New Treatment for Cannabis Dependence

Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide

This now famous guide has helped thousands of people overcome marijuana. None have had to spend another cent on marijuana, munchies, detox kits, rehab or therapy. Like thousands before you, quit weed the easy way! Defuse your psychological addiction very quickly. The one major sneaky secret that will banish your cravings for marijuana. How to get some sleep naturally, without smoking marijuana. What you will be feeling, thinking and struggling with, and some Real-Life solutions that will actually work for you. What you should never do when you first try to quit weed (you are probably already doing this right now!) Stop mental fogginess! Gain clarity, focus and motivation to upgrade your career or education. Lung Cleansing Course included! Cleanse your lungs and experience larger lung capacity, clearer breathing and an increased chest size! Finally get rid of that 'feeling' you get to smoke weed, (discover who the real you is and claim your life back!) Support Gain 24/7 personal email support or talk to other marijuana quitters in our forum. Instantly enhance your own natural conversation skills and social interaction. Warning This guide changes how you actually look at weed! More here...

Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide Summary


4.7 stars out of 15 votes

Contents: EBook, Audios
Author: Sebastian Grant
Official Website:
Price: $67.00

Access Now

My Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Marihuana Commission Recommendations On Decriminalization

Before 1960, use of MARIJUANA in the United States was generally confined to drug-using subcultures in the inner cities or in rural areas. Sale and use of the drug were prohibited both by federal law and by the laws of every state. Because marijuana was classified in 1937 as a ''narcotic drug,'' along with COCAINE and Opiates, penalties were severe simple possession for personal use was a felony in most states. During the 1960s, marijuana smoking suddenly became prevalent on college campuses for the first time among white middle-class youth of the baby-boom generation. Marijuana use also became associated, as a protest behavior, with dissenters (both adults and youth) against the war in Vietnam, and by the U.S. Military serving in Vietnam, especially from 1963 to 1973. As use of the drug increased, so did the number of arrests and so did the surrounding controversy. Questions were raised about the actual effects of marijuana on the health and behavior of those who used it and about...

Marijuana Tax Act Of 1937

During his tenure as commissioner, Anslinger dominated the enactment of U.S. narcotics laws. In the mid-1930s, to puff the menace his Bureau was combating, he turned his attention to MARIJUANA (CANNABIS SATIVA hemp ), used at the time by a few Spanish Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and in such limited circles as jazz musicians. A number of responsible studies of the effects of marijuana (such as one by the Hemp Commission in British India in 1895) and its more potent form, hashish, had pronounced it relatively harmless but that gave Anslinger and a few other sensationalists of the day no pause. Shocking accounts of heinous crimes induced by marijuana began emanating from the Bureau the theory that pot smoking was a dangerous gateway to other addictions gained credence and a Bureau-sponsored film, Reefer Madness, was produced to popularize Anslinger's visions of the hazards of drug use. Viewed from the end of the Anslinger orchestrated the passage of a bill in Congress to place marijuana...


Known in the United States mainly as the MARIJUANA plant, Cannabis sativa may first have been cultivated in Asia in a region just north of Afghanistan. From there it seems to have spread to China and India. It is mentioned in the early medical literature of China (e.g., in the Shenmong bencao) as well as in India (e.g., in the Sushruta samhita). Early nonmedical use has also been documented. Cannabis use seems to have become popular especially in India and the Islamic countries. The many social rules associated with its use are evidence of its long-standing integration into Indian culture. Traditional Indian society was divided into hereditary classes or castes. The highest caste was to use white-flowered cannabis the Kshatriya, the warriors, used the red-flowered plants the farmers and traders, the Vaishya caste, were to use the yellow-flowered plant and the Shudra, servant caste, used plants with dark flowers. The earliest Indian medical text, Sushruta samhita, apparently dating...


Several approaches have been used to study the effects of MARIJUANA or its active component, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on human immune systems. These include using cells isolated from chronic marijuana smokers, from volunteers who have been only exposed to marijuana smoke, or from nonexposed donors but exposing their cells to THC in the laboratory. A survey of chronic marijuana smokers showed that the response of their cells was depressed to stimulation with mitogens (substances that cause cell division). Several studies have shown that neither marijuana smoking nor THC is immunosuppressive. Nevertheless, other immune alterations have been associated with marijuana or THC, including significantly reduced serum IgG levels in chronic smokers inhibition of natural killer cell activity inhibition of phagocytic activity elevation of serum IgD levels and reduced T-cell numbers. THC also inhibited DNA-, RNA-, and protein synthesis in stimulated human lymphocytes. Obvious differences in the...


Marijuana is probably still the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with about 55 percent of young adults reporting some experience with the drug during their lifetimes. The active ingredient in MARIJUANA is delta9-TETRAHY-DROCANNABINOL (A9-THC), which exerts its most prominent effects on the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. A marijuana cigarette that contains approximately 2 percent of the active ingredient can produce an increase in feelings of well-being, euphoria, and relaxation when smoked however, short-term memory can be impaired as is the ability to carry out goal-directed behavior. The ability to drive or operate machinery Chronic marijuana users sometimes exhibit what is called the AMOTIVATIONAL SYNDROME which consists of apathy, impairment of judgment, and a loss of interest in personal appearance and the pursuit of conventional goals. However, it is not clear whether this syndrome results from the use of marijuana alone or from other...

Development Of Abuseliability Testing Procedures

The origins of assessing drug-abuse liability with humans can be found in some of the earliest writings of civilization, describing the subjective effects of naturally occurring substances, such as wine. Since the mid-nineteenth century, literary accounts of the use and misuse of opium, marijuana, and cocaine, among other substances, have emphasized their mood-altering effects and their potential for abuse. Only in recent years, however, have systematic methods for measuring such subjective effects been refined through the use of standardized questionnaires. Volunteers who are experienced drug users complete the questionnaires after they have taken a drug their answers to the subjective-effects questions how they feel, their likes and dislikes readily distinguish between the various drugs and doses, as well as between drug presence or absence (i.e., placebo).

Drugspecific Negative Consequences

Discussion in this section is limited to the specific negative consequences of a few of the most prevalent illicit drugs marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Other illicit substances that could have been discussed here include LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD), PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP), and other ''alphabet'' or ''designer'' drugs (''ecstacy,'' etc.), Amphetamine, and Methamphetamine (and its smokable form, ''ice''). This discussion also could Marijuana. The smoking of marijuana, probably the most widely used illicit drug, may well have more serious acute and chronic consequences than once thought. Recent and continuing research is casting new light on the chronic health risks posed by marijuana smoking, contradicting the conventional wisdom that it is less harmful than either drinking alcoholic beverages or smoking tobacco. For example, it is reported that three times the tar is delivered (and four times more is deposited) to the mouth and lungs per puff from a marijuana joint than from a...

Fatty Acids In Various Nuts And Seeds

The predominant lipid in all nuts and seeds investigated was triacylglycerol (TAG), which was found at levels above 90 , reaching 98.4 in macadamia nuts. The total lipid concentration in the samples ranged from 2.2 g 100 g in ginkgo biloba to 75.4 g 100 g in walnut. Apart from peanut and T. kirilowii Maxim. seed, most of the analyzed samples contained phytosterols pistachio contained the highest amount, at 5.0 . Some seeds contained diacylglycerol and free fatty acids. For instance, diacyglycerol comprised 4.8 of the total lipids in Cannabis sativa, and free fatty acids comprised 1.7 of the total lipids in Ginkgo biloba. Phytosterol ester ranged from 0.2 of total lipids in peanut seed to 7.1 in grand torreya seed however, it was not detected in walnut, pistachio, almond, and black melon seed (Table 4.1). Cannabis sativa Ginkgo biloba Peanut Cashew nut Pecan nut Brazil nut Black melon Fig leaf gourd Sesame Amarillo melon Sunflower Maize Pumpkin Cannabis sativa Macadamia Almond Pine nut...

Alcohol And Illicit Drugs

Abuse of hallucinogens, illicit psychomotor stimulants and sedatives, and marijuana is uncommon in old age use of these drugs by the elderly is almost exclusively by longstanding users of opiumlike substances and by aging criminals. The low incidence of this type of substance abuse in old age may result from the fact that users of illegal drugs die young, and even from the fact that the use of such drugs by the elderly is often underreported. However, problem drinkers may abuse drugs such as sedatives, opioids, marijuana, and amphetamines. Sometimes these drugs are used in combination with alcohol at other times, such drugs are taken in preference to alcohol, and alcohol is used only when the drug of choice is not available.

Amotivational Syndrome This

Term refers to a hypothetical effect produced by drugs, especially MARIJUANA, whereby individuals lose interest or the ability to engage in activities motivated by normal psychological processes. It is associated with lethargy, a severe reduction in activities, unwillingness to work, failure to meet responsibilities, and neglect of personal needs including hygiene and nutrition (despite efforts by others to help and despite statements by the indi (SEE ALSO Cannabis sativa Complications)

Marc A Schuckit Jerome H Jaffe

BHANG This is one of the many names given to the HEMP plant, Cannabis sativa, and its products. Bhang is of Hindi origin (from bhcig, which came into English about 1563) and refers to the leaves and flowering tops of uncultivated hemp plants. In 1895, the Indian Hemp Commission took the position that bhang was not a major health hazard. Bhang is taken in a beverage in India called thandaii, may be served in sweetmeats, or is used in making ice cream. It is often served at weddings or religious festivals and is freely available from sidewalk stands in the major cities. Generally, in India, the use of bhang and other cannabis products has been considered lower class. Probably as a result of continuing British-based influence, the upper-class drugs are alcohol and opium. (SEE ALSO Cannabis Sativa Marijuana Plants, Drugs from)

Substance Abuse And Cancer Treatment

On the one hand, NARCOTIC and psychoactive drugs have an important role in cancer treatment. Cancer patients have used Cannabis sativa (marijuana) to reduce the nausea associated with chemotherapy. LSD has been used in treating psychological disturbances associated with cancer. Although it was once feared that cancer patients would become addicted to opioids given for pain control, a recent study showed that of 11,882 cancer patients

Historical And Institutional Factors

In the mid-to-late 1970s, the United States directed its international drug-control attention to eliminating the heroin and marijuana crossing our border at Mexico. As the U.S.-Mexican crackdown began to achieve positive results and the number of U.S. smokers of Mexican marijuana diminished, Colombian traffickers seized the opportunity to break into the lucrative U.S. drug market by smuggling large amounts of marijuana and small packages of cocaine. In the early 1980s, Florida became the destination of choice for smugglers because of its long coastlines, access to boats and planes, location in the Caribbean, and large Hispanic population by 1986, Colombia supplied an estimated 80 percent of the cocaine HCl.

Alcohol Use And Abuse Among Adolescents

Another significant reason for concern about alcohol ingestion by adolescents is the close association of alcohol abuse with the use of other drugs. There is considerable evidence that alcohol use tends to precede use of illicit drugs, and some researchers argue that, based on long-term studies, alcohol serves as a ''gate-way'' to the use of illicit substances. As early as the eighth grade, alcohol users were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, and use of marijuana and cocaine than non-users of alcohol. This difference persists through grade 12 and thereafter (Kandel and Yamaguchi, 1993).

Theories On The Drugscrime Relationship

Drug Use and High-Rate, Serious Criminality. As indicated earlier, the onset of illicit drug use typically does not result in the onset of criminal behavior. In most cases, both drug use and crime begin in the early teens. Generally, the less serious the drug or crime, the earlier the age at onset of involvement. For example, among illicit drugs, marijuana is more commonly used at a younger age than are sedatives or tranquilizers, and these drugs, in turn, are typically used at a younger age than are ''hard'' drugs, such as heroin and cocaine. Similarly, minor forms of crime (e.g., shoplifting, vandalism) have an earlier onset than more serious types of crimes, such as assault, robbery, and drug dealing. Most marijuana users do not become heroin addicts, and most youths who commit minor property crimes do not subsequently become involved in more serious offenses. In both instances, the salient variable appears to be age of onset the younger the individual is when first using a...

Cropcontrol Policies Drugs

Eliminating drug crops at the source through crop eradication and or crop substitution has been a central, or at least an integral, part of U.S. international narcotics-control policy for the past twenty years. U.S. government policy officials maintain that eradication of illicit narcotics closest to the source of the raw material represents the most cost-effective and efficient approach to narcotics control within the overall supply-reduction strategy. The source of the illicit crop is believed to be the most commercially vulnerable point in the chain from grower to user. Since 1990, however, U.S. government policy officials have shifted away from crop control in favor of enhanced interdiction and targeting major trafficking organizations. Despite the best efforts of the United States and cooperating drug-SoURCE COUNTRIES, controlling the crop has been a difficult, if not impossible, task. Several Heroin and Marijuana crop-control successes have occurred, most notably in MEXICO and...

Croperadication Successes

In Mexico, Colombia, Belize, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Bolivia, Jamaica, and Thailand, croperadication efforts continue to have varying degrees of success in reducing illicit crop cultivation. In the mid-1970s, Mexico began an aerial herbicidal-eradication program on both opium and marijuana and reduced the cultivation of these illicit crops significantly. In 1991, Mexico reportedly destroyed some 16,000 of its 25,000 acres (6,500 of its 10,000 hectares) of opium and 27,000 of its 71,500 acres (11,000 of its 29,000 hectares) of cannabis. In the early 1980s, the Colombian government used glyphosate in the north to eradicate most of its marijuana there. In the early 1990s, Colombia planned to use the same herbicide on newly discovered opium in the Cauca and Huila departments. In 1987, the U.S. government supported the government of Belize in an aerial marijuana-eradication program, which resulted in a 90 percent decline in cannabis production. tion of nearly 30 percent of Thailand's...

The Dependence Syndrome Concept

Dependence syndrome elements in relation to the criteria for DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and ICD-10. The same elements apply to the diagnosis of dependence on all psychoactive substances, including alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, sedatives, ph-encycledine, other hallucinogens, and tobacco. The elements represent biological, psychological (cognitive), and behavioral processes. This helps to explain the linkages and interrelationships that account for the coherence of signs and symptoms. The co-occurrence of signs and symptoms is the essential feature of a syndrome. If three or more criteria do occur repeatedly during the same period, it is likely that dependence is responsible for the amount, frequency, and pattern of the person's substance use. Tolerance. TOLERANCE is a decrease in response to a psychoactive substance that occurs with continued use. For example, increased doses of heroin are required to achieve effects originally produced by lower doses. Tolerance may be physical,...

Early Models Of The Disease Concept

Meanwhile, from the late 1950s and throughout the 1960s, the Expert Committee on Addiction-Producing Drugs of the WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) continued to formulate and refine definitions of addiction and HABITUATION that could facilitate WHO's responsibility (required by international treaties) for control of NARCOTICS, cocaine, and CANNABIS. In the 1950s, the presence of physical dependence was emphasized in the definition of drug dependence, and the WHO Expert Committee was still concerned with differentiating between psychic dependence and physical dependence. At one level, the concept of psychic dependence was compatible with the psychodynamic view that these disorders were a response to psychic distress (such as negative mood states). According to the psychodynamic model, excessive alcohol or drug consumption was merely a response to underlying psychopathology. This model was also consis

Dropouts And Substance

As much is known about the substance use of those who become high school dropouts. Nonetheless, by putting together evidence from a variety of sources, including the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG Abuse and the Epidemiologic Catchment Area surveys sponsored by the U.S. government, it is possible to say that high school dropouts are much more likely to have started using TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, and other drugs, as compared with their peers who remained in school. There also is some evidence that dropping out of high school is associated with an increased risk of adult-onset alcohol-dependence syndromes, even among persons whose dropping out could not have been caused by the consequences of starting to drink during the adolescent years. Whether this conclusion also holds for adult-onset DEPENDENCE on other drugs such as Cocaine or Marijuana is not yet clear but is under study.

Trends In Drugrelated Emergencies And Deaths

In 1999, the largest number of episodes (196,277, or 35 of all episodes) were due to use of ALCOHOL in combination with other drugs. The other drugs mentioned most frequently were COCAINE (168,763, or 30 ), Heroin Morphine (84,409, or 15 ), amphetamine (11,954, or 2 ), and methamphetamine speed (10,447, or 2 ). In 1999, marijuana hashish mentions exceeded heroin morphine mentions, changing a rank ordering of illicit drug mentions that had been constant since Long-term Trends, 1990 1999. The number of drug-related episodes rose 49 percent from 1990 to 1999, from 371,208 to 554,932. Although males consistently outnumber females in illicit drug mentions, their long-term patterns of growth are similar. From 1990 to 1999, mentions of cocaine and heroin morphine more than doubled for both males and females. ED mentions of marijuana hashish in 1999 were five and six times their 1990 levels for males and females, respectively. Mentions of the four major illicit drugs increased from 1990 to...

Drug Interdiction The interdiction

Seize them, together with the transport and or persons that carry them on their way from the producing country to the importing country many of the SEIZURES occur just as the drugs are brought across the border. The principal drugs subject to U.S. interdiction are COCAINE and MARIJUANA, both of which are imported primarily from Latin America. The United States, uniquely among modern nations, has made interdiction a significant part of its effort to control the supply of drugs, at least for cocaine and marijuana, since about 1975. In addition to other federal agencies, it has involved the military in this effort. Though interdictors have seized large quantities of drugs, there are still numerous questions about the effectiveness of the program as a method of reducing the use of drugs, particularly cocaine.

General Health Issues or But I Want to Hang Out in the Sun in a Tiny Bikini Smoking Cigarettes and Drinking with My

The use of alcohol, marijuana, and other illegal drugs is common amongst adolescents and experimentation is common even amongst those who are not regular users. It is important to establish a nonjudgmental confidential environment in which the health care provider can ask about use of these substances, and provide clear guidance about health implications to the adolescent. For many adolescents, providing factual information about the risks of drug use in the context of their illness is adequate in helping them to make good health choices. (For further discussion of communication strategies with adolescents, see Chapter 4.)

Other Past Drug Epidemics

The usage of marijuana and the psychedelic drugs (e.g., LSD) grew during the 1960s and seems to have peaked during the 1970s. In the 1990s, there were conflicting reports of increasing consumption of these drugs, especially LSD. By some accounts, the nation entered a new phase of LSD usage. It appears, however, that this nationwide increase was not detectable in population estimates from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG ABUSE, and it is possible that the apparent nationwide epidemic actually remains quite limited in scope. Later, and after the epidemic of cocaine use had started to decline, two other main hypotheses emerged. One of these took note of the demographic changes to which Singh had pointed but also drew on three other interrelated epidemiologic observations, namely that (1) cocaine use almost always starts after MARIJUANA use has started (2) a history of marijuana use probably is the strongest indicator of susceptibility for trying cocaine and (3) most marijuana users...

Epidemiology Of Drug Abuse

Are these same subgroups of young adults at especially high risk of becoming dependent on psy-choactive drugs such as marijuana or cocaine These same subgroups of young adults are at especially high risk of becoming dependent on psy-choactive drugs such as marijuana or cocaine. When all the abuse or dependence syndromes attributable to nonmedical use of these drugs are considered, the estimated risk for males aged 18 to 29 of developing clinically recognizable drug problem is estimated at 4.4 percent per year for females aged 18 to 20, it is about 1.6 percent. It also is important to note the relatively large size of the survey estimates obtained in these epidemiologic surveys. For example, in 1998, as part of the High School Senior Survey (Monitoring the Future), almost 16,000 high school seniors were asked to fill out confidential questionnaires about their use of such drugs as marijuana and cocaine more than 38 percent reported having taken these drugs illegally, 80 percent...

Examples Of Research Study

Mental situation consume significantly more drink than those who are not expecting alcohol, regardless of whether or not they do receive alcohol in their drink. With the discovery of this phenomenon, even in people who are considered dependent on alcohol, this finding has been interpreted as providing contrasting evidence to the disease model's notion that ''loss of control'' is caused exclusively by the pharmacological effects of alcohol the findings introduced the idea that cognitive factors are influential in a person's drug-related behavior. The presence of expectancy effects have also been identified in research on drugs other than alcohol, including TOBACCO and MARIJUANA (Marlatt & Gordon, 1985).

Foreign Policy And Drugs Drug

In 1971-1972 some members of Congress tried to use foreign-aid restrictions to stop the entry of Turkish HEROIN, but the government did not want to risk hurting relations with an important defense ally over heroin, which was not considered a mainstream drug. The U.S. government found a compromise through diplomatic efforts, which led to the Turkish government severely limiting the cultivation of OPIUM POPPIES (from which heroin is made) and changing the way in which poppies were processed into legitimate medicinal opium. Parallel diplomatic negotiations with MEXICO resulted in cooperation on MARIJUANA eradication efforts. On the international front, the U.S. government pressed hard for the ratification of the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Drugs and created the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC), the predecessor of today's United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP). During the rest of the decade, however, drug...

Gangs Drugs And Neighborhood Change

What are the changes that occurred in cities and communities to explain variation and change in gang participation in drug selling Two factors have in particular contributed to changes in gangs and the substitution of instrumental and monetary goals for the cultural or territorial affinities that unified gangs in earlier decades. First, cocaine markets changed dramatically in the 1980s, with sharp price reductions. Before cocaine became widely available, drug distribution was centralized, with a small street-level network of heroin users responsible for retail sales (Curtis, 1992 Johnson et al., 1985). The heroin markets from the 1970s were smaller than the mid-1980s crack market, both in total volume of sales and the average purchase amount and quantity. Street-level drug selling in New York City, for example, was a family-centered heroin and marijuana business until the 1980s,

Hair Analysis As A Test For Drug

USE Because every drug taken becomes a permanent part of the user's hair, laboratory analysis of hair can reveal the presence of a variety of drugs, including HEROIN, COCAINE, AMPHETAMINES, PHENCYCLIDINE, MARIJUANA, NICOTINE, and BARBITURATES. Hair analysis is widely accepted by courts, parole boards, police departments, and employers around the country for detecting long-term drug use. It's also increasingly used to determine maternal fetal drug exposure and to validate self-reports of drug use.

The Harrison Act And Us Drug Policy

Many critics of the Harrison Act argue that the legislation created more problems than it solved. In particular, they charge that the measure failed to eradicate the narcotics problem, primarily because it failed to prohibit the sale and distribution of MARIJUANA. In addition, detractors argue that the act did not resolve the issue of whether drug addicts should be treated as criminals or as patients requiring medical treatment. They also contend that the courts hampered the Treasury Department s enforcement authority. Specifically, courts prohibited the Treasury Department from seizing narcotics, interpreting the Harrison Act to serve as a revenue, rather than as a penal, measure. After passage of the Harrison Act, illicit use of narcotics increased initially as a result of these omissions or ambiguities.

Demographic Differences

By senior year, male adolescents are more likely than female adolescents to use most illicit drugs, and the differences tend to be largest at the higher frequency levels. In 1999, for example, 8 percent of male high school seniors reported that they were using marijuana daily, versus 4 percent of female seniors. For many specific substances, there is little gender difference in use among eighth and tenth graders. Indeed, female eighth graders have slightly higher rates of an College-Bound versus Non-College-Bound. Non-college-bound students are more likely than college-bound students to use any of the licit or illicit drugs. More frequent use of the drug tends to show greater differences. For example, 6 percent of non-college-bound eighth graders report smoking marijuana daily, compared to 1 percent of the college-bound corresponding figures for tenth and twelfth graders are 10 percent versus 3 percent, and 9 percent versus 5 percent, respectively. Striking differences show up...

Monitoring Mental Activity

While performing a memory task, cannabis abusers showed less neuronal activation than control subjects in the middle temporal gyrus but areas of higher and lower activation within the parahippocampal gyrus, together with differences in hippocampal activation (Block et al., 2002). Methamphetamine abuse is more common than the abuse of cocaine, marijuana and heroin combined, according to a survey by the National Association of Counties. London and colleagues reported corticolimbic abnormalities in methamphetamine-dependent subjects during early drug abstinence (London et al., 2004).

Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay

IMPAIRED PHYSICIANS AND MEDICAL WORKERS Concern about impairment from alcohol and drugs in health-care professionals in the United States and in other countries has waxed and waned during the twentieth century. Until the 1960s, ALCOHOL, the OPIATES, and other PRESCRIPTION Drugs were the primary concerns. More recently, the concern was extended to MARIJUANA and Cocaine. experimented with drugs both licit and illicit. They are, however, less likely to be current users of illicit substances (Hughes et al., 1992). Self-medication by physicians has changed little since the 1960s, whereas the use of cocaine and marijuana has greatly increased (McAuliffe et al., 1986). Marijuana Cocaine Amphetamine

Industry And Workplace Drug

Workplace ''antidrug'' policies date back to the 1960s, particularly in the transportation and other safety-sensitive industries. These policies were not then very effective because detection methods were poor and the signs and symptoms of drug use are often subtle and difficult to identify. Not until 1980, when new technology became available that provided reliable, inexpensive detection methods for MARIJUANA and other commonly abused drugs, did workplace detection efforts begin to be effective. Interestingly, the ''workplace'' that triggered the birth of these antidrug initiatives was the U.S. military.

Historical Supply Shifts

And the Iranian Islamic revolution erupted in 1979, significant amounts of Southwest Asian heroin from Afghanistan and Pakistan were smuggled, often by Iranians, through Western Europe into the United States. Throughout the 1970s, heroin from Mexico, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East was high on the U.S. drug-control policy agenda. No one denied that cocaine and marijuana abuse might be dangerous indeed, initial attempts were made to initiate bilateral programs with the Andean cocaine source countries in their traditional growing areas, but because policymakers believed that the negative health consequences of heroin consumption were far worse, the U.S. law-enforcement emphasis was placed on cocaine and marijuana. The 1980s. In the 1980s, targeting heroin gave way to focusing on the reduction of cocaine and marijuana use in the United States, since greater numbers of Americans were using and abusing them, creating large drugged populations. Nongovernmental institutions became very...

Seizures Of Illicit Drugs

Various trends can be seen by studying the records of seized drugs. Some decreasing trends have been recorded for MORPHINE in 1982, for heroin in 1981 and 1985, and for cocaine in 1984. Irregular trends emerged for Cannabis products a 128-percent increase in 1981, a decreasing trend until 1985, and two huge increases in 1986 and in 1989 (see Table 2). The decision to standardize descriptions of drug seizures by reference to the percent of the primary drug instead of the raw weight of the primary drug seized should improve the accuracy of record keeping (see Table 3).

Policy Recommendations

The commission's principal policy recommendation was that possession of one ounce or less of marijuana for personal use be ''decriminalized. ' At the same time, the commission rejected outright legalization of the drug and recommended perpetuation of prohibitions against cultivation and distribution for commercial purposes. The commission stipulated that social policy should aim to discourage use of the drug, but it emphasized that the costs of a criminal prohibition against possession far exceeded its benefits in suppressing use. Although President Nixon disavowed the commission's principal recommendation on marijuana, it won widespread support. In 1973, the National In 1973, Oregon became the first state to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. Within the next five years, ten additional states eliminated incarceration as a penalty for simple possession, usually substituting a 100.00 fine. Five of these states made possession a ''civil offense'' in others, it...

Botanical Description

The Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1754) was the first to describe the Cannabis genus using the modern system of taxonomic nomenclature. Cannabis sativa is a mono- and dioecious annual plant in the Cannabaceae family (Kingdom, Plantae Division, Magnoliophyta Class, Magnoliopsida Order, Rosales) (Hillig, 2005). It is a flowering herb with palmately compound or digitate leaves and serrate leaflets. Generally, cannabis has imperfect flowers with staminate and pistillate flowers occurring on separate plants (Lebel-Hardenack & Grant, 1997). It is a wind-pollinated plant that produces seeds. Cannabis is a diploid organism, having a chromosome complement of 2n 20. Two main types of Cannabis sativa must be distinguished the industrial type and the drug type. Industrial hemp can be found as fiber or seed oil. The main cannabinoids found in this type are cannabidiol (CDB) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The THC concentrations are 0.3 , so it has no psychoactivity. The second type of Cannabis...

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

It is not legal to cultivate hempseed, in the United States. This ban is mostly due to concerns that the legalization of hemp may make it easier to legalize marijuana (West, 1998). Other governments have accepted the distinction between the two types of cannabis and, while continuing to penalize the growing of marijuana, have legalized the growing of industrial hemp (West, 1998). Canada, France, Australia, China, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Spain have been among the most important producers of hempseed. Within the past 10 years, hempseed has been legally used as food for humans and animals in some countries, like Canada. It is also an important component in paint and varnish production (Callaway, 2004). Some countries have used the fiber from hempseed in the past to produce fabrics or specialty papers, such as canvas, linen, tea bags, paper money, and others (Callaway, 2004). Hempseed and hempseed meals are also edible products that are proposed to have health-related...

Specific Assessment Measures

Perhaps the most practical means by which the typical outpatient therapist can assess for the depressed patient's use of, abuse of, or dependence on alcohol and other drugs is to use a self-report screening instrument. Mueser at al. (2003) note that many such extant measures developed for the general population often lack strong predictive utility for identifying substance use disorders in clinical populations. A notable exception is the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT Saunders, Aasland, Babor, De La Fuente, & Grant, 1993), which has shown good sensitivity and specificity in detecting alcohol use disorders in persons with severe mental illness (Mueser et al., 2003, p. 56). Another useful measure, the Dartmouth Assessment of Lifestyle Instrument (DALI Rosenberg et al., 1998), is a brief, convenient screening device that can be used as a self-report questionnaire on paper or on computer, and may also be used in clinical-based interview form. The DALI has been found to...

Development Of Military Policy

The reaction to the crash of a jet on the aircraft carrier Nimitz in 1981 again focused public attention on the military's drug abuse problem, particularly marijuana use. Autopsies of fourteen Navy personnel killed in the crash showed evidence of marijuana use among six of the thirteen sailors and nonprescription antihistamine use by the pilot. The armed forces reinstituted urine testing for drugs in 1981 as a result of this incident and other concerns about drug use in the military. New breakthroughs in drug- testing confirmation procedures and more rigorous procedures for tracking urine samples overcame earlier legal objections. Urine tests, which are conducted either randomly or when a person is suspected of using drugs, are a major tool for the detection and deterrence of illicit drug use (DoD, 1997).

Worldwide Survey Series

The surveys have all been conducted using similar methods. Civilian researchers first randomly selected a sample of about sixty military installations to represent the armed forces throughout the world. At these designated installations, they randomly selected men and women of all ranks to represent all active-duty personnel. Civilian research teams administered printed questionnaires anonymously to selected personnel in classroom settings on military bases. The few personnel (about 10 ) who were unable to attend the group sessions (e.g., were on leave, sick, or temporarily away from the base) were mailed questionnaires and asked to complete and return them. Participants answered questions about their use of illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin), the misuse of prescription drugs (e.g., stimulants, tranquilizers), about the frequency and amount of alcohol use, and problems resulting from drug or alcohol use. These data collection procedures yielded from over 15,000 to nearly...

Trends In Drug And Alcohol

Figure 1 presents trends over the seven worldwide surveys on the percentage of the active-duty military force who engaged in any illicit drug use or heavy alcohol use during the thirty days prior to the survey. Any illicit drug use was defined as use one or more times during the past thirty days of marijuana hashish, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, and nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs, including stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers, or analgesics. Heavy alcohol use was defined as five or more drinks per typical drinking occasion at least once a week. As shown in Figure 1, use of any illicit drug declined sharply from just under 28 percent in 1980 to about 3 percent in 1998 heavy drinking declined significantly from approximately 21 percent in 1980 to just above 15 percent in 1998, although the decrease was less dramatic than for drug use. Heavy drinking by itself does not constitute alcohol abuse, but it does indicate drinking levels that are likely to result in...

Minimum Drinking Age Laws

The legal drinking age became a major issue because of the serious consequences of young people's consumption of alcohol. Most teenagers drink in addition, almost a third regularly become intoxicated. Damage resulting from the drinking of youth is extensive. Car crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers (Baker et al., 1992), and one third to one half of the crashes involve alcohol (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1990). Other leading causes of disability and death among youth, such as suicide, homicide, assault, drowning, and recreational injury, involve alcohol in one quarter to three quarters of the cases (Wagenaar, 1992). Injuries are only part of the problem. Early use of alcohol appears to affect multiple dimensions of physical, social, and cognitive development (Semlitz & Gold, 1986). Alcohol use increases the odds of having unprotected sex (i.e., failure to use a condom), which increases the chance of pregnancy and catching sexually transmitted...

Onset Of Opioid Dependence

Opioid use is usually preceded by use of tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana. Before their first opioid use, most users dropped out of school and began to associate with opioid users. Heroin is nearly always the drug of choice. With few exceptions, it is first used within a few years of the user's twentieth birthday. Users report that they were not coerced or urged to use heroin by either their associates or drug dealers. In a typical sequence a person becomes aware of drug use by his friends or relatives, becomes curious about its effects, and asks for the first injection. As already noted, most persons ex

Chronicity Remission And Relapse

After dropping out of school, a fourteen-year-old boy learned to make money by selling marijuana and heroin. He tried heroin at age sixteen, liked it, and promptly became a daily user. He used heroin daily for the next twenty years, except for relatively brief periods when he was in prisons and hospitals. Then, at age thirty-six, he was sent to prison for two years. During this period in prison, he felt some change in himself while participating in a THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITY program. After release, he abstained from heroin for the next

Use Of Multiple Substances

In the early twentieth century, many alcoholics were converted from ALCOHOLISM to opioid dependence. If the opioid dependence was terminated, alcohol dependence often replaced it. In the later twentieth century, the patterns of use of other psy-choactive substances during the course of opioid dependence have become more complex. Heroin users often substitute alcohol when they become abstinent from opioids, but, in addition, many use alcohol regularly while using heroin daily. They also use TOBACCO, marijuana, and cocaine. In a recent interview study of opioid users in California, 75 percent reported current use of tobacco, 20 percent reported being drunk on alcohol in the previous seven days, 38 percent reported use of marijuana in the previous thirty days, and 18 percent reported use of cocaine in the previous thirty days (Hser, Anglin & Powers, 1993).

Case Illustration Background Information

While Ann was married, she became involved with a lesbian softball team (i.e., different friends) in an adjacent town. It was through this team that Ann met acquaintances and began participating in lesbian affairs. During this period, frequent partying involved various drugs and alcohol. Ann felt that her alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use had escalated and become problematic. During this time period, Ann was arrested for DWI (driving while intoxicated) and assault she spent the night in jail. In an attempt to establish some normalcy, Ann moved to Pennsylvania, where she enrolled in a junior college and completed an associates in arts degree, with a major in social services over a 3-year period. The extended time was because Ann worked at the college while attending classes.

Antitussive And Antiasthmatic Activity

CANNABIS, ALCOHOL AND OPIATE WITHDRAWAL Although no clinical studies are available for Passiflora extract, preliminary results from animal studies testing the benzoflavone moiety isolated from Passiflora has found it to be a useful adjunct during cannabis and alcohol withdrawal, reducing dependence and attenuating withdrawal symptoms (Dhawan et al 2002b, c).

Implications For Testing Of Urine For Substances Of Abuse

Heroin, cocaine, and MARIJUANA, the principal illegal drugs of abuse, are subject to hepatic clearance, so urinary excretion is in the form of drug metabolites rather than the originally taken parent compounds (Agurell et al., 1986 Jatlow, 1988) (see Figure 6). As such, analytical methods for chemical testing of urine samples must be devised to detect these metabolites (Friedman & Greenblatt, 1986) (see Table 1). Screening IMMUNOASSAYS are notoriously insensitive, and many actual drug users will escape detection by the screening test if the urine concentrations are below an arbitrary cutoff (Burnett et al., 1990). Negative tests can also be produced by dilution of urine via water loading (Lafolie et al., 1991) or by a variety of adulterants that interfere with analytical procedures (Schwarzhoff & Cody, 1993 Mikkelson & Ash, 1988). To complicate matters, immunoassays are nonspecific and have an unacceptably high false-positive rate. Most urine-testing programs deal with the...

Duane C McBride Revised by Jonathan Caulkins

It is difficult to discuss the safe use of illegal drugs, because foes of those substances regard them as ''drugs of abuse'' that cannot possibly be consumed in nonabusive ways. This attitude is unhelpful. Whether a drug is used or abused has little to do with whether a drug is legal or illegal it depends, rather, on the relationship an individual forms with it. One can as easily find examples of abusive use of legal drugs (TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, and OVER-THE-COUNTER medications) as of safe use of illegal ones. Take for example, the majority of coffee drinkers in our society who are addicted to the CAFFEINE in coffee (meaning they will have a withdrawal reaction on sudden cessation of intake). Many of these people also experience adverse effects on health as a result of their coffee addiction (cardiac arrhythmias, stomach and intestinal problems, irritation of the urogenital tract, tremors, insomnia, mood swings, and more). Many users of MARIJUANA, however, consume that drug moderately and...

Acute Administration

H. and Tant, S. R., Acute changes in cerebral blood flow associated with marijuana smoking. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 79 118-128, 1989. Mathew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Humphreys, D. F., Lowe, J. V. and Wiethe, K. E., Regional cerebral blood flow after marijuana smoking. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 12 750-758, 1992. Mathew, R. J. and Wilson, W. H., Acute changes in cerebral blood flow after smoking marijuana. Life Sci. 52 757-767, 1993. Volkow, N. D., Gillespie, H., Mullani, N., Tancredi, L., Grant, C., Valentine, A. and Hollister, L., Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res. 67 29-38, 1996. Mathew, R. J., Wilson, W. H., Coleman, R. E., Turkington, T. G. and DeGrado, T. R., Marijuana intoxication and brain activation in marijuana smokers. Life Sci. 60 2075-2089, 1997. Gatley, S. J., Lan, R., Volkow, N. D., Pappas, N., King, P., Wong, C. T., Gifford, A. N., Pyatt, B., Dewey, S. L. and...

Chronic Administration

J., Tant, S. and Burger, C., Regional cerebral blood flow in marijuana smokers. Br. J. Addict. 81 567-571, 1986. Tunving, K., Thulin, S. O., Risberg, J. and Warkentin, S., Regional cerebral blood flow in long-term heavy cannabis use. Psychiatry Res. 17 15-21, 1986. Volkow, N. D., Gillespie, H., Mullani, N., Tancredi, L., Grant, C., Valentine, A. and Hollister, L., Brain glucose metabolism in chronic marijuana users at baseline and during marijuana intoxication. Psychiatry Res. 67 29-38, 1996. Amen, D. G. and Waugh, M., High resolution brain SPECT imaging of marijuana smokers with AD HD. J. Psychoactive Drugs 30 209-214, 1998.

National Federation Of Parents For Drugfree Youthnational Family Partnership

During the 1970s, legislatures in eleven states decriminalized MARIJUANA. During this same period, an explosion of head shops proliferated throughout the United States. These places, which sold PARAPHERNALIA to enhance drug use, targeted their products to children and teenagers. The national decriminalization discussion produced rhetoric that ignored or played down the harmful effects of drugs, and this rhetoric spilled over into drug-education materials, which counseled the ''responsible use'' of drugs that were both dangerous and illegal. Song lyrics and films in the adolescent culture tended to reinforce the popularity and acceptance of drug use. These factors appeared to contribute to, if not actually drive, the astonishing escalation in adolescent drug use throughout the 1970s. 1979, however, it had become clear that action at local and state levels was not enough. Representation at the national level was critical particularly in light of the fact that a federal bill to...

Recreational Drug Use

The animal can press a lever to activate the pump, and this results in a dose of a drug such as COCAINE, HEROIN, NICOTINE, or ALCOHOL being infused into the vein. If the animal continues to press the lever to obtain the drug, then the drug is said to serve as a reinforcer. Interestingly, those drugs which lead to ADDICTION in humans also serve as reinforcers in animals. The only exception is MARIJUANA (THC),which is used fairly extensively by humans but does not function as a reinforcer in animals. It should be noted that drugs that serve as reinforcers under one condition may not serve as reinforcers under other conditions. For example, nicotine serves as a reinforcer only at low doses and when doses are properly spaced. Nevertheless, the observation that drugs of abuse generally function as reinforcers in experimental animals has brought the study of drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse into a framework that allows carefully controlled behavioral analyses and the...

The Relationship Between Religious Commitment And Drug

Figure 1 shows how drug use was related to religious commitment among high school seniors in 1979, 1989, and 1999. Individuals with the highest religious commitment were defined as those who usually attend services once a week or more often and who describe religion as being very important in their lives individuals with low commitment are those who never attend services and rate religion as not important. Figure 1 clearly indicates that those with low religious involvement were more likely than average to be frequent cigarette smokers, occasional heavy drinkers, and users of MARIJUANA and COCAINE conversely, those highest in religious commitment were much less likely to engage in any of these behaviors. Other analyses have shown that similar relationships exist for other illicit drugs (Bachman et al., 1986) and for other age groups (Cochran et al., 1988 Gorsuch, 1988). Recent Trends in Drug Use and Religious Commitment. Figure 1 presents data from...

Physical Dependence

Other classes of drugs besides opioids produce physical dependence in animals as well. Many of the basic findings about physical dependence on CNS depressants (e.g., dose and frequency) are similar to what has been found with opioids. However, the abstinence syndrome can be even more severe than that seen with opioids. HALLUCINATIONS and even life-threatening convulsions can develop when long-term abuse of a barbiturate or alcohol is stopped. Abstinence syndromes have also been found after long-term exposure to Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in Marijuana, and Phencyclidine (PCP). On the other hand, the abstinence syndrome that follows long-term exposure to such CNS stimulants as Amphetamine or Cocaine is, by comparison, mild.

Drug Selfadministration

Research using these animal models has shown that, with few exceptions, animals self-administer the same drugs that humans abuse and show similar patterns of intake. For example, when given unlimited access to stimulants like amphetamine, both humans and animals alternate periods of high drug intake with periods of no drug intake. In the case of heroin, both animals and humans gradually increase drug intake to levels that are then stable for months and even years. In addition, animals do not self-administer drugs that humans do not abuse (e.g., aspirin) and even avoid those that humans report to be unpleasant (e.g., Antipsychotic Drugs). These basic findings validate this as an excellent animal model of drug abuse by humans. The exceptions are the hallucinogens and marijuana, which animals do not readily self-administer.

Pharmacological Management of Undernutrition

Dronabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, is another FDA-approved orexigenic agent for use in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Dronabinol is also an effective orexigenic and antiemetic in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Additional evidence indicates that dronabinol induces weight gain in persons with dementia, although research has yet to determine whether weight gain in such patients is due to increased energy intake or reduced agitation with improved behavior and consequently decreased energy expenditure. Side effects of dronabinol in older adults include delirium, euphoria, and increased somnolence. The latter two qualities may favor the use of dronabinol as an orexigenic agent in palliative care.

Seizures Of Drugs The seizure of

Pennsylvania National Guardsmen, with the help of spotters in a helicopter, found more than 80 of these marijuana plants growing in the middle of a cornfield in York County, August 25, 1998. (AP Photo Keith Srakocic) Seizures of Cocaine rose throughout the 1980s, probably reflecting both the rapid increase in total shipments and the declining replacement cost of the drug. In 1989, federal authorities seized over 218,000 pounds of cocaine and that figure continued to rise during the 1990s. In 1999, cocaine seizures reached almost 291,000 pounds. Marijuana seizures grew dramatically during the same period. Federal authorities seized about 1.1 million pounds in 1989 and by 1999 the figure reached 2.3 million pounds. This is largely the result of increased U.S. cultivation and production of marijuana. Heroin seizures fluctuated between 1989 and 1999 but the overall trend was less dramatic than with other drugs. In 1989, federal authorities seized 2,415 pounds of heroin in 1999, 2,788...

Provisions Of The Single Convention

Parties must require licenses for manufacturers, wholesalers, and other handlers of narcotic drugs, and they must maintain a system of permits, record keeping, reports, controls, and inspections to prevent diversion of drugs to the illicit traffic. A country that allows the domestic production of the Opium poppy, the Coca bush, or the Cannabis plant must establish a control agency to designate areas for the cultivation of these drugs and limit production to licensed growers. The Single Convention extends the control system over the opium poppy to the coca bush and the cannabis plant. Governments must uproot and destroy wild and illegally cultivated coca bushes and cannabis plants. Parties are furthermore required to ban opium smoking and eating, coca-leaf chewing, and cannabis smoking and ingestion. A transition period is provided to overcome any difficulties that might arise for those who use such plants or drugs in ancient rituals. Countries may reserve the right to permit the...

Sleep Dreaming And Drugs

The ancient Hindus imbibed a sacred drink called soma, and Marijuana was used in practices of meditation. For the Arabs, Hashish (a form of marijuana) was the substance of choice, while the Incas chewed the leaves of the Coca plant (from which Cocaine may be made). The Opium poppy was used in Asia, and the ancient Mexicans used a variety of powerful Psychoactive substances, including Peyote, sacred mushrooms, and seeds from the Mexican Morning Glory plant, to enter the realm of dreams. The Australian aboriginals used the pituri, a psychoactive substance, to take them into dream time,'' as they referred to it. Another drug with hallucinogenic effects is marijuana, its active ingredient being Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The effects of THC on the waking EEG pattern are quite distinct from the effects of the classic hallucinogens cited above (Fairchild et al., 1979). THC has sedating effects at lower doses and hallucinatory effects at higher doses. The acute administration of marijuana or...

Current Situation And Trends

Since the 1970s, hashish has been the most widespread of the illicit drugs used in Sweden it is often considered the starting point, or gateway, into abuse of other drugs. During the screening of job applicants in 1986, as many as 4 percent had traces of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their urine. An estimated 50,000 people regularly smoke hashish in Sweden as of the mid-1990s. A study conducted by UNO (Utredningen om narkotika-missbrukets omfattning, or Commission on the Extent of Drug Abuse) in 1979 revealed somewhere between 10,000 and 14,000 severe drug abusers, or tung missbrukare, that is, users who take drugs either on a daily basis or intravenously, exclusive of frequency. A similar study in 1992 found this number had increased to between 14,000 and 20,000. Increased immigration into Sweden during the 1980s brought the development of new subpopulations of drug users, with use patterns derived from their home drug cultures. These included the smoking of opium and heroin, which...

Drug Testing And Forensic Issues

Drug testing is an issue with respect to marijuana because of the effects of THC on coordination, sense of timing, and impairment of depth perception as well as short-term memory. It is hazardous for someone who has taken a moderate dosage of marijuana to drive or to operate heavy equipment in the workplace.

Gender and Racial Ethnic Differences

Male students have higher lifetime and thirty-day prevalence rates than their female counterparts for marijuana use for all grades reported. Senior males report more illicit drug use of other types in the previous thirty days than females, but there is little gender difference in tenth or eighth grade. Males also tend to use alcohol more than females, which becomes more apparent by twelfth grade. Across all grades, males and females seem to have almost equal rates of daily cigarette smoking. African-American students report lower lifetime, annual, thirty-day, and daily illicit drug use prevalence rates than white and Hispanic students. African-American students also have the lowest prevalence rates of alcohol use, being drunk, and binge drinking.

Prenatal Exposure

A., Goldschmidt, L., Robles, N., Taylor, P. M., Stoffer, D. S., Cornelius, M. D. and Geva, D., Effect of prenatal marijuana exposure on the cognitive development of offspring at age three. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 16 169-175, 1994. Fried, P. A., Watkinson, B. and Gray, R., Differential effects on cognitive functioning in 9-to 12-year olds prenatally exposed to cigarettes and marihuana. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 20 293-306, 1998.

Now Revised And Updated

Drugs remain pervasive, and parents and children alike need complete, unbiased information about how drugs affect the mind and the body. Neither condoning nor condemning drug use, the authors cover a wide range of available substances, from coffee to marijuana, from antihistamines to psychedelics, from steroids to the new smart drugs 7 Besides describing the likely effects of cach drug, the authors discuss precautions and alternatives, thus allowing readers to make informed and intelligent

Drugs of abuse have changed since the 1800smost rapidly over the past quarter century

Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 (1932) endorsed by Federal Bureau of narcotics as an alternative to Federal laws by 1937 every State prohibits marijuana use appear rapid rise in marijuana use amphetamines and barbituates move from homes to street rise in heroin addicts leads to methadone maintenance pilot programs (1964) clinics waivered, but public agitation with crime in general and drug abuse intensified reported increases in cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use prompted concern about drugs being smuggled into the U.S. Passage of Prop. 215 in California removes state criminal penalties for personal use possession and cultivation of medical marijuana Monitoring the Future study detects upswing in adolescent marijuana use after a decade-long decrease

PCP Angel Dust Peace Pill Hog Animal Tranquilizer THC Cannabinol

Shortly thereafter PCP appeared on the black market. It is a cheap and easy drug to make, produces a strong intoxication, and can be sold to unsuspecting buyers as other, more desirable drugs. For instance, pills of PCP have often been sold as synthetic THC, the chief component of marijuana. (In fact, synthetic THC is very rare and expensive and is almost never available on the black market.) Supermarket mushrooms, treated with PCP alone or with PCP and LSI), were sold as magic mushrooms throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCP-LSD combinations have also been sold as mescaline and psilocybin. PCP comes as both pills and a powder. The powdered form, called angel dust, can be sprinkled in joints made of marijuana or inactive herbs such as parsley, mint, and oregano or it can be dissolved in an organic solvent and sprayed on these materials. When the solvent evaporates, it leaves an even residue of the drug. Such joints are called dusters. Some people snort angel dust, and very few...

Cant get an erection

Alcohol, in moderation (because it represses social inhibitions), may promote sexual activity. In excess, alcohol depresses the brain and can temporarily result in impotence. Antihistamines, cocaine, marijuana, major tranquilizers, sedatives, and some anti-depression drugs may aggravate or cause impotence by depressing the brain. Some of these drugs may block

Principal Drugproducing Countries

As of the early 1990s, all the cocaine, about 30 percent of the heroin, and a significant amount of marijuana entering the United States is produced in the Western Hemisphere in Mexico, Central, and South America. They are smuggled in through the southern borders of the United States. All of the cocaine consumed in Cocaine is a major threat to weakening Colombia's democratic institutions and directly or indirectly affecting everyone in the country. Colombians increasingly recognize that the violence and corruption that accompany drug trafficking are harming their economy and society. By the early 1990s, under President Cesar Gaviria, the Colombian government security forces began enforcement procedures against cocaine traffickers. The Colombian police have also eradicated virtually all marijuana cultivation in the traditional growing areas along the North Coast and Guajira peninsula. The government of Colombia consequently damaged the leadership structure of the Medellin...

Allergies To Opiates Barbiturates And Street Drugs

Street drugs have been reported to induce asthma and or anaphylaxis. Bronchospasm may occur in patients smoking COCAINE or in those injecting heroin. This may occur more often in patients who have a previous history of asthma. The asthma may persist after the subjects have stopped smoking cocaine. Pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs) may also occur with FREEBASING cocaine. These side effects are not likely to be mediated by the immune system. However, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis to cocaine has been described and is associated with elevated levels of IgE. MARIJUANA

Drug Properties Absorption Distribution And Elimination Phases

Small Intestine Glutamine Ammonia

Detection of a drug depends largely on its absorption, distribution, and elimination properties. There are various routes of drug administration oral (e.g., drinking ALCOHOL or swallowing pills), intravenous (e.g., HEROIN injected into a vein) and inhalation (e.g., smoking MARIJUANA snorting COCAINE sniffing GLUE). Drugs taken orally are usually the slowest to be absorbed (i.e. the speed at which the drug reaches the brain and other body organs) whereas intravenous and inhalation routes result in the fastest absorption. Once the absorbed drug enters the blood stream it is rapidly distributed to the various tissues in the body. The amount of drug stored depends on the nature of the drug, the quantity, duration of ingestion, the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. Some drugs are fat-soluble and are deposited in fat tissues. For example, S9-TETRAHYDRO-CANNABINOL (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana, is highly fat-soluble, resulting in rapid reductions in blood levels...

Drug And Alcohol Use Among Youth Gangs

Alcohol and Marijuana use have always been, and continue to be, the most widely used substances among both gang and non-gang youths (Fagan, 1989, 1990 Sheley, Smith, & Wright, 1992). Drinking and other drugs (primarily marijuana) consistently are mentioned as a common part of gang life throughout gang literature. For instance, Short and Strodtbeck's (1965) study of Chicago gangs showed that drinking was the second most common activity of gang members of all races, exceeded only by hanging out on the streetcorner. Although COCAINE may be trafficked by some gang members, it is not often used in either its powder or smokeable forms (Fagan, 1990). alcohol, marijuana, PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP), and CRACK-cocaine. There is a sanction against HEROIN use among Chicano gangs. Heroin involvement is seen as a betrayal of the gang and the barrio one cannot be loyal to his addiction and the addict (''tecato'') culture while maintaining loyalty to the gang. Vigil noted that gang members prepared for...

Sally L Satel Thomas R Kosten

Nicotine (Tobacco) Nicotine is one of the most addicting substances known indeed, the risk of becoming dependent on nicotine following any tobacco use is higher than the risk of becoming dependent on alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana following any use of those substances. Among multiple drug users, quitting tobacco use is often cited as more difficult than giving up alcohol or cocaine. Most current views of tobacco use include physiological addiction as a factor in the difficult course of achieving smoking cessation.

Experiments in voluntary death Ketamine research study

All 36 participants had smoked cannabis at least once in their lives or had taken MDMA (also known as 'ecstasy'). Thirty-four (94 per cent) had tried an amphetamine of some sort (especially 'speed' powder), 91 per cent cocaine, 97 per cent LSD, and 86 per cent 'magic mushrooms' (psilocybin). They were less likely to have taken anabolic steroids (6 per cent), solvents (5.5 per cent) or opiates (16 per cent).

Ketamine Ketalar Ketaject SuperK

The fact that ketamine remained an uncontrolled substance while PCP came to be seen as the chief devil drug of the 1980s is a good illustration of how images of drugs are shaped by their users. ust as marijuana has never shaken off its association with deviants, minorities, and rebels, so PCP is now linked with an angry, violent, young segment of the population that is prone to commit crimes. PCP does not cause crime, violence, or insanity any more than marijuana causes revolutions. The pharmacology of ketamine is practically the same as that of PCP, yet ketamine users (usually successful professionals) lie peacefully in dissociative states, causing no one any harm, and raising few alarms in society.

Roy W Pickens Dace S Svikis

Gender Apart from the use of Tobacco (cigarettes) and Psychoactive Drugs, men show a consistently higher rate of drug use than do Women, especially with reference to Alcohol and to Marijuana and other illicit drugs (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1992 Anthony, 1991 Robins et al., 1984 Kandel & Yama-guchi, 1985 Windle, 1990 Robbins, 1989). Women are more likely than men to use the drugs prescribed by a physician, especially psychotrophic drugs (Cafferata et al., 1983), and although men still have a higher rate of Cigarette use, this difference is decreasing (Kandel & Yamaguchi, 1985 National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1989 & 1991 SAMSA, 1992). Several studies have shown the increased vulnerability to drug use of women in relation to social ties. Kaplan and Johnson (1992) showed that the attenuation of interpersonal ties resulting from initial drug use caused women, but not men, to increase their drug use. Similarly, Kandel (1984) reported that interpersonal...

Paraphernalia Laws Against

Drug paraphernalia are articles that facilitate or enable the use of illicit drugs, such as hypodermic syringes for HEROIN or pipes for smoking MARIJUANA. Laws prohibiting the possession and use of paraphernalia have been adopted in every state of the United States despite significant constitutional objections to them. The first drug-paraphernalia laws, prohibitions against possessing opium pipes, were enacted by western states in the late nineteenth century as part of broad statutory efforts to suppress opium smoking by CHINESE immigrants. During the first third of the twentieth century, some states, in conjunction with a legislative attempt to criminalize the nonmedical use of OPIATES and COCAINE, also prohibited the possession of hypodermic syringes without a medical prescription. By 1972, when the NATIONAL Commission on Marijuana and Drug ABUSE conducted a survey of state drug laws, about twenty states had adopted some type of drug-paraphernalia prohibition. Corcoran, A. M., AND...

James F Maddux David P Desmond

Opium became an important European drug in the sixteenth century. During the Middle Ages, the severing of ties between Europe and the Middle East meant that large amounts of opium were not shipped to Europe. In the Middle East, however, the ancient Roman and Greek texts remained important sources of knowledge, and medical, as well as scientific and mathematical, theories were developed and debated among scholars like the Arab physician Avicenna. In these Moslem countries, where alcohol was absolutely forbidden, both opium and cannabis were widely used. The passage of the Harrison Act was followed by the creation of federal enforcement bodies to prohibit unauthorized entry of opiates into the country, and to arrest and convict unauthorized sellers and possessors of opiates. In the 1920s, psychiatric theory held that chronic addicts suffered from personality deficits that caused them to feel inordinate pleasure from opiates and thus become mired in addiction. Opiate addiction was now...

Pride National Parents Resource Institute For Drug Education

Thomas ''Buddy'' Gleaton, Ed.D., and Marsha Keith Manatt Schuchard, Ph.D., founded PRIDE in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1978. PRIDE's purpose is to help parents form groups to protect their children from becoming involved with MARIJUANA and other drugs. The organization is based on the following fundamental principles (1) drug abuse is a health issue (2) the family is the greatest bulwark against adolescent drug use (3) families need help from the rest of the community to steer young people safely through the many temptations and dangers that confront them every day. The PRIDE Drug Use Survey has helped thousands of local school systems determine the extent of ALCOHOL, marijuana, and other drug use among students in elementary, middle, and high school. A large data base allows PRIDE to spot early trends in the rise or fall of various drugs used by students. A systemwide survey of Atlanta public school students in 1994 demonstrated a shocking correlation between drug use and possession of...

Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation

In January 1963, the Presidential Advisory Commission on Narcotic and Drug Abuse appointed by President John F. Kennedy made a number of recommendations, including the enactment of a federal civil commitment statute that could provide an alternative to prison for confirmed narcotic or marijuana abusers convicted of federal crimes. The advisory commission also recommended increased assistance to states and municipalities to develop and strengthen their own treatment programs.

Plant Names And Plant Taxonomy

The authors of a rather famous 1969 article published in the distinguished Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) suggested that catnip (Nepeta cataria), when smoked, produced a psychedelic high not unlike cannabis.2 It was later discovered that the researchers had, in fact, mistakenly used the cannabis plant instead.3 Though we can assume the authors of the 1969 paper were appropriately embarrassed, their report does nicely illustrate the importance of proper botanical identification. Some plants are almost indistinguishable from others that have totally different properties, and this can have fateful consequences. One example of serious misidentifi-cation occurred in 1997 when someone taking an herbal product containing plantain (Plantago major L.) developed life-threatening complications. It was subsequently discovered that the supply of what was supposed to be plantain was contaminated with foxglove (Digitalis lanata), a plant containing powerful heart stimulants...

Drug Traffic Control See Drug Interdiction

The major categories include (1) ethanol (Alcohol) (2) Nicotine and tobacco (3) central nervous system depressants (BARBITURATES, Benzodiazepines) (4) central nervous system stimulants (AMPHETAMINES, COCAINE) (5) cannabinoids (6) OPIODS (MORPHINE, HEROIN, Methadone) (7) psychedelics (lsd, Mescaline) The illegal drugs are then discussed. Although the illicit use of heroin, cocaine, and other drugs remains a major social, legal, financial and health problem in the United States today, the proportion of the population physically dependent on these drugs is actually relatively low when compared to the legal drugs listed above. Finally, it is important to take into consideration the fact that individuals often do not restrict their drug use only to drugs within a single category. Alcoholics typically smoke cigarettes and often use benzodiazepines as well. Heroin users also smoke and may consume alcohol and other sedatives, as well as CANNABIS and stimulants in some instances. Multiple-drug...

Who uses stimulants and Why they Do it

Many different groups of people abuse stimulants. Methylphenidate is most widely abused by high school and college students. However, rates of use are quite low when compared with other drugs such as Ecstasy and marijuana. Methylphenidate is also sometimes mixed with Talwin to produce heroin-like effects. This combination is used more often by certain groups, such as prostitutes and people with lower incomes. Finally, there Sometimes, people become stimulant users without intending to. Drug dealers commonly mix metham-phetamine with other drugs, such as Ecstasy, marijuana, heroin, and ketamine. They do this to increase their profits or hook new users. Methylphenidate is often mixed with baking soda and disguised as cocaine.

Terpenoids And Phenolics

4.5.2 Cannabis sativa (Marijuana or Hemp) Hallucinogenic and Medicinal Uses Marijuana has been used for more than 4000 years for the treatment of catarrh, leprosy, fever, dandruff, hemorrhoids, obesity, asthma, urinary tract infections, loss of appetite, inflammatory conditions, and cough.15 More recently, it has been used in medicine to treat patients who have glaucoma (an eye disease) and to alleviate the adverse side effects of chemotherapy used to treat patients who have had cancer. These are the only legal medical uses of marijuana at the present time. Marijuana contains 20 sedative-type drugs. These are called tetrahydro-cannabinoids. The most active cannabinoid metabolite is tetrahydrocannab-inol (THC). This and the other cannabinoids are produced in glandular hairs on the shoots of the plants (Figure 4.17).21 The plant's sedative effects were recognized by the Chinese, but its widespread use as a psychoactive drug plant has only been fairly recent.15 FIGURE 4.17 Scanning...

Urine Testing Methods

Typically, immunoassays are designed for a class of drugs. Thus, their specificity (the ability to detect the presence of a specific drug) is not very good, since substances that have similar chemical structures will ''cross react'' and give a false positive reaction. For example, the immunoassay method for cannabinoids was developed to detect the carboxylic acid metabolite of S9-THC. Yet, there is a suggestion in the literature that some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (a nonprescription drug in the U. S. and Canada) and naproxyn give random or sporadic false positive results for cannabinoids. Cough-syrup codeine will also give a positive reaction for the morphine (a metabolic product of heroin use) immunoassay and many antihistamines that are available over-the-counter may yield positive reactions for amphetamines. While some reagent manufacturers claim to have overcome many of these cross-reactivity problems, confirmation by a non-immunoassay method is very...

Risk Taking and Substance Abuse

Although people who have affective disorders might use drugs as a form of chemical self-treatment, independent of this possible relationship between drugs and affective disorders, the same brain anomaly that makes people susceptible to drug abuse might serve to enhance curiosity, risk taking, and creativity. For example, studies of large cohorts of college students found that the students who use marijuana tend to be novelty seeking and more creative than the students who did not use this drug (Eisenman, Grossman, & Goldstein, 1980). The mechanism underlying the relationships between substance abuse, novelty seeking, risk taking, and creativity has not been determined. One hypothesis, however, is that drugs enhance creative performance, but studies of creativity under normal states versus intoxicated states do not reveal that drugs enhance the production of creative works (Lang, Verret, & Watt, 1984). As I mentioned, depression might not enhance creative...

Selfhelp And Annonymous Groups See Treatment Types

The active constituent of marijuana, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), also produces alterations in sensory behavior however hallucinations such as those produced by mescaline or LSD are less common with THC, although there is an increased risk of psychotic symptoms among users with a family or personal history of psychosis. Cocaine and Amphetamine sometimes produce hallucinations and other sensory distortions, but only when they are taken for long periods of time.

Reward Deficiency Syndrome

Individuals tend to be at risk of multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioural problems, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine addiction, pathological gambling, sex addiction, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, risk taking behaviours and antisocial behaviour. As such, the use of tyrosine as a precursor to dopamine has a theoretical basis for use in this condition (Blum etal 2000).

Lilium Tigrinum For Balanitis Treatment

230-31, 238-39, 293 hashish see Cannabis sativa 'Indica' hawthorn see Crataegus laevigata hay fever 206-7, 224-25 Allium cepa (Allium cepa) 224-25 Arsenicum iodatum (Arsen. iod.) 224-25 Euphrasia officinalis (Euphrasia) 224-25 Solanum dulcamara (Dulcamara) 62 Tuberculinum Koch & T. bovum (Tuberculinum) 115 hazelwort see Asarum europaeum head pain 62, 78, 95 (Calc. carb.) 77 Cannabis sativa 'Indica' (Cannabis ind.) 43 Chelidonium majus (Chelidonium) 47 Cimicifuga racemosa (Cimicifuga) 48 Cinchona officinalis (China) 49 Coffea cruda (Coffea) 50 Delphinium staphisagria (Staphisagria) 54 Ferrum metallicum (Ferrum met.) 81 Helleborus niger (Helleborus) 55 Ignatia amara (Ignatia) 57 Kalium bichromicum (Kali. bich.) 87 Kalium phosphoricum (Kali. phos.) 89 Magnesium phosphoricum (Mag. phos.) 90 Natrum carbonicum (Nat. carb.) 91 Natrum chloratum (Nat. mur.) 92 Sepia officinalis (Sepia) 112 Silicea terra (Silica) 97 Strychnos nux-vomica (Nux vomica) 218-19 Syphilinum (Syphilinum) 113 Tartarus...

Pubertal Timing Effects

Early maturation in girls has also been identified as a risk factor for externalizing behaviors. Studies show that early maturing girls tend to engage in risky behaviors, such as delinquency, earlier in adolescence and more frequently than their same-age peers (Caspi & Moffitt, 1991 Flannery, Rowe, & Gulley, 1993 Magnusson, Stattin, & Allen, 1985). Early maturing girls display more adverse outcomes if they had a history of behavior problems prior to puberty (Caspi & Moffitt, 1991) and have higher lifetime histories of disruptive behavior disorder in the high school years (Graber et al., 1997). Additionally, early-maturing girls show earlier onset and higher levels of substance abuse behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, compared to their on-time and late maturing age-mates (Aro & Taipale, 1987 Dick, Rose, Viken, & Kaprio, 2000 Magnusson et al., 1985). In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, early-maturing girls in the seventh grade were three...

Fear and Loathing in Los Angeles

The magazine's readers are never told what medical condition has occasioned this emergency. Given the assertions made in the rest of his essay, I suspect it may come as a surprise to the author to learn that suffocating in your own fat does not constitute a recognized medical diagnosis. More to the point, using Carl's unspecified medical problems to introduce a discussion of weight and public health is typical of the sorts of anxiety-provoking distortions employed by America's anti-fat warriors. Only a tiny percentage of the 135 million adult Americans who the government claims are overweight are anywhere near Carl's size. By focusing on the most extreme cases, those prosecuting the war on fat copy the drug war's most deceptive tactics Just as the average American who our government labels a drug abuser is someone who smokes marijuana occasionally, the average American being harassed by our public health authorities about her supposedly unhealthy weight is a 150-pound woman, not a...

Strengths And Limitations Of The Nhsda

The survey does not cover certain populations likely to have heavy illicit drug use, such as the homeless and prison populations. While these missing populations, because they are small, make little difference in estimating MARIJUANA or ALCOHOL prevalence, rarer behaviors such as HEROIN or Crack use may be severely underestimated by the NHSDA. Data validity from the survey is also in question because of the self-report methods employed and the voluntary nature of the survey.

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

From a biological standpoint, it is frequently noted that the lower ratio of water to total body weight in women causes them to metabolize alcohol and drugs differently than men. Even when body weight is controlled, given equivalent alcohol consumed, women pass more alcohol into the bloodstream and reach higher peak Blood Alcohol Concentrations than men, in part because of differences in enzyme activity in the intestinal wall. Drugs such as marijuana that are deposited in body fat may be slower to clear in women than in men. Slow clearance rates create a potential for cumulative toxicity and adverse drug and alcohol interactions.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Based on the close relationship between the biochemical pathways of ALA and LA, and the capacity of both to be converted into long chain fatty acids, plant sources of ALA (like flax seed and canola) have attracted scientific attention for their health-related potential. Unfortunately, because of legal regulations, lack of knowledge, confusion, and controversies about the differences between fiber hemp and marijuana, hempseed research has been limited and slow to develop. Not only is the nutritional value of hempseed important, but the effects of LA as an Medicinal use of hempseeds (cannabis sativa L.) effects on platelet aggregation

What Are The Addictive Behaviours That Jullo Rehab Centre Treat

Cannabis and, 575, 665, 1054 crop control in, 375, 665 as transit country, 1112 James, William, 358-359 James I (King of England), 872-874, 1091, 1100 Kif. See Cannabis sativa 660-661, 662, 1054 terrorism in, 1081 Lapses vs. relapse, 954 Lara Bonilla, Rodrigo, 285 Latency of drugs, 846 Lateral hypothalamus, 196 Latin America. See also specific countries, e.g., Mexico ancient, beer use in, 79 as cannabis source, 655-657 as cocaine source, 658, 875 coffee cultivation in, 279, 874-875 foreign policy and, 545 historical alcohol use in, 80-81 as opium source, 655-657, 660-661, 217, 1113 LD50, 415-416, 682 Le Club des Haschschins (Hashish-Eaters alcohol and, 299-301 allergic responses and, 104, 105 cannabis and, 303 cocaine and, 301 HIV AIDS and, 1060-1061 morphine and, 303 tobacco and, 302 Levo-alpha-acetylmethadol. See L-alpha- cannabis-related, 705 MA (Marijuana Anonymous). See Marijuana Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding, 288, 700-701, 758 Marihuana Commission. See National...

Precipitating Factors

Effects of other drugs on aggression also were evaluated by using this type of laboratory experiment. These studies are important because some tranquilizers are prescribed for anxiety and irritable behavior (Ratey & Gordon, 1993). Low doses of marijuana could result in aggressive behavior, but high doses suppressed it. The use of low doses of benzodiazepines increased aggression, but amphetamines did not augment aggression, and these results were contrary to prevailing expectations. Other studies showed that pretreatment with nicotine, dextroamphetamine, or propranolol (which lowers blood pressure) inhibited aggressive behavior. Furthermore, when individuals were evaluated on an aggression rating scale, the nonaggressive group did not respond to provocation while intoxicated with alcohol, but persons in the moderate- It also should be noted that alcohol and other drugs have a pharmacological effect on sexual arousal and sexual behavior. Among men, alcohol can cause secondary impotence...

Toxins and Contaminants

Some plant foods have been the cause of occasional outbreaks of poisoning in special circumstances. For example Jimson weed, Datura stramonium, contains alkaloids including scopolamine which produce hallucination and the hemp plant, Cannabis indica, and the peyote, containing mescaline, have been consumed deliberately for their psychic effects.

James E Smith Revised by Michael J Kuhar

Nutmeg contains elemicin and myristicin, whose structures have some similarities to the hallucinogen MESCALINE as well as to the Psychostimulant Amphetamine. It has been hypothesized that el-emicin and myristicin might be metabolized in the body to form an amphetamine- and or mescaline-like compound, but this has not been proven. The effects of nutmeg have been reported to have some similarities to those produced by MARIJUANA however, the large amounts of nutmeg that must be ingested to get behavioral effects can cause dry mouth and thirst, increases in heart rate, vomiting and abdominal pain, severe headaches, agitation, and panic attacks.

Where To Download Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide

The legit version of Quit Marijuana The Complete Guide is not distributed through other stores. An email with the special link to download the ebook will be sent to you if you ordered this version.

Download Now