National cancer screening programs in UK include cervical, breast and colorectal cancers. For prostate cancer, there is an informed choice program - for healthy men who requires screening, and the risk management program - for men at higher risk for developing disease, due to symptoms of prostatism, or a positive family history on prostate cancer (NHS.UK, 2011). Cancer screening programs in UK are characterised with a high level of quality performance, and a large coverage of the target population, for cervical cancer already reaching the expected 80% (Arbyn, 2008, as cited in NHS.UK, 2011). Further, these programs are strictly evidence based, by means of the screening intervals, recommended age groups and methods used for screening. To avoid disparities for screening, community-driven approach is prefered, while Primary Care Trusts and regional directors of public healths are responsible for the quality assurance. The National Office for Cancer Screening provides the call/recall system and coordinate all other activities (NHS.UK, 2011).
The main shortage of this system is in using the lists of patients registered with general practitioners (GPs), allowing eligible individuals not covered by the health insurance, to drop out from the screening. The UK is an example of the cancer screening model which in a great part relies on the ordinary health care facilities and includes primary care teams to participate, by encouraging patients to screening and by keeping them informed on all the stages of the screening program. This model is termed as a "model service".
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