Immunity

1 Natural immunity: acquired by previous contact with disease: antibodies remain in the body or are acquired via the placenta or milk from the mother.

2 Artificial immunity: acquired from vaccines introduced into the body that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies or may be acquired by transfer of antibodies from a person who has recovered from the disease.

Bacteria: single-cell organisms, non-pathogenic - cocci, bacilli, spirochetes.

Diseases caused by bacteria: boils, impetigo, sore throat, meningitis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, syphilis, cholera.

Viruses: invade, multiply and destroy the host cells.

Diseases caused by viruses: colds, influenza, glandular fever, poliomyelitis, mumps, measles, chicken pox, herpes simplex and herpes zoster, warts, verruca, hepatitis, AIDS. The hepatitis B virus and HIV (AIDS) virus found in semen, saliva and blood may be transmitted through blood transfusion, drug users sharing needles, or transfer of blood or body fluids from an infected person into a recipient via a cut or puncture of the skin; infected women may pass it to the foetus.

Fungi: yeasts and moulds.

Diseases caused by fungi: tinea of various parts of the body, thrush, fungal infections of organs such as heart and lungs.

Health, safety and hygiene

Protozoa: single-celled animals.

Diseases caused by protozoa: sleeping sickness, malaria, amoebic dysentery.

Parasites live in or on another living organism:

1 Ectoparasites live outside host, e.g. lice and fleas.

2 Endoparasites live inside host, e.g. worms and flukes.

Sterilisation is the total destruction of microbes and spores. Disinfecting: use of a chemical agent that destroys microbes but not spores.

Disinfectants for use in salon: ^ 70% alcohol

- methylated spirit and surgical spirit

- isopropyl alcohol

^ glutaraldehyde - Cydex

^ chlorine - Milton, Domestos

^ phenols - Dettol, Dettinox, Izal, Lysol

^ ammonium compounds - Cetavlon, Savlon

^ diquamides - Hibitane, Hibiscrub, Dispray

^m questions ^

1. Define (a) hazard and

discovered a hazard in the

(b) risk.

workplace that might

2. What is the role of the

pose a risk to yourself or

Health and Safety Executive

others.

L 1

(HSE)?

5. Explain the health

3. List the actions that can be

precautions you would

taken by the inspector

consider in the salon in

f

if a breach in the law

order to comply with the

0

is found during an

health, safety and welfare

inspection.

regulations.

4. Explain the actions

6. Explain the safety

you would take if you

precautions you would

consider in order to comply

16.

Explain briefly how bacteria

with the health, safety and

and viruses multiply.

welfare regulations.

17.

Name three diseases caused

7.

Explain the welfare

by each of the following:

L

precautions you would

(a) bacteria

• A

¥

consider in order to comply

(b) viruses

r

with the health, safety and

(c) fungi

1

welfare regulations.

(d) protozoa.

8.

What does COSHH stand

18.

Explain the term 'natural

for?

active immunity'.

9.

List five hazardous

19.

Give two methods of

substances that may be

producing artificial

found in the salon.

immunity.

10.

Give three legal

20.

List five ways in which

requirements relating to the

microbes may enter the

safe use of electrical

body.

equipment.

21.

Explain how microbes may

11.

List any five hazards that

be transmitted.

may be found in the salon

22.

Explain how Hepatitis B and

and explain their associated

HIV (AIDS) may be

risks.

transmitted.

12.

List ten precautions and

23.

Define the terms

responsibilities when using

'ectoparasite' and

electrical equipment.

'endoparasite' and give

13.

State the employer's

three examples of each.

responsibility under the

24.

Define the following:

First Aid Regulations 1981.

(a) sterilisation

14.

State the minimum

(b) sanitation

first aid provision under

(c) disinfectant

the Act.

(d) antiseptic

15.

Define the terms 'infection'

(e) bactericide

and 'infestation'.

(f) biocide.

Note: Guideline answers to the questions in this chapter only are to be found on pages 306-308.

Body systems and the physiological and psychological effects of massage objectives

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to:

1. describe the organisational levels of the body

2. list the classification of tissues

3. list the types of epithelial tissue and state where they are found

4. list the types of connective tissue and give their function

5. list the body systems and a) describe the main body systems relevant to massage b) explain the functions of these systems c) explain the physiological effects of massage on the main body systems d) explain the psychological effects of massage.

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