You should change your routine the minute it stops working - whether that's in three weeks or in three months. Your goal should be noticeable, visible results on a weekly basis. When you stop seeing results, or the results slow to a crawl, it's time for something different.
You don't necessarily have to change the entire routine, but some new stimulus must be put into the program or you're not likely to make further progress. Changing often is also a good idea for adherence because it helps prevent boredom and lack of motivation. New routines keep things interesting.
The frequency of change is different for everyone - it depends on how long you've been training and what your goals are. When you're a beginner, you can make progress on the same workout routine for a long time. The more advanced you get, the more quickly your muscles adapt.
Advanced bodybuilders can adapt to a training routine in as little as 3-5 weeks. Strength coach Charles Poliquin says, "Any training program is only as good as the time it takes to adapt to it." Poliquin recommends that advanced trainees change routines every six workouts.
On the other hand, you don't want to change too often because this fails to provide any continuity. It's more efficient to "milk" each routine for all its worth, then change, than it is to change every workout at random (although some successful bodybuilders change routines nearly every workout - using the "muscle confusion" principle).
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