Preventive measures that can reduce the cancer burden

Based on the experience gained so far, it is considered that a substantial proportion of the cancer burden worldwide could be prevented if adequately implemented community-based programs for early cancer detection and treatment, tobacco control, cancer-related vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and health promotion campaigns (American Cancer Society, 2002; Commission of the European Communities, 2009; WHO, 2009) (Table 3).

• Implementation of principles of a healthy life-style, mainly by means of a healthy diet - low in saturated fats and carbohydrates and high in fruit and vegetable, regular physical activity, no smoking, and only moderate alcohol consumtion

• Changes in sexual behaviour (including the number of partners, partners selection, the type of sex involved, knowledge on infection status of partners, use of barrier contraceptives)

• Immunization against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection

• Taking the control over occupational hazards

• Avoidance of cancer-causing substances in the global environment and in consumer products

• Avoidance of attentive exposure to sunlight_

Table 3. Primary prevention measures (taken before any sign of a disease occures) known to deal with the reduction in total cancer incidence

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