Genomic mechanisms

Classically, the ER functions as a transcription factor within the nucleus, and the ability of estrogen/antiestrogens to regulate gene expression has been extensively investigated in experimental models of human breast cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Based on these studies, it is becoming increasingly evident that estrogens can promote the autocrine expression of growth factor signaling pathway elements (Figure 10.2, 2a)44,45 - notably components of the EGFR and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) pathways - in estrogen-responsive and -dependent human breast cancer cell lines.41^48 In the latter instance, the IGF-1R has also been shown to be activated by estrogen, subsequently recruiting downstream signaling components, notably including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), which in turn may be estro-genregulated.46,49 Such actions, which are often antagonized by antiestrogens, could significantly supplement the cellular growth responses directly primed by estrogens.44,45,48

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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