Materials and methods

For this purpose, blood and archival cancerous human tissues from ESCC and CRC samples, also, esophageal tissue samples from GERD patients were collected. This study included 43 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from patients diagnosed with ESCC who had undergone curative surgical resection at Imam Khomeini hospital, 17 colorectal cancer tissues from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma who had undergone curative surgical resection at Tehran hospital. Then blood samples from...

The risk factors paradigm

Importantly, when planning preventive activities, is to understand that each risk factor has its own causes. In fact, there is a complex chain of events enabling many entry points for intervention (WHO, 2009). In the proximity, there are more direct causes of the diseases. Factors located further in the back, act through intermediary mechanisms, to produce these proximal factors. Causally most distal factors have their background in social conditions and are hardly recognisable. However, if...

Cancer as a common ageing disease The risk factors paradigm 21 Cancer as a common ageing disease

Modern societies are characterised by a domination of chronic noncommunicable diseases in morbidity and mortality causes, including cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes and dementia. This is partially a consequence of the decline in acute infectious diseases, due to improvements in life conditions, sanitation and medical care, and partially of the fast spread of modern lifestyles, due to urbanisation, globalisation and technology progress (Pearce, 1996,...

Midwives and breast cancer screening

Study of midwifery has a long and distinguished tradition in Slovenia. The first School for midwives was established in 1753 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, following the decree issued by Maria Theresa, Empress of Austria, sovereign of all Slovenian lands at that time. Similar Schools for midwives were later also established in Graz, Celovec (Klagenfurt) and Trst (Trieste), all of them at least partly serving the Slovenian-speaking population. After 1924 Midwifery school in Ljubljana...