1 Natural immunity: acquired by previous contact with disease: antibodies remain in the body or are acquired via the placenta or milk from the mother.

2 Artificial immunity: acquired from vaccines introduced into the body that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies or may be acquired by transfer of antibodies from a person who has recovered from the disease.

Bacteria: single-cell organisms, non-pathogenic - cocci, bacilli, spirochetes.

Diseases caused by bacteria: boils, impetigo, sore throat, meningitis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, syphilis, cholera.

Viruses: invade, multiply and destroy the host cells.

Diseases caused by viruses: colds, influenza, glandular fever, poliomyelitis, mumps, measles, chicken pox, herpes simplex and herpes zoster, warts, verruca, hepatitis, AIDS. The hepatitis B virus and HIV (AIDS) virus found in semen, saliva and blood may be transmitted through blood transfusion, drug users sharing needles, or transfer of blood or body fluids from an infected person into a recipient via a cut or puncture of the skin; infected women may pass it to the foetus.

Fungi: yeasts and moulds.

Diseases caused by fungi: tinea of various parts of the body, thrush, fungal infections of organs such as heart and lungs.

Health, safety and hygiene

Protozoa: single-celled animals.

Diseases caused by protozoa: sleeping sickness, malaria, amoebic dysentery.

Parasites live in or on another living organism:

1 Ectoparasites live outside host, e.g. lice and fleas.

2 Endoparasites live inside host, e.g. worms and flukes.

Sterilisation is the total destruction of microbes and spores. Disinfecting: use of a chemical agent that destroys microbes but not spores.

Disinfectants for use in salon: ^ 70% alcohol

- methylated spirit and surgical spirit

- isopropyl alcohol

^ glutaraldehyde - Cydex

^ chlorine - Milton, Domestos

^ phenols - Dettol, Dettinox, Izal, Lysol

^ ammonium compounds - Cetavlon, Savlon

^ diquamides - Hibitane, Hibiscrub, Dispray

^m questions ^

1. Define (a) hazard and

discovered a hazard in the

(b) risk.

workplace that might

2. What is the role of the

pose a risk to yourself or

Health and Safety Executive


L 1


5. Explain the health

3. List the actions that can be

precautions you would

taken by the inspector

consider in the salon in


if a breach in the law

order to comply with the


is found during an

health, safety and welfare



4. Explain the actions

6. Explain the safety

you would take if you

precautions you would

consider in order to comply


Explain briefly how bacteria

with the health, safety and

and viruses multiply.

welfare regulations.


Name three diseases caused


Explain the welfare

by each of the following:


precautions you would

(a) bacteria

• A


consider in order to comply

(b) viruses


with the health, safety and

(c) fungi


welfare regulations.

(d) protozoa.


What does COSHH stand


Explain the term 'natural


active immunity'.


List five hazardous


Give two methods of

substances that may be

producing artificial

found in the salon.



Give three legal


List five ways in which

requirements relating to the

microbes may enter the

safe use of electrical




Explain how microbes may


List any five hazards that

be transmitted.

may be found in the salon


Explain how Hepatitis B and

and explain their associated

HIV (AIDS) may be




List ten precautions and


Define the terms

responsibilities when using

'ectoparasite' and

electrical equipment.

'endoparasite' and give


State the employer's

three examples of each.

responsibility under the


Define the following:

First Aid Regulations 1981.

(a) sterilisation


State the minimum

(b) sanitation

first aid provision under

(c) disinfectant

the Act.

(d) antiseptic


Define the terms 'infection'

(e) bactericide

and 'infestation'.

(f) biocide.

Note: Guideline answers to the questions in this chapter only are to be found on pages 306-308.

Body systems and the physiological and psychological effects of massage objectives

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to:

1. describe the organisational levels of the body

2. list the classification of tissues

3. list the types of epithelial tissue and state where they are found

4. list the types of connective tissue and give their function

5. list the body systems and a) describe the main body systems relevant to massage b) explain the functions of these systems c) explain the physiological effects of massage on the main body systems d) explain the psychological effects of massage.

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