Twentiethcentury developments

During the First World War the demand for massage to treat the injured grew and many more massage therapists were trained. Membership of the Society of Trained Masseuses grew and in 1920 it amalgamated with the Institute of Massage and Remedial Exercise. In recognition of the valuable work contributed by its members during the war, a Royal Charter was granted and the title was changed to the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics. The title was changed again in 1943 and became the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. In 1964 its members became state registered. This protected and gave status to those qualified therapists who were practising in clinics and hospitals, and made it impossible for those without a recognised qualification to practise in hospitals.

With the development of alternative electrical-based treatments, the use of massage to treat medical conditions declined. There was rapid growth in electrotherapy and eventually massage ceased to be part of physiotherapy training. It became little used as a therapeutic treatment in hospitals. There was, however, a continuing demand for massage in clinics, health farms, fitness and leisure centres.

In 1966 the City and Guilds of London Institute explored the possibility of establishing a course in beauty therapy to include massage. This course would provide thorough training, background knowledge and a recognised professional qualification that ensured a high standard of practice. In 1968 the first full-time course was offered in colleges of further education. The British Association of Beauty Therapists and Cosmetologists, the International Health and Beauty Council and other organisations also developed courses and offered certificates and diplomas. The growth in complementary medicine and the holistic approach to health has increased the demands for well-qualified practitioners, not only in massage but also in aromatherapy, reflexology, shiatsu etc. Courses are now validated by the Health and Beauty Therapy Training Board and therapists must meet the criteria of the National Council of Vocational Qualifications.


Outline the evidence which indicates that massage was practised by cave dwellers.

Name three languages from which the word 'massage' may have derived. Explain briefly what is meant by the Chinese technique of acupuncture. Describe briefly how the Greeks and Romans incorporated massage into their rituals.

Name the Greek physician who concluded that massage pressure should be applied in an upward direction. Explain why little is known about massage in the Dark Ages.

Name three eminent doctors who promoted massage for healing purposes. Explain why the reputation of massage grew during and after the First World War. Name the examining body that established the first beauty therapy course in colleges of further and higher education.

Part A

Underpinning knowledge





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