Endocrine therapy

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An understanding of the mechanism of action, pharmacology and clinical indications for various classes of endocrine agent is critical for the management of breast cancer (Heldermon and Ellis, 2006). Breast cancer is divided into three major molecular types which are diagnosed by routine histopathological tests: (i) hormone receptor-positive (ER/PR+), (ii) human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 enriched (HER2+) and (iii) triple negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) breast cancer (TNBC). HR+ breast cancers comprise about 60-70% of all the clinically positive breast cancers, while the other two types equally accounts for the remaining 30-40% of all breast cancer cases (Slamon et al., 1989). Endocrine therapy has been used before surgery but Dittmer et al., (2011) reported adjuvant endocrine therapy not so effective for breast tumor treatment because of its side effects (Dittmer et al.,

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