Expression of CXCR4

CXCR4 is receptor for chemokine CXCL12. In NSCLC, tumor cells at stage 1 show expression of CXCR4, present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of these tumor cells. Several studies on tumor cells show that CXCR4 positive nuclear staining is related with improve survival rate. The 5 year overall survival rate was 93 for the patients having strong nuclear staining 52 for those having weak nuclear staining 10. CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 promote metastasis of different tumors having angiogenic...

Materials and methods

Since 2000, more than 1500 oncological patients (aged from 6 months to 87 years) of the N.N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center have had a totally implantable venous access system installed subcutaneously. A port is a reservoir compartment made of metal (titanium) or plastic (polysulphone). The base of a port has a device securing it in a fixed position, while the upper part contains a silicone septum, which can be punctured multiple times with a special needle for drawing blood, drug...

Biochemical markers related to endometrial carcinoma

Gynecologists happen to experience that patients with tumors that are identical in grade and stage often have significantly different clinical outcomes or responses to therapy. In order to identify an objective biological factor correlating with tumor aggressiveness, many tumor markers have been investigated. So far, CA125 is one of the most reliable tumor marker for adenocarcinoma of the uterus and frequently used in a clinical setting. Elevated CA-125 levels have also been observed in serum,...

Calls for action

Based on the global cancer statistics, awareness is growing that a dramatic stride in fighting against cancer can be done only if initiatives are planned at the global scale. The framework for this call for a global action is provided in the form of basic documents, such as World Cancer Declaration 2006 (IUCC, 2006). According to this document, the aim is to increase the number of countries that have the national cancer control programs, including cancer prevention, early detection, treatment,...

Introduction

Increasing the effectiveness of current chemotherapy strategies requires a higher dosage, the greater duration of treatment, multiple chemotherapy cycles, and strong adherence to recommended interval lengths between cycles. Anticancer drug administration (usually intravenously) may result in vessel wall irritation, phlebitis phlebothrombosis, and tissue necrosis due to accidental drug extravasation. The small diameter of a peripheral vein, low blood flow velocity, easy bacterial invasion due to...

Promotional and educational activities

It has been recognised that the rate of up-take and adherence to screening may have a long-term effect on screening programs effectiveness (Smith, 2004) and that both processes, inherent in decisions for screening, are subjected to changes, by educational and motivational activities (O'Neill, 2008). This is why it is important that promotional and educational activities precede to and or follow mass screening programs implementation. Media campaigns and promotional activities can be organised...

Expression of CXCR7

It was previously thought that CXCL12 has only one surface receptor, CXCR4, but Burns and colleagues 14 44 characterized that another receptor CXCR7 binds CXCL12. CXCR7 together with CXCR3 also has another ligand CXCL11. CXCR7 presents on many cell lines including cancer cell lines, fetal liver cells and activated endothelial cells. It facilitates angiogenesis and the blockage of CXCR7 inhibits tumor growth in mouse models. Patients with EGFR gene mutations show high level of CXCR7 expression....

Presentation

Most cases of endometrial cancer are diagnosed in early stages because of abnormal uterine bleeding as the presenting symptom in 90 of the cases. (6) It is still debatable, which diagnostic tool is best performing for patients with postmenopausal bleeding. Hysteroscopy and or hysteroscopic guided endometrial biopsies as well as endometrial sampling tools almost exclusively replaced the older modalities for investigating such cancer such as dilatation and curettage (D& C).(7) The Pap test...

Genetic analysis

Genetic testing for mutations in the mismatch repair genes is available, and if a pathogenic change is found within a family, predictive testing becomes available for unaffected family members to assess microsatellite instability, a feature of mismatch repair genes mutation.(21) On the other hand, immunohistochemical staining for p53 gene demonstrating overexpression of p53.(22) Final diagnosis for pretreatment assessment and staging must entail Radiological imaging - Computer axial tomography...

MiRNA therapy

Each tumor type seems to have a unique miRNA marker, and such markers are being oppressed to recognize the tissue of origin of metastatic tumors and to distinguish between different cancer subtypes (Lu et al., 2005). Furthermore, miRNA expression markers are linked to numerous clinicopathological features for instance tumor stage, receptor status and patient survival. Eventually, it is likely to make profiles that characterize a probable link between circulating miRNAs, disease status, basic...

Personalised screening

There is no doubt that the early detection of cancer is effective, but no clear attitudes on which strategy is more efficient than another, in a real situation within the framework of the current health care system organisation. Awareness has been increasing that variables such as a benefit-to-risk and a benefit-to-cost ratio, or a quality of life measures, should be taken into consideration when planning screening strategies (WHO, 2009 Aebi, 2011). New, more specific screening tests, such as a...

Biological explanation of breast cancer

Breast cancer usually arises after menopause (age 40+), but it can also arise before menopause in very rare cases. The ovarian-pituitary axis synchronizes the normal breast physiology during the reproductive cycle. The biological reason for it is that the glandular component of the breast gradually degenerates after menopause and the breast is mostly substituted by adipose tissue. Any problem in this process causes the development of breast cancer, whereas by epithelial cells of the breast...

Challenges for the future 101 Integrated knowledge translation

In spite of the huge advances in understanding the natural course of development of some common cancers, as well as in methods for their prevention and early detection, there are still difficulties in translating this knowledge into practice. The problem is especially emphasized in developing countries. Some of the main reasons include separation between public health and clinical medicine, poor coordination between the health care and science -on the one hand, and the health care and politics...

Conclusion

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and has become the most common cancer in women throughout the world. Known risk factors include age, dietary features, reproductive hormonal imbalance, genetic predispositions, alcoholism, and breast adipose tissue density. Breast cancer is major cause of mortality of women worldwide. Keeping in view the above discussion, here is a need of developing better therapeutic plans for hampering breast cancer risks and reducing mortality due to breast cancer....

How to increase screening coverage

One of the main problem, in mass screening programs, is how to increase the screening rates (coverage). This is two-sided problem. On the one side, there are problems of supply (program's implementation performans), including necessary equipment, professionals, implement of evidence, establishment of the call-recall system, and strictly managed follow up (screening policy). On the other side, there is the problem of motivation of subjects from the target groups for screening (patients...

Results

The postoperative period was uneventful with only one case of the skin pocket infection successfully treated with antibiotics. All the patients feel comfortable with having subcutaneous venous access ports. Children have no fear of catheterization prior to yet another chemotherapy cycle and are not afraid of Huber needle insertion owing to the use of the anesthetizing cream. Since the implantation, all the systems have been functioning adequately. Six patients developed the port system...

Viral vector therapy

Expression of VEGF in several types of tumors is amplified, subsequently correlated with weak prognosis of several tumors. Im et al (2001) used transfection method to create a replication-deficient adenoviral vector containing antisense VEGF cDNA (Ad5CMV-aVEGF) to down-regulate VEGF expression. This therapeutic strategy notably repressed the growth of developed breast tumors (Im et al., 2001). These viral vectors may be used in future for targeting the tumor vasculature in breast cancer...

The chronic care model

Improvements in the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer enable people with cancer living longer and managing their cancers as a chronic illnesses. This consideres a long-term surveillance, including prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment, care after the treatment, and survivorship. Demands are put on patients and their families, in managing care on their own, and on family physicians, in providing them education and support, as well as a follow up (McCorkie, 2011).

Genetic risk estimates

Two Mendelian genetic tests, appropriate to add value to the cancer risk assessment, have been established so far, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, highly penetrant breast and ovarian cancer predisposition genes, and a set of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, carriers of which have a high risk of the most common hereditary colorectal cancer and or endometrial cancer, and a lower risk of urinary tract, small intestine, ovary, gastric, pancreas, biliary tract and brain cancers (Balmana, 2010 2011). The...

Conclusions

Experiences gathered up-to-date show that the programs for early cancer detection are best performed if well organised and coordinated, independently on whether they are conducted by governmental and public health institutiones, or predominantly supplied by family medicine teams. In highly income countries, with long tradition in organising early cancer detection programs, expected curing and survival rates have been achieved. These favourable results can not be attributed only to a large...

Expression of receptors in tumor islets

Survival of NSCLC patients is directly related to CXCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR4 expression in tumor stroma. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR1 is also positively correlated to increase in number of mast cells and islet macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR1 is present on macrophages and involved in the migration of macrophages into tumor islets. CCR1 is a receptor of CCL3 protein. TNF-a production and release is stimulated by CCL1 and has cytotoxic potential in tumor islets. Natural killer cells, T...

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators SERM

The rise of estrogen level in blood proposed the use of a therapeutic modulator to oestrogen, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, or SERM (Jordan, 1999). The evidences from breast cancer treatment trials presented the ability of the first SERM, tamoxifen, to avoid tumors in the contralateral breast of women receiving adjuvant therapy (Ragaz and Coldman, 1998). Tamoxifen considerably lessens the rate of treatment failure in breast cancer patients, with lesser frequency of clinically...

Screening of cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of female mortality worldwide, with the mortality rate 10 times higher in developing countries, and 80 of new cases occuring in these regions, compared to the developed countries (Ferlay, 2010 Haie-Meder, 2010). This disparity is in connection with low level of knowledge about unsafe sex and inaccessibility to screening and treatment programs, for women in developing countries (Ferlay, 2010 WHO, 2009). The main problem, in developed countries, is...

Discussion

The changes in demographics and in the incidence rate of BC in the last decades surely represent serious and important challenges for health care system in Slovenia. Despite the content and context of these changes in Slovenia, the number of midwifery graduates, the contents of midwifery students' curriculum, the numbers of maternity wards and maternity hospitals have remained more or less constant and without sensible changes in recent years. All the data about changes in demographic...

Environmental pollution and industrial carcinogenes

The discovery of smoking tobacco as a factor being strongly associated with lung cancer (more than 85 of lung cancers occur among smokers), has further emphasized the definition of other external factors that could probable cause cancer (that are termed carcinogenes) (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009 Pearce, 1996, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009). Accordingly, at least 150 chemicals and other agents, including ionizing radiation, occupational (workplace) and...

Global cancer statistics and calls for action 51 Global cancer statistics

Based on the GLOBOCAN estimates, about 12,7 million cancer cases and 7,6 million cancer deaths occured worldwide in 2008 and this trend continues to rise (Jemal et al., 2011). Proposed major reasons include 1) the ageing, alongside with growth, of the world population, as cancer affects older adults at the highest rates, and 2) an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, due to the processes of modernisation and globalisation (Jemal et al., 2011 WHO, 2009). Of this total cancer burden,...

The risk factors paradigm

Importantly, when planning preventive activities, is to understand that each risk factor has its own causes. In fact, there is a complex chain of events enabling many entry points for intervention (WHO, 2009). In the proximity, there are more direct causes of the diseases. Factors located further in the back, act through intermediary mechanisms, to produce these proximal factors. Causally most distal factors have their background in social conditions and are hardly recognisable. However, if...

Cancer as a common ageing disease The risk factors paradigm 21 Cancer as a common ageing disease

Modern societies are characterised by a domination of chronic noncommunicable diseases in morbidity and mortality causes, including cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and dementia. This is partially a consequence of the decline in acute infectious diseases, due to improvements in life conditions, sanitation and medical care, and partially of the fast spread of modern lifestyles, due to urbanisation, globalisation and technology progress (Pearce, 1996,...

Midwives and breast cancer screening

Study of midwifery has a long and distinguished tradition in Slovenia. The first School for midwives was established in 1753 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, following the decree issued by Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, sovereign of all Slovenian lands at that time. Similar Schools for midwives were later also established in Graz, Celovec (Klagenfurt) and Trst (Trieste), all of them at least partly serving the Slovenian-speaking population. After 1924 Midwifery school in Ljubljana...