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Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide Overview


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Marijuana Tax Act Of 1937

During his tenure as commissioner, Anslinger dominated the enactment of U.S. narcotics laws. In the mid-1930s, to puff the menace his Bureau was combating, he turned his attention to MARIJUANA (CANNABIS SATIVA hemp ), used at the time by a few Spanish Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and in such limited circles as jazz musicians. A number of responsible studies of the effects of marijuana (such as one by the Hemp Commission in British India in 1895) and its more potent form, hashish, had pronounced it relatively harmless but that gave Anslinger and a few other sensationalists of the day no pause. Shocking accounts of heinous crimes induced by marijuana began emanating from the Bureau the theory that pot smoking was a dangerous gateway to other addictions gained credence and a Bureau-sponsored film, Reefer Madness, was produced to popularize Anslinger's visions of the hazards of drug use. Viewed from the end of the Anslinger orchestrated the passage of a bill in Congress to place marijuana...

Marihuana Commission Recommendations On Decriminalization

Before 1960, use of MARIJUANA in the United States was generally confined to drug-using subcultures in the inner cities or in rural areas. Sale and use of the drug were prohibited both by federal law and by the laws of every state. Because marijuana was classified in 1937 as a ''narcotic drug,'' along with COCAINE and Opiates, penalties were severe simple possession for personal use was a felony in most states. During the 1960s, marijuana smoking suddenly became prevalent on college campuses for the first time among white middle-class youth of the baby-boom generation. Marijuana use also became associated, as a protest behavior, with dissenters (both adults and youth) against the war in Vietnam, and by the U.S. Military serving in Vietnam, especially from 1963 to 1973. As use of the drug increased, so did the number of arrests and so did the surrounding controversy. Questions were raised about the actual effects of marijuana on the health and behavior of those who used it and about...


Known in the United States mainly as the MARIJUANA plant, Cannabis sativa may first have been cultivated in Asia in a region just north of Afghanistan. From there it seems to have spread to China and India. It is mentioned in the early medical literature of China (e.g., in the Shenmong bencao) as well as in India (e.g., in the Sushruta samhita). Early nonmedical use has also been documented. Cannabis use seems to have become popular especially in India and the Islamic countries. The many social rules associated with its use are evidence of its long-standing integration into Indian culture. Traditional Indian society was divided into hereditary classes or castes. The highest caste was to use white-flowered cannabis the Kshatriya, the warriors, used the red-flowered plants the farmers and traders, the Vaishya caste, were to use the yellow-flowered plant and the Shudra, servant caste, used plants with dark flowers. The earliest Indian medical text, Sushruta samhita, apparently dating...


Several approaches have been used to study the effects of MARIJUANA or its active component, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on human immune systems. These include using cells isolated from chronic marijuana smokers, from volunteers who have been only exposed to marijuana smoke, or from nonexposed donors but exposing their cells to THC in the laboratory. A survey of chronic marijuana smokers showed that the response of their cells was depressed to stimulation with mitogens (substances that cause cell division). Several studies have shown that neither marijuana smoking nor THC is immunosuppressive. Nevertheless, other immune alterations have been associated with marijuana or THC, including significantly reduced serum IgG levels in chronic smokers inhibition of natural killer cell activity inhibition of phagocytic activity elevation of serum IgD levels and reduced T-cell numbers. THC also inhibited DNA-, RNA-, and protein synthesis in stimulated human lymphocytes. Obvious differences in the...


Marijuana is probably still the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with about 55 percent of young adults reporting some experience with the drug during their lifetimes. The active ingredient in MARIJUANA is delta9-TETRAHY-DROCANNABINOL (A9-THC), which exerts its most prominent effects on the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. A marijuana cigarette that contains approximately 2 percent of the active ingredient can produce an increase in feelings of well-being, euphoria, and relaxation when smoked however, short-term memory can be impaired as is the ability to carry out goal-directed behavior. The ability to drive or operate machinery Chronic marijuana users sometimes exhibit what is called the AMOTIVATIONAL SYNDROME which consists of apathy, impairment of judgment, and a loss of interest in personal appearance and the pursuit of conventional goals. However, it is not clear whether this syndrome results from the use of marijuana alone or from other...

Development Of Abuseliability Testing Procedures

The origins of assessing drug-abuse liability with humans can be found in some of the earliest writings of civilization, describing the subjective effects of naturally occurring substances, such as wine. Since the mid-nineteenth century, literary accounts of the use and misuse of opium, marijuana, and cocaine, among other substances, have emphasized their mood-altering effects and their potential for abuse. Only in recent years, however, have systematic methods for measuring such subjective effects been refined through the use of standardized questionnaires. Volunteers who are experienced drug users complete the questionnaires after they have taken a drug their answers to the subjective-effects questions how they feel, their likes and dislikes readily distinguish between the various drugs and doses, as well as between drug presence or absence (i.e., placebo).

Alcoholism Versus Unwise Drinking

With the development of modern chemistry and scientific growing methods, there has been an increase in the number, types, and strength of both organically derived (principally MARIJUANA) and chemically synthesized (laboratory-created) substances, which has prompted the implementation of measures to regulate their processing or manufacture, distribution, and dispensing (by pharmacists and physicians). In the United States, this regulatory scheme is called the Federal CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Act (Public Law 91-513, H.R. 18583, October 27, 1970). This act, which is regularly updated, classifies substances into five categories according to the potential for abuse, accepted medical effectiveness and use, and potential for creating physiological or psychological dependence. The Controlled Substances Act is the basis for federal and state drug laws that specify the conditions making specific substances illicit (illegal) drugs and define differential criminal penalties for their manufacture,...

Drugspecific Negative Consequences

Discussion in this section is limited to the specific negative consequences of a few of the most prevalent illicit drugs marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Other illicit substances that could have been discussed here include LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD), PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP), and other ''alphabet'' or ''designer'' drugs (''ecstacy,'' etc.), Amphetamine, and Methamphetamine (and its smokable form, ''ice''). This discussion also could Marijuana. The smoking of marijuana, probably the most widely used illicit drug, may well have more serious acute and chronic consequences than once thought. Recent and continuing research is casting new light on the chronic health risks posed by marijuana smoking, contradicting the conventional wisdom that it is less harmful than either drinking alcoholic beverages or smoking tobacco. For example, it is reported that three times the tar is delivered (and four times more is deposited) to the mouth and lungs per puff from a marijuana joint than from a...

Prevention Implications

Adolescent drug use must be considered in relation to the normal developmental challenges of adolescence. Because individuals use drugs in different ways for many reasons, no single prevention program will be effective with all groups at all ages. Understanding the factors that determine the link between the usage of one drug to the usage of another has important policy implications for developing prevention and educational programs. The sequential nature of drug use, as it is now understood, would indicate that prevention efforts targeted toward reducing or delaying adolescents' initiation into use of alcohol and cigarettes would reduce these adolescents' use of marijuana and other drugs. Similarly, efforts targeted toward reducing adolescents' marijuana use might reduce the rates of these adolescents' progression to ''higher'' stages of drug involvement. Prior drug use is a risk factor for progression that is, the use of one drug may increase the likelihood of use of another drug,...

Fatty Acids In Various Nuts And Seeds

The predominant lipid in all nuts and seeds investigated was triacylglycerol (TAG), which was found at levels above 90 , reaching 98.4 in macadamia nuts. The total lipid concentration in the samples ranged from 2.2 g 100 g in ginkgo biloba to 75.4 g 100 g in walnut. Apart from peanut and T. kirilowii Maxim. seed, most of the analyzed samples contained phytosterols pistachio contained the highest amount, at 5.0 . Some seeds contained diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. For instance, diacyglycerol comprised 4.8 of the total lipids in Cannabis sativa, and free fatty acids comprised 1.7 of the total lipids in Ginkgo biloba. Phytosterol ester ranged from 0.2 of total lipids in peanut seed to 7.1 in grand torreya seed however, it was not detected in walnut, pistachio, almond, and black melon seed (Table 4.1). Cannabis sativa Ginkgo biloba Peanut Cashew nut Pecan nut Brazil nut Black melon Fig leaf gourd Sesame Amarillo melon Sunflower Maize Pumpkin Cannabis sativa Macadamia Almond Pine nut...

Adult Children Of Alcoholics

Carry an increased risk of severe alcohol problems themselves (a probability of two to four times that of children of nonalcoholics). Probabilities also indicate that they are not more vulnerable to severe psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia or manic depressive disease) and that they do not carry a heightened risk for severe problems with some drugs of abuse (such as heroin). Nevertheless, it is possible that when children of alcoholics reach adolescence or adulthood, they might be slightly more likely to have problems with marijuana-type drugs or with stimulants (such as cocaine or amphetamines). It has also been observed that if their childhood home has been disrupted by alcohol-related problems in either or both parents, the children may have greater difficulties with a variety of areas of life adjustment as they mature or go off on their own.

Socioemotional Well Being

African-American male adolescents are more likely than their European-American counterparts to be labeled conduct disordered or antisocial to be disciplined, suspended, or expelled from junior high and high school and to be arrested and incarcerated. Some of these differences appear to reflect racial bias resulting in more harsh treatment of African-American adolescents for comparable offenses. Generally, studies of self-reported delinquency find no race differences. For several decades, however, the rate of death from homicide has been higher for African-American male adolescents than European-American adolescents. In annual national surveys conducted since the early 1980s, African-American adolescents, compared to European-American and Hispanic adolescents, consistently reported the lowest level of marijuana use, the lowest prevalence of alcohol use and binge drinking, and the lowest level of cigarette smoking. School-based surveys probably underestimate drug use by African-American...

Alcohol And Illicit Drugs

Abuse of hallucinogens, illicit psychomotor stimulants and sedatives, and marijuana is uncommon in old age use of these drugs by the elderly is almost exclusively by longstanding users of opiumlike substances and by aging criminals. The low incidence of this type of substance abuse in old age may result from the fact that users of illegal drugs die young, and even from the fact that the use of such drugs by the elderly is often underreported. However, problem drinkers may abuse drugs such as sedatives, opioids, marijuana, and amphetamines. Sometimes these drugs are used in combination with alcohol at other times, such drugs are taken in preference to alcohol, and alcohol is used only when the drug of choice is not available.

Caveats in Interpreting Electrophysiologic Data in Substance Abuse Research

Perhaps the most important aspect regarding the usefulness of EEG and ERP measures in substance abuse research is the issue of specificity. Namely, whether the electrophysiological changes observed are unique to the specific drug or condition tested. Most of the data available to date suggests that EEG and ERP measures have limited diagnostic specificity. For instance, acute administration of either ethanol, cocaine or marihuana all result in significant increases in alpha activity (Lukas et al., 1986, 1990, 1991, 1995), these increases are not only indistinguishable from each other but are also similar to those observed during transcendental meditation (Lindsley, 1952 Brown, 1970 Wallace, 1970). Given the association between alpha activity and pleasurable states, these findings suggest that the drug-induced increases in alpha activity represent a neurophysiologic response associated with reinforcement in general. Even though electrophysiological measures are not always specific...

Amotivational Syndrome This

Term refers to a hypothetical effect produced by drugs, especially MARIJUANA, whereby individuals lose interest or the ability to engage in activities motivated by normal psychological processes. It is associated with lethargy, a severe reduction in activities, unwillingness to work, failure to meet responsibilities, and neglect of personal needs including hygiene and nutrition (despite efforts by others to help and despite statements by the indi (SEE ALSO Cannabis sativa Complications)

Assessment Of Substance Abuse Drug Abuse Screening Test Dast

The DAST may be administered in a questionnaire, interview, or computerized format. The questionnaire version allows the efficient assessment of large groups. The DAST should not be administered to individuals who are presently under the influence of drugs, or who are undergoing drug withdrawal. Under these conditions the reliability and validity of the DAST would be suspect. Respondents are instructed that ''drug abuse'' refers to (1) the use of prescribed or over-the-counter drugs in excess of the directions and (2) any nonmedical use of drugs. The various classes of drugs may include cannabis, (e.g., marijuana, hash), solvents or glue, tranquillizers (e.g., valium), barbiturates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens (e.g., LSD), or narcotics (e.g., heroin). Remember that the questions do not refer to the use of alcoholic beverages.

Synergisms And Other Combinatorial Effects

Consist of hundreds of compounds that may vary slightly in their chemical groups but are still based on a common backbone. Thus dozens of flavanoids and flavanol glycosides have been described in epimedium including epime-dokoreanoside I, icariside I, icaritin, epimedoside A, epimedins A, B, and C, anydroicaritin, tricin, korepimedoside A and B, sagittatosides A, B, and C, sagittatins A and B, diphylloside A and B, baohuosides I-VII, and baohuosu (see Chapter 10). The major components of another common herb, ligusti-cum, were identified to be phthalides and their hydroxylated, oxygenated derivatives, including ligustilide, butylidenephthalide, cnidilide, neocnidilide, butylphthalide, cindium lactone, sedamonic acid and sedanolide, and the dihydroxylated derivatives (senkyunolide B-L) (see Chapter on 11). The activity of the leading psychotherapeutic herb Hypericum perfortum, or St. John's wort, for the treatment of depression is now believed to be attributable to at least three...

Marc A Schuckit Jerome H Jaffe

BHANG This is one of the many names given to the HEMP plant, Cannabis sativa, and its products. Bhang is of Hindi origin (from bhcig, which came into English about 1563) and refers to the leaves and flowering tops of uncultivated hemp plants. In 1895, the Indian Hemp Commission took the position that bhang was not a major health hazard. Bhang is taken in a beverage in India called thandaii, may be served in sweetmeats, or is used in making ice cream. It is often served at weddings or religious festivals and is freely available from sidewalk stands in the major cities. Generally, in India, the use of bhang and other cannabis products has been considered lower class. Probably as a result of continuing British-based influence, the upper-class drugs are alcohol and opium. (SEE ALSO Cannabis Sativa Marijuana Plants, Drugs from)

Canada Drug And Alcohol

IN Alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis are the most prevalent drugs of abuse in Canada. A 1996 na The 1994 national survey found that 23.1 percent of adults had used MARIJUANA or HASHISH at some point, while 7.4 percent had used it the past year. Less than one percent were current COCAINE or CRACK users, and 3.8 percent had used it at some time. Also, 1.1 percent of adults had used LYSERGIC Acid Diethylamide (LSD), Amphetamines (speed), or HEROIN in the past year, and 5.9 percent had used them at some point.

Substance Abuse And Cancer Treatment

On the one hand, NARCOTIC and psychoactive drugs have an important role in cancer treatment. Cancer patients have used Cannabis sativa (marijuana) to reduce the nausea associated with chemotherapy. LSD has been used in treating psychological disturbances associated with cancer. Although it was once feared that cancer patients would become addicted to opioids given for pain control, a recent study showed that of 11,882 cancer patients

Incidence And Prevalence Of Drug Abuse

Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA). The Children of Alcoholics Foundation estimates that in the U.S. population about one in eight were raised in homes with one alcoholic parent. Studies suggest that as many as 11 percent of newborns are drug-exposed in utero. About six million women of childbearing age are marijuana users and 10,000 children per year are born to women using opiates. Polydrug use and frequent use of alcohol and other drugs by parents increases the difficulty of researching any causal relationships between a specific drug and child abuse.

Karol L Kumpfer Jan Bays

Poor childhood impulse control and a difficult temperament have been related to adolescent marijuana use. When problematic factors continue into adolescence, both the use of illicit drugs and the psychopharmacological effects of some drugs may then actually serve to exacerbate and enlarge the adolescent's feelings of irritability and aggressive

Historical And Institutional Factors

In the mid-to-late 1970s, the United States directed its international drug-control attention to eliminating the heroin and marijuana crossing our border at Mexico. As the U.S.-Mexican crackdown began to achieve positive results and the number of U.S. smokers of Mexican marijuana diminished, Colombian traffickers seized the opportunity to break into the lucrative U.S. drug market by smuggling large amounts of marijuana and small packages of cocaine. In the early 1980s, Florida became the destination of choice for smugglers because of its long coastlines, access to boats and planes, location in the Caribbean, and large Hispanic population by 1986, Colombia supplied an estimated 80 percent of the cocaine HCl.

Alcohol Use And Abuse Among Adolescents

Another significant reason for concern about alcohol ingestion by adolescents is the close association of alcohol abuse with the use of other drugs. There is considerable evidence that alcohol use tends to precede use of illicit drugs, and some researchers argue that, based on long-term studies, alcohol serves as a ''gate-way'' to the use of illicit substances. As early as the eighth grade, alcohol users were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, and use of marijuana and cocaine than non-users of alcohol. This difference persists through grade 12 and thereafter (Kandel and Yamaguchi, 1993).

Theories On The Drugscrime Relationship

Drug Use and High-Rate, Serious Criminality. As indicated earlier, the onset of illicit drug use typically does not result in the onset of criminal behavior. In most cases, both drug use and crime begin in the early teens. Generally, the less serious the drug or crime, the earlier the age at onset of involvement. For example, among illicit drugs, marijuana is more commonly used at a younger age than are sedatives or tranquilizers, and these drugs, in turn, are typically used at a younger age than are ''hard'' drugs, such as heroin and cocaine. Similarly, minor forms of crime (e.g., shoplifting, vandalism) have an earlier onset than more serious types of crimes, such as assault, robbery, and drug dealing. Most marijuana users do not become heroin addicts, and most youths who commit minor property crimes do not subsequently become involved in more serious offenses. In both instances, the salient variable appears to be age of onset the younger the individual is when first using a...

Cropcontrol Policies Drugs

Eliminating drug crops at the source through crop eradication and or crop substitution has been a central, or at least an integral, part of U.S. international narcotics-control policy for the past twenty years. U.S. government policy officials maintain that eradication of illicit narcotics closest to the source of the raw material represents the most cost-effective and efficient approach to narcotics control within the overall supply-reduction strategy. The source of the illicit crop is believed to be the most commercially vulnerable point in the chain from grower to user. Since 1990, however, U.S. government policy officials have shifted away from crop control in favor of enhanced interdiction and targeting major trafficking organizations. Despite the best efforts of the United States and cooperating drug-SoURCE COUNTRIES, controlling the crop has been a difficult, if not impossible, task. Several Heroin and Marijuana crop-control successes have occurred, most notably in MEXICO and...

Croperadication Successes

In Mexico, Colombia, Belize, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Bolivia, Jamaica, and Thailand, croperadication efforts continue to have varying degrees of success in reducing illicit crop cultivation. In the mid-1970s, Mexico began an aerial herbicidal-eradication program on both opium and marijuana and reduced the cultivation of these illicit crops significantly. In 1991, Mexico reportedly destroyed some 16,000 of its 25,000 acres (6,500 of its 10,000 hectares) of opium and 27,000 of its 71,500 acres (11,000 of its 29,000 hectares) of cannabis. In the early 1980s, the Colombian government used glyphosate in the north to eradicate most of its marijuana there. In the early 1990s, Colombia planned to use the same herbicide on newly discovered opium in the Cauca and Huila departments. In 1987, the U.S. government supported the government of Belize in an aerial marijuana-eradication program, which resulted in a 90 percent decline in cannabis production. tion of nearly 30 percent of Thailand's...

Diagnosis Of Abuse And Harmful

A major diagnostic category that has received increasing attention in research and clinical practice is substance abuse in contrast to dependence. This category permits the classification of mal-adaptive patterns of alcohol or drug use that do not meet criteria for dependence. The diagnosis of abuse is designed primarily for persons who have recently begun to experience ALCOHOL or drug problems, and for chronic users whose substance-related consequences develop in the absence of marked dependence symptoms. Examples of situations in which this category would be appropriate include (1) a pregnant woman who keeps drinking alcohol even though her physician has told her that it could be responsible for FETAL damage (2) a college student whose weekend binges result in missed classes, poor grades, and alcohol-related traffic ACCIDENTS (3) a middle-aged beer drinker regularly consuming a six-pack each day who develops high blood pressure and fatty liver in the absence of alcohol-dependence...

The Dependence Syndrome Concept

Dependence syndrome elements in relation to the criteria for DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and ICD-10. The same elements apply to the diagnosis of dependence on all psychoactive substances, including alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, sedatives, ph-encycledine, other hallucinogens, and tobacco. The elements represent biological, psychological (cognitive), and behavioral processes. This helps to explain the linkages and interrelationships that account for the coherence of signs and symptoms. The co-occurrence of signs and symptoms is the essential feature of a syndrome. If three or more criteria do occur repeatedly during the same period, it is likely that dependence is responsible for the amount, frequency, and pattern of the person's substance use. Tolerance. TOLERANCE is a decrease in response to a psychoactive substance that occurs with continued use. For example, increased doses of heroin are required to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses. Tolerance may be physical,...

Early Models Of The Disease Concept

Meanwhile, from the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, the Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs of the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) continued to formulate and refine definitions of addiction and HABITUATION that could facilitate WHO's responsibility (required by international treaties) for control of NARCOTICS, cocaine, and CANNABIS. In the 1950s, the presence of physical dependence was emphasized in the definition of drug dependence, and the WHO Expert Committee was still concerned with differentiating between psychic dependence and physical dependence. At one level, the concept of psychic dependence was compatible with the psychodynamic view that these disorders were a response to psychic distress (such as negative mood states). According to the psychodynamic model, excessive alcohol or drug consumption was merely a response to underlying psychopathology. This model was also consis

Dropouts And Substance

As much is known about the substance use of those who become high school dropouts. Nonetheless, by putting together evidence from a variety of sources, including the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG Abuse and the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys sponsored by the U.S. government, it is possible to say that high school dropouts are much more likely to have started using TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, and other drugs, as compared with their peers who remained in school. There also is some evidence that dropping out of high school is associated with an increased risk of adult-onset alcohol-dependence syndromes, even among persons whose dropping out could not have been caused by the consequences of starting to drink during the adolescent years. Whether this conclusion also holds for adult-onset DEPENDENCE on other drugs such as Cocaine or Marijuana is not yet clear but is under study.

Trends In Drugrelated Emergencies And Deaths

In 1999, the largest number of episodes (196,277, or 35 of all episodes) were due to use of ALCOHOL in combination with other drugs. The other drugs mentioned most frequently were COCAINE (168,763, or 30 ), Heroin Morphine (84,409, or 15 ), amphetamine (11,954, or 2 ), and methamphetamine speed (10,447, or 2 ). In 1999, marijuana hashish mentions exceeded heroin morphine mentions, changing a rank ordering of illicit drug mentions that had been constant since Long-term Trends, 1990 1999. The number of drug-related episodes rose 49 percent from 1990 to 1999, from 371,208 to 554,932. Although males consistently outnumber females in illicit drug mentions, their long-term patterns of growth are similar. From 1990 to 1999, mentions of cocaine and heroin morphine more than doubled for both males and females. ED mentions of marijuana hashish in 1999 were five and six times their 1990 levels for males and females, respectively. Mentions of the four major illicit drugs increased from 1990 to...

Drug Interdiction The interdiction

Seize them, together with the transport and or persons that carry them on their way from the producing country to the importing country many of the SEIZURES occur just as the drugs are brought across the border. The principal drugs subject to U.S. interdiction are COCAINE and MARIJUANA, both of which are imported primarily from Latin America. The United States, uniquely among modern nations, has made interdiction a significant part of its effort to control the supply of drugs, at least for cocaine and marijuana, since about 1975. In addition to other federal agencies, it has involved the military in this effort. Though interdictors have seized large quantities of drugs, there are still numerous questions about the effectiveness of the program as a method of reducing the use of drugs, particularly cocaine.

The Effectiveness Of Interdiction

Interdiction clearly has had some important consequences for the drug trade in the United States. In contrast to the 1970s, little marijuana is now imported from Colombia, though that nation remains a low-cost producer. Successful interdiction, particularly against marine traffic from Colombia, has imposed such high costs on Columbian imports that now both Mexican and U.S. producers have come to dominate the U.S. market. Interdiction against Mexican-produced drugs is more difficult and thus the import price of Mexican marijuana is less than that of Colombian.

General Health Issues or But I Want to Hang Out in the Sun in a Tiny Bikini Smoking Cigarettes and Drinking with My

The use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illegal drugs is common amongst adolescents and experimentation is common even amongst those who are not regular users. It is important to establish a nonjudgmental confidential environment in which the health care provider can ask about use of these substances, and provide clear guidance about health implications to the adolescent. For many adolescents, providing factual information about the risks of drug use in the context of their illness is adequate in helping them to make good health choices. (For further discussion of communication strategies with adolescents, see Chapter 4.)

Other Past Drug Epidemics

The usage of marijuana and the psychedelic drugs (e.g., LSD) grew during the 1960s and seems to have peaked during the 1970s. In the 1990s, there were conflicting reports of increasing consumption of these drugs, especially LSD. By some accounts, the nation entered a new phase of LSD usage. It appears, however, that this nationwide increase was not detectable in population estimates from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, and it is possible that the apparent nationwide epidemic actually remains quite limited in scope. Later, and after the epidemic of cocaine use had started to decline, two other main hypotheses emerged. One of these took note of the demographic changes to which Singh had pointed but also drew on three other interrelated epidemiologic observations, namely that (1) cocaine use almost always starts after MARIJUANA use has started (2) a history of marijuana use probably is the strongest indicator of susceptibility for trying cocaine and (3) most marijuana users...

Epidemiology Of Drug Abuse

Are these same subgroups of young adults at especially high risk of becoming dependent on psy-choactive drugs such as marijuana or cocaine These same subgroups of young adults are at especially high risk of becoming dependent on psy-choactive drugs such as marijuana or cocaine. When all the abuse or dependence syndromes attributable to nonmedical use of these drugs are considered, the estimated risk for males aged 18 to 29 of developing clinically recognizable drug problem is estimated at 4.4 percent per year for females aged 18 to 20, it is about 1.6 percent. It also is important to note the relatively large size of the survey estimates obtained in these epidemiologic surveys. For example, in 1998, as part of the High School Senior Survey (Monitoring the Future), almost 16,000 high school seniors were asked to fill out confidential questionnaires about their use of such drugs as marijuana and cocaine more than 38 percent reported having taken these drugs illegally, 80 percent...

Examples Of Research Study

Mental situation consume significantly more drink than those who are not expecting alcohol, regardless of whether or not they do receive alcohol in their drink. With the discovery of this phenomenon, even in people who are considered dependent on alcohol, this finding has been interpreted as providing contrasting evidence to the disease model's notion that ''loss of control'' is caused exclusively by the pharmacological effects of alcohol the findings introduced the idea that cognitive factors are influential in a person's drug-related behavior. The presence of expectancy effects have also been identified in research on drugs other than alcohol, including TOBACCO and MARIJUANA (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985).

Prescribing painkillers The dilemma

Enforcement agencies in many states are concerned about the abuse of prescription medications, particularly of scheduled drugs. Drug abusers don't take scheduled drugs for pain control. They take them to attain an artificial high, or because they've become addicted to the drug (often because they originally took the drugs to get high). Sometimes, people in severe pain also become addicted to painkillers if their physicians don't monitor them very carefully. Addiction to narcotics is more likely to occur if you're a smoker, or if you've had other addictions in the past to substances such as alcohol or marijuana.

Precipitating Factors

Effects of other drugs on aggression also were evaluated by using this type of laboratory experiment. These studies are important because some tranquilizers are prescribed for anxiety and irritable behavior (Ratey & Gordon, 1993). Low doses of marijuana could result in aggressive behavior, but high doses suppressed it. The use of low doses of benzodiazepines increased aggression, but amphetamines did not augment aggression, and these results were contrary to prevailing expectations. Other studies showed that pretreatment with nicotine, dextroamphetamine, or propranolol (which lowers blood pressure) inhibited aggressive behavior. Furthermore, when individuals were evaluated on an aggression rating scale, the nonaggressive group did not respond to provocation while intoxicated with alcohol, but persons in the moderate- It also should be noted that alcohol and other drugs have a pharmacological effect on sexual arousal and sexual behavior. Among men, alcohol can cause secondary...

Foreign Policy And Drugs Drug

In 1971-1972 some members of Congress tried to use foreign-aid restrictions to stop the entry of Turkish HEROIN, but the government did not want to risk hurting relations with an important defense ally over heroin, which was not considered a mainstream drug. The U.S. government found a compromise through diplomatic efforts, which led to the Turkish government severely limiting the cultivation of OPIUM POPPIES (from which heroin is made) and changing the way in which poppies were processed into legitimate medicinal opium. Parallel diplomatic negotiations with MEXICO resulted in cooperation on MARIJUANA eradication efforts. On the international front, the U.S. government pressed hard for the ratification of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Drugs and created the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), the predecessor of today's United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP). During the rest of the decade, however, drug...

Gangs Drugs And Neighborhood Change

What are the changes that occurred in cities and communities to explain variation and change in gang participation in drug selling Two factors have in particular contributed to changes in gangs and the substitution of instrumental and monetary goals for the cultural or territorial affinities that unified gangs in earlier decades. First, cocaine markets changed dramatically in the 1980s, with sharp price reductions. Before cocaine became widely available, drug distribution was centralized, with a small street-level network of heroin users responsible for retail sales (Curtis, 1992 Johnson et al., 1985). The heroin markets from the 1970s were smaller than the mid-1980s crack market, both in total volume of sales and the average purchase amount and quantity. Street-level drug selling in New York City, for example, was a family-centered heroin and marijuana business until the 1980s,

Hair Analysis As A Test For Drug

USE Because every drug taken becomes a permanent part of the user's hair, laboratory analysis of hair can reveal the presence of a variety of drugs, including HEROIN, COCAINE, AMPHETAMINES, PHENCYCLIDINE, MARIJUANA, NICOTINE, and BARBITURATES. Hair analysis is widely accepted by courts, parole boards, police departments, and employers around the country for detecting long-term drug use. It's also increasingly used to determine maternal fetal drug exposure and to validate self-reports of drug use.

The Harrison Act And Us Drug Policy

Many critics of the Harrison Act argue that the legislation created more problems than it solved. In particular, they charge that the measure failed to eradicate the narcotics problem, primarily because it failed to prohibit the sale and distribution of MARIJUANA. In addition, detractors argue that the act did not resolve the issue of whether drug addicts should be treated as criminals or as patients requiring medical treatment. They also contend that the courts hampered the Treasury Department s enforcement authority. Specifically, courts prohibited the Treasury Department from seizing narcotics, interpreting the Harrison Act to serve as a revenue, rather than as a penal, measure. After passage of the Harrison Act, illicit use of narcotics increased initially as a result of these omissions or ambiguities.

Robert T Angarola Alan Minsk

HASHISH Hashish is the Arabic word for a particular form of CANNABIS SATIVA it came into English at the end of the sixteenth century. Hashish is the resin derived principally from the flowers, bracts, and young leaves of the female hemp plant. The resin contains cannabinoids the one of major interest being TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC). The THC content will vary depending upon the composition of the hashish, but often it is about 4 percent or more. Usually the resinous portion is sticky enough to allow the material to be compressed into a wafer or brick. Some preparations contain only the resin and are known as hashish oil. Similar preparations of the resinous material and flowering tops of the plant have been given a variety of names in different regions charas in India, esvar in Turkey, anascha in areas of the former USSR, kif in Morocco and parts of the Middle East. One of the ways in which hashish is prepared is to boil Cannabis leaves in water to which butter has been added. THC,...

Toxins and Contaminants

Some plant foods have been the cause of occasional outbreaks of poisoning in special circumstances. For example Jimson weed, Datura stramonium, contains alkaloids including scopolamine which produce hallucination and the hemp plant, Cannabis indica, and the peyote, containing mescaline, have been consumed deliberately for their psychic effects.

Demographic Differences

By senior year, male adolescents are more likely than female adolescents to use most illicit drugs, and the differences tend to be largest at the higher frequency levels. In 1999, for example, 8 percent of male high school seniors reported that they were using marijuana daily, versus 4 percent of female seniors. For many specific substances, there is little gender difference in use among eighth and tenth graders. Indeed, female eighth graders have slightly higher rates of an College-Bound versus Non-College-Bound. Non-college-bound students are more likely than college-bound students to use any of the licit or illicit drugs. More frequent use of the drug tends to show greater differences. For example, 6 percent of non-college-bound eighth graders report smoking marijuana daily, compared to 1 percent of the college-bound corresponding figures for tenth and twelfth graders are 10 percent versus 3 percent, and 9 percent versus 5 percent, respectively. Striking differences show up...

Monitoring Mental Activity

While performing a memory task, cannabis abusers showed less neuronal activation than control subjects in the middle temporal gyrus but areas of higher and lower activation within the parahippocampal gyrus, together with differences in hippocampal activation (Block et al., 2002). Methamphetamine abuse is more common than the abuse of cocaine, marijuana and heroin combined, according to a survey by the National Association of Counties. London and colleagues reported corticolimbic abnormalities in methamphetamine-dependent subjects during early drug abstinence (London et al., 2004).

Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay

IMPAIRED PHYSICIANS AND MEDICAL WORKERS Concern about impairment from alcohol and drugs in health-care professionals in the United States and in other countries has waxed and waned during the twentieth century. Until the 1960s, ALCOHOL, the OPIATES, and other PRESCRIPTION Drugs were the primary concerns. More recently, the concern was extended to MARIJUANA and Cocaine. experimented with drugs both licit and illicit. They are, however, less likely to be current users of illicit substances (Hughes et al., 1992). Self-medication by physicians has changed little since the 1960s, whereas the use of cocaine and marijuana has greatly increased (McAuliffe et al., 1986). Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamine

Industry And Workplace Drug

Workplace ''antidrug'' policies date back to the 1960s, particularly in the transportation and other safety-sensitive industries. These policies were not then very effective because detection methods were poor and the signs and symptoms of drug use are often subtle and difficult to identify. Not until 1980, when new technology became available that provided reliable, inexpensive detection methods for MARIJUANA and other commonly abused drugs, did workplace detection efforts begin to be effective. Interestingly, the ''workplace'' that triggered the birth of these antidrug initiatives was the U.S. military.

Historical Supply Shifts

And the Iranian Islamic revolution erupted in 1979, significant amounts of Southwest Asian heroin from Afghanistan and Pakistan were smuggled, often by Iranians, through Western Europe into the United States. Throughout the 1970s, heroin from Mexico, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East was high on the U.S. drug-control policy agenda. No one denied that cocaine and marijuana abuse might be dangerous indeed, initial attempts were made to initiate bilateral programs with the Andean cocaine source countries in their traditional growing areas, but because policymakers believed that the negative health consequences of heroin consumption were far worse, the U.S. law-enforcement emphasis was placed on cocaine and marijuana. The 1980s. In the 1980s, targeting heroin gave way to focusing on the reduction of cocaine and marijuana use in the United States, since greater numbers of Americans were using and abusing them, creating large drugged populations. Nongovernmental institutions became very...

Seizures Of Illicit Drugs

Various trends can be seen by studying the records of seized drugs. Some decreasing trends have been recorded for MORPHINE in 1982, for heroin in 1981 and 1985, and for cocaine in 1984. Irregular trends emerged for Cannabis products a 128-percent increase in 1981, a decreasing trend until 1985, and two huge increases in 1986 and in 1989 (see Table 2). The decision to standardize descriptions of drug seizures by reference to the percent of the primary drug instead of the raw weight of the primary drug seized should improve the accuracy of record keeping (see Table 3).

Declaration Aspects Of Legal Regulation

Arguments drawing on the declarative aspects of legal regulation are routinely employed by proponents of restrictive controls over the availability and consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Criminal sanctions against the simple possession of controlled substances are frequently regarded as indispensable symbols of social disapproval. Such arguments have been prominent in debates concerning the decriminalization of possession of marijuana. Moreover, graded or stratified penalty schemes, which punish the possession of ''more harmful'' drugs more severely than that of ''less harmful'' drugs, may be favored because they denote the relative seriousness of these transgressions. Public SMOKING bans and antipara-phernalia laws seem to be particularly designed to reinforce attitudes unfavorable to smoking and recreational drug use. Joy, J., Watson, J.R., S.J. and Benson, J. A. (eds). (1999) Marijuana and medicine Assessing the science base, 131-211. Washington, D.C. National...

Policy Recommendations

The commission's principal policy recommendation was that possession of one ounce or less of marijuana for personal use be ''decriminalized. ' At the same time, the commission rejected outright legalization of the drug and recommended perpetuation of prohibitions against cultivation and distribution for commercial purposes. The commission stipulated that social policy should aim to discourage use of the drug, but it emphasized that the costs of a criminal prohibition against possession far exceeded its benefits in suppressing use. Although President Nixon disavowed the commission's principal recommendation on marijuana, it won widespread support. In 1973, the National In 1973, Oregon became the first state to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. Within the next five years, ten additional states eliminated incarceration as a penalty for simple possession, usually substituting a 100.00 fine. Five of these states made possession a ''civil offense'' in others, it...

Botanical Description

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1754) was the first to describe the Cannabis genus using the modern system of taxonomic nomenclature. Cannabis sativa is a mono- and dioecious annual plant in the Cannabaceae family (Kingdom, Plantae Division, Magnoliophyta Class, Magnoliopsida Order, Rosales) (Hillig, 2005). It is a flowering herb with palmately compound or digitate leaves and serrate leaflets. Generally, cannabis has imperfect flowers with staminate and pistillate flowers occurring on separate plants (Lebel-Hardenack & Grant, 1997). It is a wind-pollinated plant that produces seeds. Cannabis is a diploid organism, having a chromosome complement of 2n 20. Two main types of Cannabis sativa must be distinguished the industrial type and the drug type. Industrial hemp can be found as fiber or seed oil. The main cannabinoids found in this type are cannabidiol (CDB) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The THC concentrations are < 0.3 , so it has no psychoactivity. The second type of...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Cannabis sativa is among the earliest plants thought to be cultivated by humans. Archeological findings indicate that it has been cultivated for fibers (strings, textiles, ropes, and paper) in China since 4000 BC (Li & Lin, 1974), and in India about 3000 years ago, where it was used as an analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antispasmodic, appetite stimulant, digestive, diuretic, and aphrodisiac, among other uses (Aldrich, 1997). Cannabis was considered sacred in Tibet, where it was used to facilitate meditation (Touwn, 1981). Assyrians also used it as incense, and the Persians were aware of many of the plant's effects (Touwn, 1981).

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

It is not legal to cultivate hempseed, in the United States. This ban is mostly due to concerns that the legalization of hemp may make it easier to legalize marijuana (West, 1998). Other governments have accepted the distinction between the two types of cannabis and, while continuing to penalize the growing of marijuana, have legalized the growing of industrial hemp (West, 1998). Canada, France, Australia, China, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Spain have been among the most important producers of hempseed. Within the past 10 years, hempseed has been legally used as food for humans and animals in some countries, like Canada. It is also an important component in paint and varnish production (Callaway, 2004). Some countries have used the fiber from hempseed in the past to produce fabrics or specialty papers, such as canvas, linen, tea bags, paper money, and others (Callaway, 2004). Hempseed and hempseed meals are also edible products that are proposed to have health-related...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Based on the close relationship between the biochemical pathways of ALA and LA, and the capacity of both to be converted into long chain fatty acids, plant sources of ALA (like flax seed and canola) have attracted scientific attention for their health-related potential. Unfortunately, because of legal regulations, lack of knowledge, confusion, and controversies about the differences between fiber hemp and marijuana, hempseed research has been limited and slow to develop. Not only is the nutritional value of hempseed important, but the effects of LA as an Medicinal use of hempseeds (cannabis sativa L.) effects on platelet aggregation

Military Drug And Alcohol Abuse In The United States Drug and

Drug and alcohol abuse are strongly opposed within the U.S. armed forces because of their negative effects on the health and well-being of military personnel and because of their detrimental effects on military readiness and the maintenance of high standards of performance and military discipline (Department of Defense, 1997). In the U.S. military, drug abuse is defined as the wrongful use, possession, distribution, or introduction onto a military installation of a controlled substance (e.g., marijuana, heroin, cocaine), prescription medication, over-the-counter medication, or intoxicating substance (other than alcohol). Alcohol abuse is defined as alcohol use that has adverse effects on the user's health or behavior, family, community, or the Department of Defense (DoD) or that leads to unacceptable behavior.

Specific Assessment Measures

Perhaps the most practical means by which the typical outpatient therapist can assess for the depressed patient's use of, abuse of, or dependence on alcohol and other drugs is to use a self-report screening instrument. Mueser at al. (2003) note that many such extant measures developed for the general population often lack strong predictive utility for identifying substance use disorders in clinical populations. A notable exception is the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De La Fuente, & Grant, 1993), which has shown good sensitivity and specificity in detecting alcohol use disorders in persons with severe mental illness (Mueser et al., 2003, p. 56). Another useful measure, the Dartmouth Assessment of Lifestyle Instrument (DALI Rosenberg et al., 1998), is a brief, convenient screening device that can be used as a self-report questionnaire on paper or on computer, and may also be used in clinical-based interview form. The DALI has been found to...

Development Of Military Policy

The reaction to the crash of a jet on the aircraft carrier Nimitz in 1981 again focused public attention on the military's drug abuse problem, particularly marijuana use. Autopsies of fourteen Navy personnel killed in the crash showed evidence of marijuana use among six of the thirteen sailors and nonprescription antihistamine use by the pilot. The armed forces reinstituted urine testing for drugs in 1981 as a result of this incident and other concerns about drug use in the military. New breakthroughs in drug- testing confirmation procedures and more rigorous procedures for tracking urine samples overcame earlier legal objections. Urine tests, which are conducted either randomly or when a person is suspected of using drugs, are a major tool for the detection and deterrence of illicit drug use (DoD, 1997).

Worldwide Survey Series

The surveys have all been conducted using similar methods. Civilian researchers first randomly selected a sample of about sixty military installations to represent the armed forces throughout the world. At these designated installations, they randomly selected men and women of all ranks to represent all active-duty personnel. Civilian research teams administered printed questionnaires anonymously to selected personnel in classroom settings on military bases. The few personnel (about 10 ) who were unable to attend the group sessions (e.g., were on leave, sick, or temporarily away from the base) were mailed questionnaires and asked to complete and return them. Participants answered questions about their use of illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin), the misuse of prescription drugs (e.g., stimulants, tranquilizers), about the frequency and amount of alcohol use, and problems resulting from drug or alcohol use. These data collection procedures yielded from over 15,000 to nearly...

Trends In Drug And Alcohol

Figure 1 presents trends over the seven worldwide surveys on the percentage of the active-duty military force who engaged in any illicit drug use or heavy alcohol use during the thirty days prior to the survey. Any illicit drug use was defined as use one or more times during the past thirty days of marijuana hashish, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, and nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs, including stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, or analgesics. Heavy alcohol use was defined as five or more drinks per typical drinking occasion at least once a week. As shown in Figure 1, use of any illicit drug declined sharply from just under 28 percent in 1980 to about 3 percent in 1998 heavy drinking declined significantly from approximately 21 percent in 1980 to just above 15 percent in 1998, although the decrease was less dramatic than for drug use. Heavy drinking by itself does not constitute alcohol abuse, but it does indicate drinking levels that are likely to result in...

Minimum Drinking Age Laws

The legal drinking age became a major issue because of the serious consequences of young people's consumption of alcohol. Most teenagers drink in addition, almost a third regularly become intoxicated. Damage resulting from the drinking of youth is extensive. Car crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers (Baker et al., 1992), and one third to one half of the crashes involve alcohol (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1990). Other leading causes of disability and death among youth, such as suicide, homicide, assault, drowning, and recreational injury, involve alcohol in one quarter to three quarters of the cases (Wagenaar, 1992). Injuries are only part of the problem. Early use of alcohol appears to affect multiple dimensions of physical, social, and cognitive development (Semlitz & Gold, 1986). Alcohol use increases the odds of having unprotected sex (i.e., failure to use a condom), which increases the chance of pregnancy and catching sexually transmitted...

Restless Legs Syndrome RLS

Symptoms include an irresistible urge to move the legs, sensations of creeping, crawling, numbness, itching, tugging, and tingling. These symptoms tend to become worse during prolonged sitting or at night and improve when the legs are moved. Severe RLS can also involve the arms and even the trunk. RLS is thought to be occasionally associated with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and commonly occurs with end-stage renal (kidney) disease dialysis. The diagnosis is based on history and physical exam, and sometimes a sleep study will be ordered to check for other sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. For those whose RLS disrupts or prevents their sleep, medications used to promote sleep might include anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, opioids, and dopamine agonists. People who do not respond to treatment with sleep medications also may benefit from iron, B-12, and folic acid supplements. Pregnant and perimenopausal women are at higher risk for RLS due to iron...

Strengths And Limitations Of The Nhsda

The survey does not cover certain populations likely to have heavy illicit drug use, such as the homeless and prison populations. While these missing populations, because they are small, make little difference in estimating MARIJUANA or ALCOHOL prevalence, rarer behaviors such as HEROIN or Crack use may be severely underestimated by the NHSDA. Data validity from the survey is also in question because of the self-report methods employed and the voluntary nature of the survey.

Major Findings Of The Survey

The NHSDA has tracked the changing nature of drug abuse since 1971. At the time of the first survey, about 10 percent of the population age twelve and older had ever used illicit drugs. This was estimated to be more than double the rate of lifetime use as of the early 1960s. In 1998, an estimated 13.6 million persons or 6.2 percent of the American population of 12 years of age or older were current illicit drug users, meaning they had used an illicit drug in the month prior to interview. The report for current use showed that more than one drug had been used by some of the total 13.6 million, with a breakdown of this figure as follows Some 11 million reported using marijuana or HASHISH an estimated 1.8 million cocaine and 130,000 heroin. The rate of current use of inhalants by Americans has remained steady since 1991 (between 0.3-0.4 percent of the population). The rate of current use of HALLUCINOGENS and Prescription Drugs was estimated at 0.7 percent and 1.1 percent respectively in...

James E Smith Revised by Michael J Kuhar

Nutmeg contains elemicin and myristicin, whose structures have some similarities to the hallucinogen MESCALINE as well as to the Psychostimulant Amphetamine. It has been hypothesized that el-emicin and myristicin might be metabolized in the body to form an amphetamine- and or mescaline-like compound, but this has not been proven. The effects of nutmeg have been reported to have some similarities to those produced by MARIJUANA however, the large amounts of nutmeg that must be ingested to get behavioral effects can cause dry mouth and thirst, increases in heart rate, vomiting and abdominal pain, severe headaches, agitation, and panic attacks.

Onset Of Opioid Dependence

Opioid use is usually preceded by use of tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana. Before their first opioid use, most users dropped out of school and began to associate with opioid users. Heroin is nearly always the drug of choice. With few exceptions, it is first used within a few years of the user's twentieth birthday. Users report that they were not coerced or urged to use heroin by either their associates or drug dealers. In a typical sequence a person becomes aware of drug use by his friends or relatives, becomes curious about its effects, and asks for the first injection. As already noted, most persons ex

Chronicity Remission And Relapse

After dropping out of school, a fourteen-year-old boy learned to make money by selling marijuana and heroin. He tried heroin at age sixteen, liked it, and promptly became a daily user. He used heroin daily for the next twenty years, except for relatively brief periods when he was in prisons and hospitals. Then, at age thirty-six, he was sent to prison for two years. During this period in prison, he felt some change in himself while participating in a THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY program. After release, he abstained from heroin for the next

Use Of Multiple Substances

In the early twentieth century, many alcoholics were converted from ALCOHOLISM to opioid dependence. If the opioid dependence was terminated, alcohol dependence often replaced it. In the later twentieth century, the patterns of use of other psy-choactive substances during the course of opioid dependence have become more complex. Heroin users often substitute alcohol when they become abstinent from opioids, but, in addition, many use alcohol regularly while using heroin daily. They also use TOBACCO, marijuana, and cocaine. In a recent interview study of opioid users in California, 75 percent reported current use of tobacco, 20 percent reported being drunk on alcohol in the previous seven days, 38 percent reported use of marijuana in the previous thirty days, and 18 percent reported use of cocaine in the previous thirty days (Hser, Anglin & Powers, 1993).

Case Illustration Background Information

While Ann was married, she became involved with a lesbian softball team (i.e., different friends) in an adjacent town. It was through this team that Ann met acquaintances and began participating in lesbian affairs. During this period, frequent partying involved various drugs and alcohol. Ann felt that her alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use had escalated and become problematic. During this time period, Ann was arrested for DWI (driving while intoxicated) and assault she spent the night in jail. In an attempt to establish some normalcy, Ann moved to Pennsylvania, where she enrolled in a junior college and completed an associates in arts degree, with a major in social services over a 3-year period. The extended time was because Ann worked at the college while attending classes.

Antitussive And Antiasthmatic Activity

CANNABIS, ALCOHOL AND OPIATE WITHDRAWAL Although no clinical studies are available for Passiflora extract, preliminary results from animal studies testing the benzoflavone moiety isolated from Passiflora has found it to be a useful adjunct during cannabis and alcohol withdrawal, reducing dependence and attenuating withdrawal symptoms (Dhawan et al 2002b, c).

Implications For Testing Of Urine For Substances Of Abuse

Heroin, cocaine, and MARIJUANA, the principal illegal drugs of abuse, are subject to hepatic clearance, so urinary excretion is in the form of drug metabolites rather than the originally taken parent compounds (Agurell et al., 1986 Jatlow, 1988) (see Figure 6). As such, analytical methods for chemical testing of urine samples must be devised to detect these metabolites (Friedman & Greenblatt, 1986) (see Table 1). Screening IMMUNOASSAYS are notoriously insensitive, and many actual drug users will escape detection by the screening test if the urine concentrations are below an arbitrary cutoff (Burnett et al., 1990). Negative tests can also be produced by dilution of urine via water loading (Lafolie et al., 1991) or by a variety of adulterants that interfere with analytical procedures (Schwarzhoff & Cody, 1993 Mikkelson & Ash, 1988). To complicate matters, immunoassays are nonspecific and have an unacceptably high false-positive rate. Most urine-testing programs deal with the...

Poison Control Centers

When a sharp line needs to be drawn between legalization and prohibition, it is useful to say that a drug is legal if it is legal for that substance to be produced and distributed for unsupervised consumption by a significant portion of the population (e.g., all adults). By this definition making marijuana available for medical use is not legalization if prescriptions are restricted to those experiencing specific, medically-diagnosed conditions (glaucoma), but it would be if any adult could write his or her own prescription. Likewise by this definition the Netherlands has legalized retail production, distribution, and use of marijuana, although wholesale (large-volume) marijuana production and distribution is still prohibited. Most other drugs in most countries are either clearly legal or clearly prohibited by this definition. was prohibited, but marijuana was not. Ten years later, marijuana was prohibited but alcohol was not. One does not have to be very cynical to believe that the...

Duane C McBride Revised by Jonathan Caulkins

It is difficult to discuss the safe use of illegal drugs, because foes of those substances regard them as ''drugs of abuse'' that cannot possibly be consumed in nonabusive ways. This attitude is unhelpful. Whether a drug is used or abused has little to do with whether a drug is legal or illegal it depends, rather, on the relationship an individual forms with it. One can as easily find examples of abusive use of legal drugs (TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, and OVER-THE-COUNTER medications) as of safe use of illegal ones. Take for example, the majority of coffee drinkers in our society who are addicted to the CAFFEINE in coffee (meaning they will have a withdrawal reaction on sudden cessation of intake). Many of these people also experience adverse effects on health as a result of their coffee addiction (cardiac arrhythmias, stomach and intestinal problems, irritation of the urogenital tract, tremors, insomnia, mood swings, and more). Many users of MARIJUANA, however, consume that drug moderately and...

Acute Administration

H. and Tant, S. R., Acute changes in cerebral blood flow associated with marijuana smoking. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 79 118-128, 1989. Mathew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Humphreys, D. F., Lowe, J. V. and Wiethe, K. E., Regional cerebral blood flow after marijuana smoking. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 12 750-758, 1992. Mathew, R. J. and Wilson, W. H., Acute changes in cerebral blood flow after smoking marijuana. Life Sci. 52 757-767, 1993. Volkow, N. D., Gillespie, H., Mullani, N., Tancredi, L., Grant, C., Valentine, A. and Hollister, L., Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res. 67 29-38, 1996. Mathew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Coleman, R. E., Turkington, T. G. and DeGrado, T. R., Marijuana intoxication and brain activation in marijuana smokers. Life Sci. 60 2075-2089, 1997. Gatley, S. J., Lan, R., Volkow, N. D., Pappas, N., King, P., Wong, C. T., Gifford, A. N., Pyatt, B., Dewey, S. L. and...

Chronic Administration

J., Tant, S. and Burger, C., Regional cerebral blood flow in marijuana smokers. Br. J. Addict. 81 567-571, 1986. Tunving, K., Thulin, S. O., Risberg, J. and Warkentin, S., Regional cerebral blood flow in long-term heavy cannabis use. Psychiatry Res. 17 15-21, 1986. Volkow, N. D., Gillespie, H., Mullani, N., Tancredi, L., Grant, C., Valentine, A. and Hollister, L., Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res. 67 29-38, 1996. Amen, D. G. and Waugh, M., High resolution brain SPECT imaging of marijuana smokers with AD HD. J. Psychoactive Drugs 30 209-214, 1998.

Prevention Programs Prior to the

1980s, most schools around the country had courses in health education, tobacco education, alcohol education, or drug education. In these courses, students typically were taught that using tobacco, alcohol, MARIJUANA, or other drugs was bad for their health, and they may have found out how or why they were dangerous. Sometimes students were given detailed information about how these substances affected the body, how long the effects lasted, and even how people used them. Many tobacco-, alcohol-, and drug-education programs had tried deliberately to scare students by pointing out how many people die each year from drug abuse. It was widely believed that if students really knew how harmful smoking, drinking, or using drugs is, they would not do it. However, numerous studies found that teaching facts or using scare tactics often does not work. Therefore, programs designed to go beyond merely providing students with facts about the harmful effects of using drugs were implemented.

National Federation Of Parents For Drugfree Youthnational Family Partnership

During the 1970s, legislatures in eleven states decriminalized MARIJUANA. During this same period, an explosion of head shops proliferated throughout the United States. These places, which sold PARAPHERNALIA to enhance drug use, targeted their products to children and teenagers. The national decriminalization discussion produced rhetoric that ignored or played down the harmful effects of drugs, and this rhetoric spilled over into drug-education materials, which counseled the ''responsible use'' of drugs that were both dangerous and illegal. Song lyrics and films in the adolescent culture tended to reinforce the popularity and acceptance of drug use. These factors appeared to contribute to, if not actually drive, the astonishing escalation in adolescent drug use throughout the 1970s. 1979, however, it had become clear that action at local and state levels was not enough. Representation at the national level was critical particularly in light of the fact that a federal bill to...

NickE Goeders Revised by Nicholas DeMartinis

Culturally approved non-medical psychoactive drugs include alcohol, nicotine (tobacco), and caffeine. Psychoactive drugs that have been determined to have a high potential for harm and little medical benefit include heroin, hallucinogens, and some older sedative-hypnotics such as methaqualone. Marijuana has traditionally been placed in this category, but recent research has demonstrated potential effectiveness for medical problems including glaucoma, nausea, and weight loss associated with cancer or AIDS.

Recreational Drug Use

The animal can press a lever to activate the pump, and this results in a dose of a drug such as COCAINE, HEROIN, NICOTINE, or ALCOHOL being infused into the vein. If the animal continues to press the lever to obtain the drug, then the drug is said to serve as a reinforcer. Interestingly, those drugs which lead to ADDICTION in humans also serve as reinforcers in animals. The only exception is MARIJUANA (THC),which is used fairly extensively by humans but does not function as a reinforcer in animals. It should be noted that drugs that serve as reinforcers under one condition may not serve as reinforcers under other conditions. For example, nicotine serves as a reinforcer only at low doses and when doses are properly spaced. Nevertheless, the observation that drugs of abuse generally function as reinforcers in experimental animals has brought the study of drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse into a framework that allows carefully controlled behavioral analyses and the...

The Relationship Between Religious Commitment And Drug

Figure 1 shows how drug use was related to religious commitment among high school seniors in 1979, 1989, and 1999. Individuals with the highest religious commitment were defined as those who usually attend services once a week or more often and who describe religion as being very important in their lives individuals with low commitment are those who never attend services and rate religion as not important. Figure 1 clearly indicates that those with low religious involvement were more likely than average to be frequent cigarette smokers, occasional heavy drinkers, and users of MARIJUANA and COCAINE conversely, those highest in religious commitment were much less likely to engage in any of these behaviors. Other analyses have shown that similar relationships exist for other illicit drugs (Bachman et al., 1986) and for other age groups (Cochran et al., 1988 Gorsuch, 1988). Recent Trends in Drug Use and Religious Commitment. Figure 1 presents data from...

Physical Dependence

Other classes of drugs besides opioids produce physical dependence in animals as well. Many of the basic findings about physical dependence on CNS depressants (e.g., dose and frequency) are similar to what has been found with opioids. However, the abstinence syndrome can be even more severe than that seen with opioids. HALLUCINATIONS and even life-threatening convulsions can develop when long-term abuse of a barbiturate or alcohol is stopped. Abstinence syndromes have also been found after long-term exposure to Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in Marijuana, and Phencyclidine (PCP). On the other hand, the abstinence syndrome that follows long-term exposure to such CNS stimulants as Amphetamine or Cocaine is, by comparison, mild.

Drug Selfadministration

Research using these animal models has shown that, with few exceptions, animals self-administer the same drugs that humans abuse and show similar patterns of intake. For example, when given unlimited access to stimulants like amphetamine, both humans and animals alternate periods of high drug intake with periods of no drug intake. In the case of heroin, both animals and humans gradually increase drug intake to levels that are then stable for months and even years. In addition, animals do not self-administer drugs that humans do not abuse (e.g., aspirin) and even avoid those that humans report to be unpleasant (e.g., Antipsychotic Drugs). These basic findings validate this as an excellent animal model of drug abuse by humans. The exceptions are the hallucinogens and marijuana, which animals do not readily self-administer.

Pharmacological Management of Undernutrition

Dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, is another FDA-approved orexigenic agent for use in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Dronabinol is also an effective orexigenic and antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Additional evidence indicates that dronabinol induces weight gain in persons with dementia, although research has yet to determine whether weight gain in such patients is due to increased energy intake or reduced agitation with improved behavior and consequently decreased energy expenditure. Side effects of dronabinol in older adults include delirium, euphoria, and increased somnolence. The latter two qualities may favor the use of dronabinol as an orexigenic agent in palliative care.

Seizures Of Drugs The seizure of

Pennsylvania National Guardsmen, with the help of spotters in a helicopter, found more than 80 of these marijuana plants growing in the middle of a cornfield in York County, August 25, 1998. (AP Photo Keith Srakocic) Seizures of Cocaine rose throughout the 1980s, probably reflecting both the rapid increase in total shipments and the declining replacement cost of the drug. In 1989, federal authorities seized over 218,000 pounds of cocaine and that figure continued to rise during the 1990s. In 1999, cocaine seizures reached almost 291,000 pounds. Marijuana seizures grew dramatically during the same period. Federal authorities seized about 1.1 million pounds in 1989 and by 1999 the figure reached 2.3 million pounds. This is largely the result of increased U.S. cultivation and production of marijuana. Heroin seizures fluctuated between 1989 and 1999 but the overall trend was less dramatic than with other drugs. In 1989, federal authorities seized 2,415 pounds of heroin in 1999, 2,788...

Provisions Of The Single Convention

Parties must require licenses for manufacturers, wholesalers, and other handlers of narcotic drugs, and they must maintain a system of permits, record keeping, reports, controls, and inspections to prevent diversion of drugs to the illicit traffic. A country that allows the domestic production of the Opium poppy, the Coca bush, or the Cannabis plant must establish a control agency to designate areas for the cultivation of these drugs and limit production to licensed growers. The Single Convention extends the control system over the opium poppy to the coca bush and the cannabis plant. Governments must uproot and destroy wild and illegally cultivated coca bushes and cannabis plants. Parties are furthermore required to ban opium smoking and eating, coca-leaf chewing, and cannabis smoking and ingestion. A transition period is provided to overcome any difficulties that might arise for those who use such plants or drugs in ancient rituals. Countries may reserve the right to permit the...

Sleep Dreaming And Drugs

The ancient Hindus imbibed a sacred drink called soma, and Marijuana was used in practices of meditation. For the Arabs, Hashish (a form of marijuana) was the substance of choice, while the Incas chewed the leaves of the Coca plant (from which Cocaine may be made). The Opium poppy was used in Asia, and the ancient Mexicans used a variety of powerful Psychoactive substances, including Peyote, sacred mushrooms, and seeds from the Mexican Morning Glory plant, to enter the realm of dreams. The Australian aboriginals used the pituri, a psychoactive substance, to take them into dream time,'' as they referred to it. Another drug with hallucinogenic effects is marijuana, its active ingredient being Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The effects of THC on the waking EEG pattern are quite distinct from the effects of the classic hallucinogens cited above (Fairchild et al., 1979). THC has sedating effects at lower doses and hallucinatory effects at higher doses. The acute administration of marijuana or...

Philip J Cook Revised by Sarah Knox

Major illicit drug producing country is defined in the statute as any country producing ''during a fiscal year five (5) metric tons or more of Opium or opium derivative, 500 metric tons or more of coca, and 500 metric tons or more of Marijuana.'' (One metric ton equals 1.102 tons.) and Peru substantially reduced those countries' cultivation of coca plants. Despite these efforts, drug traffickers shifted their production to Colombia, which by 2000 had become the dominant producer of cocaine. Major source countries for marijuana are Mexico, Belize, Colombia, and Jamaica. However, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration estimates that much of the marijuana consumed in the United States is grown domestically, qualifying the U.S. as a source country. Major source countries for Hashish are Lebanon, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Morocco. Measured in U.S. dollar value, at least 80 percent of all illegal drugs consumed in the United States are of foreign origin, including all the cocaine and...

Lorenzo Cohen Andrew Baum

The substance use disorders covered in the SCID are dependence and abuse for seven classes of substances alcohol, sedative-hypnotics-anxiolytics, Cannabis (marijuana), Stimulants, Opioids, Cocaine, and Hallucinogens PCP. For each substance, the interviewer determines whether the symptoms of dependence or abuse have ever been present during the subject's lifetime whether they

Current Situation And Trends

Since the 1970s, hashish has been the most widespread of the illicit drugs used in Sweden it is often considered the starting point, or gateway, into abuse of other drugs. During the screening of job applicants in 1986, as many as 4 percent had traces of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their urine. An estimated 50,000 people regularly smoke hashish in Sweden as of the mid-1990s. A study conducted by UNO (Utredningen om narkotika-missbrukets omfattning, or Commission on the Extent of Drug Abuse) in 1979 revealed somewhere between 10,000 and 14,000 severe drug abusers, or tung missbrukare, that is, users who take drugs either on a daily basis or intravenously, exclusive of frequency. A similar study in 1992 found this number had increased to between 14,000 and 20,000. Increased immigration into Sweden during the 1980s brought the development of new subpopulations of drug users, with use patterns derived from their home drug cultures. These included the smoking of opium and heroin, which...


Found in the Hemp plant, Cannabis Sativa, that causes the Psychoactive effects in Marijuana, Bhang, Hashish, and Ganja. Hashish is derived from the resin that oozes from the flowering tips of the female plant bhang comes from the dried leaves and flowering shoots of the female plant and ganja comes from small leaves. THC is one of the three natural cannabinoids chemical constituents of Cannabis the other two being cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). As of 2000, marijuana is the most commonly used nonlegal drug in the United States. Its usage peaked during the late 1970s, when about 60 percent of high school seniors reported having tried marijuana, with 11 percent reporting daily use. Usage has declined since 1979 as of 1999, 2 to 3 percent of the 70 million Americans who had tried cannabis described themselves as daily users.

Pharmacological Effects

THC is most commonly taken into the body by inhaling the smoke from marijuana ''joints.'' A joint of good quality contains about 500 milligrams of marijuana, which in turn contains between 5 and 15 milligrams of THC. Blood levels of THC rise almost as rapidly after inhaling smoke as they do after intravenous administration of THC. That the drug should be so rapidly absorbed is an indication of the efficiency of the lung as a trap for the drug. THC is quickly redistributed into other tissues so that blood levels decline over the course of 3 hours to negligible amounts. The usual symptoms of marijuana intoxication are almost completely gone by that time.

Drug Testing And Forensic Issues

Drug testing is an issue with respect to marijuana because of the effects of THC on coordination, sense of timing, and impairment of depth perception as well as short-term memory. It is hazardous for someone who has taken a moderate dosage of marijuana to drive or to operate heavy equipment in the workplace.

Gender and Racial Ethnic Differences

Male students have higher lifetime and thirty-day prevalence rates than their female counterparts for marijuana use for all grades reported. Senior males report more illicit drug use of other types in the previous thirty days than females, but there is little gender difference in tenth or eighth grade. Males also tend to use alcohol more than females, which becomes more apparent by twelfth grade. Across all grades, males and females seem to have almost equal rates of daily cigarette smoking. African-American students report lower lifetime, annual, thirty-day, and daily illicit drug use prevalence rates than white and Hispanic students. African-American students also have the lowest prevalence rates of alcohol use, being drunk, and binge drinking.

Prenatal Exposure

A., Goldschmidt, L., Robles, N., Taylor, P. M., Stoffer, D. S., Cornelius, M. D. and Geva, D., Effect of prenatal marijuana exposure on the cognitive development of offspring at age three. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 16 169-175, 1994. Fried, P. A., Watkinson, B. and Gray, R., Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9-to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 20 293-306, 1998.

Cultural Beliefs In Addiction

Cultural differences are among the most powerful determinants of the patterns of substance use and the proclivity to addiction (Heath, 1982). For example, moderate drinking is inculcated as an early and firm cultural style among Mediterranean ethnic groups, the Jews and the Chinese. Such cultural socialization incorporates beliefs about the power of Alcohol and the nature of those who overindulge or misbehave when drinking. Groups such as the Irish, which invest alcohol with the power to control and corrupt their behavior, have high levels of Alcoholism (Vaillant, 1983). In contrast, Jews, Italians, and Chinese believe that those who overdrink are displaying poor self-control and or psychological dependence, rather than responding to the power of the alcohol itself (Glas-sner & Berg, 1984). Similar cultural variations occur in views toward drugs such as Marijuana,

Chronic Drug Use And Vulnerability To Stress

The question of whether addicts are more sensitive to the effects of stress on drug intake has received recent attention. It is now well known that the most commonly used addictive substances such as alcohol, nicotine, psychostimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine, opiates and marijuana which stimulate the brain reward pathways, also activate brain stress systems by stimulating release of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) which in turn activates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and release of catecholamines (Robinson & Berridge, 1993). With the chronic use of Finally, some human studies support the hypothesis that chronic drug use may alter stress and coping. Evidence suggests that baseline responsiv-ity of the CRF-HPA system is altered during acute and protracted withdrawal in alcoholics and cocaine and opiate addicts (Kreek & Koob, 1998). This co-occurs with behavioral symptoms such as increases in irritability, anxiety, emotional distress, sleep problems,...

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

From a biological standpoint, it is frequently noted that the lower ratio of water to total body weight in women causes them to metabolize alcohol and drugs differently than men. Even when body weight is controlled, given equivalent alcohol consumed, women pass more alcohol into the bloodstream and reach higher peak Blood Alcohol Concentrations than men, in part because of differences in enzyme activity in the intestinal wall. Drugs such as marijuana that are deposited in body fat may be slower to clear in women than in men. Slow clearance rates create a potential for cumulative toxicity and adverse drug and alcohol interactions.

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