The back contains the following bones:

® vertebral column: made up of 26 separate bones in five regions - cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral (5 fused), coccyx (4 fused)

© ribs: 12 pairs of ribs form the thorax and articulate with the spine behind and the sternum in front

® scapulae: these lie on the upper back, one on each side of the vertebral column

® innominate or pelvic: these articulate with the sacrum behind, forming a ring of bone known as the pelvis. They join to form a cartilaginous joint called the symphysis pubis in front.

Figure 7.20 Anatomy of the back: (a) bones (b) muscles.
Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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