Global cancer statistics and calls for action 51 Global cancer statistics

Based on the GLOBOCAN estimates, about 12,7 million cancer cases and 7,6 million cancer deaths occured worldwide in 2008 and this trend continues to rise (Jemal et al., 2011). Proposed major reasons include: 1) the ageing, alongside with growth, of the world population, as cancer affects older adults at the highest rates, and 2) an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, due to the processes of modernisation and globalisation (Jemal et al., 2011; WHO, 2009). Of this total cancer burden, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths have occured in the economically developing world. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing countries are half those registred in the developed world, the cancer mortality is generally similar (Jemal et al., 2011). The main reason for this dysproportion is in cancer survival rates, which tend to be poor in developing countries, mostly because of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2008b; Jemal et al., 2011; Ebling et al., 1993, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica et al., 2008b).

The most frequent cancer site diagnosed in females worldwide is breast cancer and it is also the leading cause of cancer death, comprising 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. In general, the highest incidence rates are registered in the most developed regions, although 60% of the deaths occur in developing countries. Brest cancer is now the leading cause of cancer death among females in developing countries, a shift from cervical cancer which held this unfavorable position in the past decades. The second and the third most frequently diagnosed cancers in females are colorectal and lung cancers, the reverse order in cancer mortality (Table 1) (Jemal et al., 2011).

Estimated Age-standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates (per 100,000) by Sex, Cancer Site, and Level of Economic Development, 2008

Females

Developed countries Developing countries

Females

Developed countries Developing countries

Incidence

Mortality

Incidence

Mortality

Breast

66,40

15,30

27,30

10,80

Cervix uteri

9,00

3,20

17,80

9,80

Colon & rectum

24,20

9,70

9,40

5,40

Corpus uteri

12,90

2,40

5,90

1,70

Liver

2,70

2,50

7,60

7,20

Lung & bronchus

18,60

13,60

11,10

9,70

Melanoma of skin

8,60

1,10

0,60

0,30

Ovary

9,40

5,10

5,00

3,10

Pancreas

5,40

5,10

2,10

2,00

Stomach

7,30

4,70

10,00

8,10

Thyroid

9,10

0,40

3,40

0,70

All sites*

225,50

87,30

138,00

85,40

Table 1. Leading cancer incidence and mortality rates, females, for more and less developed areas, world (GLOBOCAN 2008)

Table 1. Leading cancer incidence and mortality rates, females, for more and less developed areas, world (GLOBOCAN 2008)

In males, the most common cancer site and the leading cause of cancer death is lung cancer, comprising 17% of the cancer cases and 23% of the cancer death (Table 2). Colorectal and prostate cancers are at the second and the third positions in cancer incidence and follow the same order in cancer mortality, with the addition of stomach cancer sharing the third position with prostate cancer (Jemal et al., 2011).

Estimated Age-standardized Incidence and Mortality Rates (per 100,000) by Sex, Cancer Site, and Level of Economic Development, 2008

Males

Developed countries Developing countries

Males

Developed countries Developing countries

Incidence

Mortality

Incidence

Mortality

Bladder

16,60

4,60

5,40

2,60

Colon & rectum

37,60

15,10

12,10

6,90

Esophagus

6,50

5,30

11,80

10,10

Liver

8,10

7,20

18,90

17,40

Lung & bronchus

47,40

39,40

27,80

24,60

Pancreas

8,20

7,90

2,70

2,50

Prostate

62,00

10,60

12,00

5,60

Stomach

16,70

10,40

21,10

16,00

All sites*

300,10

143,90

160,30

119,30

Table 2. Leading cancer incidence and mortality rates, males, for more and less developed areas, world (GLOBOCAN 2008)

Table 2. Leading cancer incidence and mortality rates, males, for more and less developed areas, world (GLOBOCAN 2008)

Quit Smoking Today

Quit Smoking Today

Quit smoking for good! Stop your bad habits for good, learn to cope with the addiction of cigarettes and how to curb cravings and begin a new life. You will never again have to leave a meeting and find a place outside to smoke, losing valuable time. This is the key to your freedom from addiction, take the first step!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment