Classification or types of the six synovial joints

gliding joint, e.g. intercarpal or intertarsal joints

pivot joint, e.g. superior radio-ulnar joint or atlas on axis

| ellipsoid joint (condyloid), e.g. wrist or knuckle joints

J saddle joint, e.g. base of the thumb

| ball-and-socket joint, shoulder or hip joint

Articular cartilage

Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid

Accessory ligament

Articular cartilage

Synovial cavity containing synovial fluid

Articulating bones

Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule

Articulating bones

Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule

Articular capsule

Periosteum

Figure 2.6a A synovial joint.

Although synovial joints differ in shape and movement range, they all have similar characteristics

A ball and socket joint: found in the shoulder and the hip. Designed to allow a wide range of movement

Carpals

Radius

Carpals

Radius

Ulna

A hinge joint: found at the elbow and knee. The range of movement is limited to one plane, such as a door hinge

Vertebrae

Ulna

A condyloid joint: found at the wrist and ankle. Movement in two planes, but not such a full range as in the ball and socket joint

Vertebrae u

A pivot joint: found in the neck. Part of the bone fits into another ring of bone as in atlas and axis, allowing rotation of the head

A saddle joint: found at the base of the thumb. This joint allows the thumb to be moved in two directions and circled around

Figure 2.6b Types of synovial joint.

A gliding joint: found in the wrist between the carpal bones. Two bones have a small range of gliding movement limited by connecting ligaments

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