Structure

The skin and all its structures -nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands

The bones, joints and cartilages

Usually refers to skeletal muscle but includes cardiac and smooth

Brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs

Heart, blood vessels and blood

Lymphatic vessels, nodes, ducts, lymph, spleen, tonsils and thymus gland

Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs

Gastro-intestinal tract, salivary glands, gall bladder, liver and pancreas

Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra

All organs of reproduction -ovaries, testes, etc

All the hormone-producing ductless glands

Function

Protects, regulates temperature, eliminates waste, makes vitamin D, receives stimuli

Supports, protects, aids movement, stores fat and minerals, protects cells that produce blood cells

Produces movement, maintains posture and produces heat

Communicates and co-ordinates body functions

Transports substances around body, helps regulate body temperature and prevents blood loss by blood clotting

Returns proteins and plasma to blood. Carries fat from intestine to blood. Filters body fluid, forms white blood cells, fights infection and protects against disease

Supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Physical and chemical breakdown of food. Absorption of nutrients and elimination of waste

Regulates chemical composition of blood. Helps to balance the acid/ alkali content in the body and eliminates urine

Involved in reproduction and production of sex hormones

Hormones regulate a wide variety of body activities, e.g. growth, and maintain body balance (homeostasis)

Hair shaft

Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale germinativum Capillaries Erector pili muscle Sebaceous (oil) gland Hair root Papilla of hair

Nerve

Dermal papilla

Hair shaft

Dermal papilla

Stratum corneum Stratum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale germinativum Capillaries Erector pili muscle Sebaceous (oil) gland Hair root Papilla of hair

Nerve

Meissner corpuscle (touch)

Epidermis

Dermis

Subcutaneous fatty tissue (hypodermis)

Vein Artery

Sweat gland

Pacinian corpuscle

Meissner corpuscle (touch)

Epidermis

Dermis

Subcutaneous fatty tissue (hypodermis)

Vein Artery

Sweat gland

Pacinian corpuscle

Figure 2.3 Cross-section through skin.

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