The heart

The heart lies in the thoracic cavity between the lungs. It is somewhat cone shaped, with the base above and the apex below. The walls of the heart are made up of three layers:

pericardium: a tough outer coat of fibrous tissue myocardium: the middle coat of cardiac muscle endocardium: the inner lining of squamous epithelium.

Superior vena cava

Pulmonary artery^

Anterior *

body tissues

Blood capillaries

Lungs

Diaphragm

Inferior vena cava Hepatic vein

Hepatic portal vein

Superior mesenteric vein

Blood capillary r1

Lungs

RA

LA

»Heart Y

RV

- Descending thoracic artery Aorta

Diaphragm

Inferior vena cava Hepatic vein

Hepatic portal vein

Superior mesenteric vein

- Descending abdominal aorta

Hepatic artery

Superior mesenteric artery

Figure 2.10 Circulation of blood.

- Descending abdominal aorta

Hepatic artery

Superior mesenteric artery

RA Right atrium

LA Left atrium

RV Right ventricle

LV Left ventricle

■ Oxygenated blood - Deoxygenated blood

Figure 2.10 Circulation of blood.

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The heart is divided into a right and left side by a muscular wall or septum. The left side of the heart deals with oxygenated blood. The right side deals with deoxygenated blood. Each side is further divided into two chambers separated by valves. The upper chambers are called atria (singular: atrium); the lower chambers are called ventricles.

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