CCN1, also known as Cyr61 (cysteine-rich 61), is a proangiogenic factor, increased CCN1 expression is associated with the development of tumors (O'Kelly et al., 2008), e.g., in about 30% of invasive breast carcinomas, and particularly in triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). TNBCs patients had been treated with bisphosphonate in combination to chemotherapy. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a bisphosphonate having direct antitumor activity in breast tumor cells by preventing independent growth, branching and morphogenesis by targeting CCN1 overexpressing cells through a negative regulation of CCN1 by FOXO3a; it is a new therapeutic approach for TNBC (Espinoza et al., 2011).
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