Muscle attachments

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As previously explained, a muscle is composed of muscle fibres and connective tissue components - the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium. Certain muscles have connective tissue intersections dividing the muscle into several bellies, as seen in rectus abdominis.

Serratus anterior Rectus abdominus External oblique

Internal oblique Tensor fasciae latae

Quadriceps group Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis

(Vastus intermedius lies deep)

Trapezius

Flexors of the wrist and hand

Sartorius

Peroneus longus

Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum longus

Figure 2.8a Muscles of the body - anterior.

Sternocleidomastoid

Trapezius

Deltoid

Pectoralis major Biceps

Flexors of the wrist and hand

Sartorius

Adductor group Adductor longus Adductor magnus Adductor brevis Gracilis Pectineus

Peroneus longus

Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum longus

Figure 2.8a Muscles of the body - anterior.

Figure 2.8b Muscles of the body - posterior.

These sheets of connective tissue blend at either end of the muscle and attach the muscle to underlying bones. Muscles are attached via tendons or aponeuroses.

® Tendons are tough cord-like structures of connective tissue that attach muscles to bones.

® Aponeuroses are flat sheets of connective tissue that attach muscles along the length of bone.

A muscle has at least two points of attachment, known as the origin and insertion of the muscle.

® The origin is usually proximal and stationary or immoveable. ® The insertion is usually distal and moveable.

Following over-use or injury, these tendons may become inflamed. Massage around the area can restore function. Transverse frictions are useful for freeing tendons held by adhesions.

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