJP) Dysentery (f DAW) Dysmenorrhea (f FEL) Dyspepsia (f CEB FEL) Ectoparasite (f DAW) Edema (f DAW) Enterosis (f FEL PH2) Epilepsy (f DAW) Fever (f BOU DAW DEM FEL HHB) Fibroid (f JLH) Fibroma (f JLH) Gastrosis (f FEL PH2 WIN) Glaucoma (f PH2) Headache...

Terpenoids And Phenolics

Marijuana has been used for more than 4000 years for the treatment of catarrh, leprosy, fever, dandruff, hemorrhoids, obesity, asthma, urinary tract infections, loss of appetite, inflammatory conditions, and cough.15 More recently, it has been used in medicine to treat patients who have glaucoma (an eye disease) and to alleviate the adverse side effects of chemotherapy used to treat patients who

Central and Peripheral Nervous System

Special senses The special senses related directly to the cranial nerves (vision, hearing, taste, and smell) experience age-related change. With respect to vision, the most typical of all biological aging changes is presbyopia, or the loss of accommodation function for the ocular lens with loss of capacity of the associated musculature. The consequence is loss of near-vision, which leads to the need for reading glasses or bifocal spectacles. A more important aging change related to the lens is the opacification that leads to cataract formation. The eye is designed to translate light energy into visual images, but the energy of light, particularly the ultraviolet fi rays of solar energy, damages ocular tissue. Thus, there is as a strong environmental component to the disarranging of the laminar stacking of the fibrillar proteins of the lens, which imparts its clear, transparent basis consumption of diets high in antioxidant vitamins has been associated with the delay in cataract...

Why cant I read anymore

If you have difficulty seeing, consult an ophthalmologist, a medical doctor who can diagnose and treat eye conditions. Remember that you are more likely to have difficulty seeing because of conditions unrelated to PD. The eye doctor will check your visual acuity for both distance (far) vision and near (reading) vision. A common condition is presbyopia where the length of your lens changes with age and in order to read you're forced to hold the paper further and further away). A second condition is cataracts, in which the lens of your eye becomes cloudy, and you think you're looking through water. A third condition is glaucoma, which results from an accumulation of fluid behind the eye. The fluid presses on the optic nerves and can, in time, lead to blindness. Pain often accompanies acute glaucoma. Chronic glaucoma is usually silent that is, you may not know you have it. Certain PD drugs, the anti-cholinergic drugs such as Artane and Cogentin, can increase eye pressure especially in...

Bibliography Of Vitamins

Beatty S, Koh H, Phil M, Henson D, and Boulton M (2000) The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Survey of Ophthalmology 45, 115-34. Egger SF, Huber-Spitzy V, Alzner E, Scholda C, and Vecsei VP (1999) Corneal wound healing after superficial foreign body injury vitamin A and dexpanthenol versus a calf blood extract. A randomized double-blind study. Ophthalmologica 213, 246-9.

Conceptualization Of Depression In Older Adults

Late Life Depression Elderly

Z is a 75-year-old, widowed man who suffers from macular degeneration and diabetes, which resulted in above-the-knee amputation. He lives on the second floor of a walk-up building and has difficulty leaving his apartment because of his poor eyesight, and because his prosthesis no longer fits his leg since Mr. Z's weight loss of 15 pounds in the past year. His only income is social security, with which he barely makes ends meet. Since his eyesight began to fail and his disability increased, Mr. Z has difficulty sleeping, has little energy, has trouble gaining pleasure from activities that he once enjoyed, has trouble concentrating, and feels that life is not worth living. In addition, his eldest son needed temporarily a place to stay and asked persistently to move in with Mr. Z, a situation, which in the past has led to friction. The San Francisco based Home-Delivered Meals Program referred Mr. Z to the University of California-San Francisco (UCSF) Over-60 Clinic program for...

Phenotypes of NBCe1deficient mice

A homozygous NBCel W5l6X mutation was identified in a girl with severe pRTA (blood HCO3- concentration of l0 mM), growth retardation, and the typical ocular abnormalities including band keratopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma ll . Homozygous W5l6X KI mice also presented with severe metabolic acidosis (blood HCO3- concentration of 3.9 mM), growth retardation, hyperaldosteronism, anemia and splenomegaly, and early death before weaning ll . Due to the process of nonsense-mediated decay, the expression of NBCel mRNA was halved in the heterozygous and virtually absent in the homozygous W5l6X KI mice. The NBCel activity in isolated renal proximal tubules from the homozygous KI mice was severely reduced to less than 20 of the activity in tubules from wild-type mice. The rate of bicarbonate absorption in the homozygous KI mice was also markedly reduced to less than 20 of that in wild-type mice, confirming the indispensable role of NBCel in bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules....

Nutritional Modification

Cataracts, senile macular degeneration, Impairment of immune function in older humans if inadequate amounts Increased amount in the diet is associated with delayed development of various forms of cataract Protective effect against the development of lung cancer in smokers Dietary supplementation associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration Absolute or relative deficiency associated with development of a number of cancers (not breast cancer) Dietary supplementation may decrease the rate of development of atherosclerosis Dietary deficits are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

When included in the diet of pregnant and breastfeeding women, DHA is thought to be beneficial to infant brain (learning ability) and eye (visual acuity) development. Scientists have found that women who ate fatty fish while pregnant gave birth to children with better visual development. Babies of mothers who had significant levels of DHA in their diet while breastfeeding experienced faster-than-normal eyesight development. Preliminary research also suggests that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids - and in DHA in particular - may help to decrease the chance of preterm birth, thus allowing the baby more time for growth and development.

Understanding Possible Causes of Fibromyalgia

Isa was in a very bad car crash the air bag was released so explosively that powder from the air bag flew under her contact lenses and temporarily damaged her eyes. She recovered from the accident or thought she did but then Lisa began suffering from severe and widespread pain and fatigue. Her symptoms continued to baffle her doctors for several years before one of them finally diagnosed her with fibromyalgia.

Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health

Partes Del Cuerpo Humano

There are many age-related disorders that, in theory at least, may be prevented or delayed by increased antioxidant defense. These disorders include arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cataract, dementia, hypertension, macular degeneration, the metabolic complications of diabetes mellitus, and stroke. The rationale for prevention of disease by antioxidants is based on the following facts.

Is there any medication that can help prevent gallstones from forming during rapid weight loss

Both of Megan's parents were diabetic, and Megan knew that diabetics were at high risk for heart disease and kidney problems and unfortunately, she knew from the sad experience of her mother's death that diabetes could also mean the loss of eyesight and the loss of her life.

If I cannot exercise how will my surgeon assess my cardiac status prior to surgery

Every once in a while a person does not get an acceptable increase in his or her heart rate with dobutamine. In such a case, atropine may be given. Since atropine can cause problems in people with glaucoma or in people who have trouble urinating (generally due to an enlarged prostate gland), be sure to alert the technician if you have either of these problems. This test will take longer than a standard stress test. Be prepared to spend at least two hours at your doctor's office for the dobutamine stress echocardiogram.

How are MS attacks treated Why are there different drugs to treat attacks of MS

A serious infection of the brain caused by the JC papilloma virus. Cataracts trast, oral steroids had no effect except to double the risk of relapse of optic neuritis as compared with IV Medrol. There often is a rapid response to either drug in patients with acute, severe relapses, but there are no good studies of either IV compared with any dose of oral steroids to evaluate this in MS. The side effects of steroids include an increased risk of infection, including viral, bacterial, yeast, fungal, and parasitic types. This includes progressive multifocal leukoen-cephalopathy (PML), which has been recently reported in two study patients treated with Avonex and Tysabri. Other complications include psychiatric problems, cataracts, osteoporosis, and ischemic necrosis of hips and other joints (as well as others).

Why should I take drugs that have side effects

What are the side effects of the drugs that are used for treatment of MS attacks Are cataracts a result of steroid use Is osteoporosis a complication of MS Side effects of steroids are common whether they are administered by mouth or IV. There are several categories of side effects alteration of mood, formation of cataracts, increased risk of infection, impaired wound healing, loss of calcium from bone, ischemic necrosis of bone, and muscle damage, to mention only the more commonly recognized problems. Cataracts Cataracts are a well-known complication of steroid use. The risk of cataracts is related to the total dose of steroid used but varies greatly from person to person. The type of cataract is unique to the use of steroids and is easily recognized by ophthalmologists. As with other cataracts, extraction with lens replacement is the only real treatment. There seems to be little or no risk associated with ACTH use in MS. Ophthalmologists

Linear Scleroderma en Coup de Sabre and Parry Romberg Syndrome

Some children with Parry-Romberg syndrome have developed inflammation of the optic nerve (the nerve in the back of the eye that provides vision). This is rare but requires immediate treatment if it occurs. I have also cared for children with linear scleroderma en coup de sabre who developed uveitis (ocular inflammation). All children with either linear scleroderma en coup de sabre or Parry-Romberg syndrome should have periodic ophthalmologic evaluations.

Dairy wW s Up with That

Robert Hatherill, a research scientist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, indicates that we can set ourselves up for serious disease by exposing the body to dairy products. Infants with milk allergies make antibodies to fight milk proteins that are linked to destroying cells in the pancreas. In the case of cataracts, milk sugar can build up in the lens of the eye, causing irreversible clouding or cataract. Dr. Hatherill, whose field is environmental toxicology, also points out that cow's milk enhances the uptake of lead, cadmium, mercury, and other metals.

What is an obesityrelated illness

Obesity-related illnesses and conditions include elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes and prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts. If you have one of these conditions gastric surgery can be considered when the BMI is 35 or higher. In many cases gastric bypass surgery can dramatically improve obesity-related conditions. I have had many patients who after gastric bypass surgery were able to give up their blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol lowering medications. Many young women who have been unable to become pregnant conceive and go on to have healthy babies (more on this later).

TABLE 1 Clinical Manifestations in Wegeners Granulomatosis

Consequently, patients frequently suffer from recurrent infections. Collapse of the nasal bridge ( saddle nose deformity) may occur due to nasal chondritis (Fig. 2). Nasal examination typically reveals crusting, discharge, friable erythematous mucosa, and granulation tissue. Nasal septum perforation may occur. The paranasal sinuses, most commonly the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses, are affected in at least two-thirds of patients. In time, many patients develop pansinusitis. Inflammation of sinus mucosa and epithelium may result in discharge, obstruction, increased pressure, facial pain, headache, and secondary infection. Chronic inflammation usually produces sinuses lined by scar tissue and airspace obliteration. Mastoiditis may result in severe pain. Regional extension of sinus disease may lead to intracranial complications such as meningitis, epidural and subdural empyema, or cerebral abscess. Orbital complications may arise de novo or be a complication of...

Testing for a Knee Flexion Contracture

Beginner Drawings

Eye involvement is the other significant complication of pauciarticular JA. Although we do not fully understand why the eye is affected, the presence of a positive ANA is strongly correlated with the risk of eye disease (see Chapter 6). The eye disease, called uveitis or iridocyclitis, takes the form of inflammation of cells in the anterior chamber of the eye. The inflammation can lead to damage to the iris with scarring and irregularity of the pupil. These scars are called syn-echiae (see Fig. 5-1). Because the eye disease is usually painless and may go unnoticed for a long period, it is recommended that an ophthalmologist screen ANA-positive children every three months. Although the risk of eye involvement is lower in ANA-negative children and in children with polyarticular-onset disease, it may still occur, and ANAnegative children should be screened every six months. Note that it is rare for children with pauciarticular arthritis to develop new eye disease after ten years of age.

NBCel mutations and migraine

Mutation Migraine

We recently identified two sisters with pRTA, ocular abnormalities and hemiplegic migraine. Genetic analysis excluded pathological mutation in CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A, but identified the homozygous S982NfsX4 mutation in the C-terminus of NBCe1 10 . Several heterozygous members of the family also presented with glaucoma and migraine with or without aura. This mutant showed a normal electrogenic activity in Xenopus oocytes. When expressed in mammalian cells, however, the S982NfsX4 mutant showed almost no transport activity due to a predominant retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Several mutant proteins that are retained in the ER are known to exert a dominant negative effect by forming hetero-oligomer complexes with wild-type proteins 64 , and NBCe1 can also form the oligomer complexes 65 . Indeed, co-expression analysis uncovered a dominant negative effect of the mutant through hetero-oligomer formation with wild-type NBCe1, which may be responsible for the occurrence of...

Indications Vine of Sodom

Anorexia (f UPW) Backache (f ZUL) Bacteria (1 X9644084) Boil (f UPW ZUL) Cancer (f1 JLH X3621146) Cancer, skin (f1 JLH X3621146) Cataract (f UPW) Constipation (f ZUL) Cough (f HOC) Cystosis (f HOC ZUL) Dermatosis (f1 BIB ZUL X3621146) Dropsy (f ZUL) Edema (f HOC) Enterosis (f ZUL) Fever (f UPW) Fungus (f BIB) Gas (f ZUL) Impotence (f BIB HOC ZUL) Infection (f1 BIB X9644084) Infertility (f BIB HOC ZUL) Itch (f ZUL) Keratoacanthoma (1 X3621146) Keratosis (1 X3621146) Leprosy (f UPW) Mycobacteria (1 X9644084) Mycosis (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f UPW) Otosis (f UPW) Pain (f ZUL) Proctosis (f BIB) Ringworm (f BIB UPW) Sore (f UPW) Swelling (f HOC) Toothache (f BIB ZUL) Tumor (f JLH) Wound (f BIB ZUL).

Enthesitisassociated Arthritis

Heel Insertion

The first widely recognized group of children with spondyloarthropathies were teenage boys with swollen knees and low back pain. They stood out because under the old nomenclature they were classified as pauciarticular-onset arthritis, even though typical pauciarticular-onset arthritis occurs in young girls. We now know that teenage boys with swollen knees have spondyloarthropathies. (The condition does occur in girls, but rarely in severe form.) Unlike young girls with pauciarticular-onset arthritis, who usually get better, the boys often have persistent chronic arthritis. The boys rarely are ANA-positive, and if they get eye disease, it is acute and painful, not the silent eye disease seen in younger children. In addition, their disease may start in the hip and is often associated with back pain. Often there is unrecognized inflammation in toes on the same side as the finger that can be found by careful examination. It is also common to find unsuspected wrist involvement on the...

Treatment of Th1Mediated Autoimmune Diseases

In our study of patients suffering corneal transplant rejection after penetrating keratoplasty, 2-3 days after the start of a 6-day treatment course in which eye drops were administered 3-4 days a time, transplant transparency improved, and edema decreased in 10 of 13 patients (Skurkovich et al. 2002a). At the end of week 1, the transplant became almost fully transparent, eye inflammation disappeared, and visual acuity improved. In the remaining three patients, additional treatment courses were needed for comparable improvement. The improvement was maintained through follow-up averaging of 7 months. Four patients with corneal transplant rejection given anti-TNF-a also had comparable positive results (Kasparov et al. 2004). We plan to test our approach in transplant rejection of various organs using a monoclonal anti-IFN-y or anti-TNF-a, soluble receptors to IFN-y or TNF-a or anti-CD20.

Tissue Uptake of Vitamin C

The relative importance of uptake of dehydroascorbate and dehydroascor-bate by tissues is unclear. It has been suggested that normal physiological concentrations of glucose will inhibit uptake of dehydroascorbate (Liang et al., 2001). Functional signs of deficiency may develop in poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, despite an adequate intake and adequate plasma concentrations, suggesting that hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity - and thus uptake of dehydroascorbate in competition with glucose - are important. Some of the adverse effects of poor glycemic control in diabetes mellitus (especially the development of cataract) may be related to this impairment of vitamin C

Vitamin A Deficiency Disorders

Anemia and Poor Growth Children with xe-rophthalmia and night blind mothers tend to be anemic relative to peers without eye disease. VA-supplemented trials often show improvement in indicators of iron status, including reductions in anemia. Mechanisms involved in this interaction are not clear but may involve enhanced iron absorption, storage,

FIGURE 2 Wegeners granulomatosis saddle nose deformity

Wegener Granulomatosis Disease

Ocular involvement may become apparent as eye or orbit pain, visual impairment, diplopia, episcleritis, scleritis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, retinitis, and dacrocystitis. Proptosis due to orbital pseudotumor is present in approximately 15 of cases and is the cause of pain, diplopia, and or visual loss. Pseudotumor may cause vision loss in approximately 50 of patients that present with this complication (Fig. 5) (7).

Preventing Diabetic Complications

As quercetin has been shown to inhibit aldose reductase, the first enzyme in the polyol pathway, a theoretical basis exists for its use in the prevention of long-term diabetic complications such as cataracts, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy (Chaudhry et al 1983). Quercetin may also provide beneficial effects in people with diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and preserving pancreatic beta-cell integrity (Coskun et al 2005).

Medication Treatment and Management

An Optic View of ADD If corrective lenses did not exist No well-meaning parent could hope to resist A pill that enabled their child to see And increase that child's ability For better sight and clear vision No, this would not be a tough decision. Then why wouldn't the same analogy Apply to the problem of ADD For brains are a lot like eyes, I believe. . . They both need to focus in order to see Medication as treatment might be prevented If ADD lenses were someday invented.

How is a diagnosis of MS made

The doctor asked whether I had ever had any prior events of weakness or numbness. By the time we went through his questions and my answers, a pattern of unexplained, often ignored, yet classic MS symptoms was evident. Previously, when a medical problem would get too bothersome, I would finally make an appointment with a doctor. Inevitably, the symptom went away I was too busy to keep the appointment before it went away or an explanation emerged, and thus, I canceled the appointment. I was a typical over-achiever working, making Christmas decorations by hand, entertaining my husband's corporate clients, starting a soup kitchen at our church, and keeping in touch with family each day. Fatigue was apparently due to hard work at law school and around-the-clock hours as a hostile takeover lawyer in the 1980s. Weakness in my right hand was explained as a side effect from writing a law review article and having a lumpectomy. Changes in my vision were thought to be due to long hours and the...

Hearing problems genetic 239

Usher's syndrome type II A condition that begins with a profound congenital deafness followed by a gradual loss of vision that often reaches complete blindness. This is one form of retinitis pigmentosa, in which pigment is deposited in and damages the light-sensitive portion of the eye. Originally described in 1959, the syndrome may account for 10 percent of all cases of congenital deafness. Although there is no treatment, regular exams by an ophthalmologist are recommended for all deaf children, as they can help identify Usher's syndrome early (usually before age six). Scientists have identified genes causing all three types of Usher syndrome to five different places on the chromosomes.

How can I rationalize surgically changing my insides and risking significant complications even death just to lose

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (January 8, 2003) reported that marked obesity in a man aged twenty to thirty could reduce his life expectancy by up to thirteen years. An extremely obese woman in this same age range might expect to lose up to eight years compared to her normal-weight friends. These are not small numbers. People who are overweight are more likely to develop obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, diabetes, sleep apnea, and arthritis. And obese people are much more likely than lean people to develop blood clots in the legs and lungs, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts.

What is diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is damage to the eye that results from chronically untreated or inadequately treated high blood sugar. In its more advanced form, it can result in severe visual loss or blindness if untreated, and this can occur suddenly without warning. It is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults in the United States and more than 20,000 people become blind as a result of diabetes each year. In order to prevent this, all people with diabetes should periodically be screened with an eye exam or photography of the Although it has clearly been shown that the rate of progression of diabetic retinopathy is related to the control of the blood sugar, there are several other factors involved. There is a hereditary tendency, so that if a close relative with diabetes developed retinopathy, you are more likely to do so. You should inform your eye doctor, who will be especially vigilant. Control of blood pressure has been shown to delay worsening of retinopathy and control of...

Selection of Dietary Assessment Measure

A third important objective of dietary survey data is to gain a better understanding of the correlates of nutrient intake, but with respect to individual characteristics that may be associated with lower versus higher intake and the extent to which intake is associated with indicators of health. For many nutrients, the day-to-day variation in intake is considerable, and multiple days would be required to achieve stable estimates of intake at the individual level. Without this, the misclassification of individuals in the distribution leads to a weakening in the ability to see associations that may truly be there. An extreme example is vitamin A, which tends to be concentrated in a few foods. If one frequently has liver and carrots, but happened not to on the day of the recall, that individual would be classified as having low vitamin A intake when their usual intake is quite large. Conversely, one who almost never eats these foods, but happened to have liver on the day of the recall...

Control of Blood Glucose Level

Irrefutable evidence exists that better control of blood glucose concentration reduces the risk of developing long-term complications from diabetes. This is especially true of microvascular complications such as retinopathy (eye disease), nephropathy (kidney disease), and nerve damage in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Control of blood glucose also reduces the risk of macrovascular disease (heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease), although the contribution of blood glucose to these complications is less strong.

Different Perspectives On Living With An Illness

Although I am in excellent general health (with a little arthritis), I have had a few bumps and bruises along the sugar road. In 1975, I went through a rather scary time with proliferative retinopathy. Lasers were still very new and technology was minimal. Luckily, I found a healer in Dr. Charles Campbell at the Harkness Eye Institute at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. He saved my eyes. I have met many physicians over the years, but only a few I consider healers. Dr. Campbell was the first. As a result of all the powerful laser and cryotherapies when I was diagnosed, along with good diabetes management, my eyesight still serves me well today. There are a few reminders left such as poor night vision, poor left peripheral vision, and shaky depth perception. These things, though, are a small price to pay and a petty inconvenience. causing pain and complications with my everyday living. Just as I enter my 50th year of living with diabetes, I have had a major complication...

Eye Complications of Juvenile Arthritis and Related Conditions

The key to preventing serious eye damage in children with JA is careful screening for the presence of inflammatory cells by an ophthalmologist (a medical eye doctor). This is done with a special instrument called a slit lamp, which is not regularly available in the office of physicians who do not specialize in eye disease. An additional quick and easy test recommended by some ophthalmologists is for parents to shine a flashlight in the child's eyes at bedtime one night each week. If you shine a light in a normal child's eye, you will see the pupil (black center) shrink dramatically. It should shrink in a perfect circle. If one eye does not shrink or the circle is irregular, this might be evidence of eye involvement. Whatever the cause, any child whose pupils do not shrink equally when you shine a light in them should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. This test may detect the onset of inflammation in the eye occurring between screening tests, but it is not a substitute for the...

Systemiconset Juvenile Arthritis

Pauciarticular- and polyarticular-onset arthritis affect girls more frequently than boys. In systemic-onset arthritis, the sex ratio is equal. In pauciarticular-and polyarticular-onset disease, a positive ANA test is common and eye disease is frequent. Both ANA and eye disease are rare in systemic-onset juvenile arthritis. Rheumatoid factor should not be present in children with systemic-onset arthritis. If RF is found in a child being investigated for systemic-onset disease, it is more likely that the cause of the symptoms is an infection.

Indications Indian Gum Arabic Tree

(f KAB WO3) Burn (f SKJ WO3) Cancer (f BIB JLH) Cancer, ear (f JLH) Cancer, eye (f JLH) Cancer, liver (f JLH) Cancer, spleen (f JLH) Cancer, testes (f JLH) Cataract (f GHA) Catarrh (f GHA HH2) Childbirth (f DEP) Chill (f ZUL) Cholecystosis (f BIB EB22 173) Cholera (f SKJ WO3) Cold (f GHA) Colic (f KAB) Condyloma (f BIB) Congestion (f BIB) Conjunctivosis (f DEP NAD) Cough (f DEP KAB NAD) Cramp (f BOU) Cystosis (f DEP) Dermatosis (f BOU WO3) Diabetes (f1 BOU DEP GHA SUW WO3 ZUL) Diarrhea (f GHA GMH PH2 SUW) Dysentery (f BIB DEP SUW) Dyslactea (1 X15283686) Dyspepsia (f ZUL) Dysuria (f KAB) Edema (1 X8982438) Enterosis (f1 DEP X15476301) Fever (f BIB BOU UPW) Flu (1 FNF) Fracture (f KAB) Fungus (1 WO3) Gastrosis (f DEP) Gingivosis (f BOU DEP PH2) Gonorrhea (f1 DEP KAB ZUL) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB PH2) Hepatosis (f1 BIB WO3 PR14 510 X11054840) High Blood Pressure (f1 BOU ZUL) HIV (1 X10189947) Hypersalivation (f DEP) Impotence (f NAD UPW) Induration (f BIB JLH) Infection (1 WO3 ZUL...

Evidence Report Endorsements

Green, M.D., M.P.H., American Academy of Family Physicians, Jack P. Whisnant, M.D., American Academy of Neurology, Barry N. Hyman, M.D., F.A.C.P., American Academy of Ophthalmology, Lisa Mustone-Alexander, M.P.H., P.A., American Academy of Physician Assistants, Henry Guevara, B.S.N., R.N., C.O.H.N.-S., American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Edward D. Frohlich, M.D., American College of Cardiology, Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D., American College of Chest Physicians, Ron Stout, M.D., American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jerome D. Cohen, M.D., American College of Physicians, Carlos Vallbona, M.D., American College of Preventive Medicine, James R. Sowers, M.D., American Diabetes Association, Inc., Mary C. Winston, Ed.D., R.D., American Dietetic Association, Daniel W Jones, M.D., American Heart Association, Roxane Spitzer, Ph.D., F.A.A.N., American Hospital Association, Nancy Houston Miller, B.S.N., American Nurses' Association, Linda Casser, O.D.,...

Light and Chemical Energy

Light absorption and possibly scavenging of destructive oxygen species by the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are also important in the macula of the primate eye. Lutein and two isomers of zeaxanthin are selectively accumulated in the macula, creating a yellow area of the retina responsible for high visual acuity (smaller amounts are also found in the lens). Both carotenoids absorb light of about 450 nm 'blue light,' thus filtering light to the light receptors behind the carotenoid layer in the macula. Filtering blue light can reduce oxidative stress to retinal light receptors and chromatic aberration resulting from the refraction of blue light. A similar filter effect may occur in the lens, but the concentration of the xanthophylls is much lower, and further protection occurs with age when the lens yellows. Whether scavenging of destructive oxygen species by these carotenoids is useful here is unproven, but the retina is an area of higher blood flow and light exposure than other...