Absolute contraindications to massage

Do not massage if the following contra-indications are present Cancer any client with cancer or a history of cancer must not be massaged, as cancer cells may be spread through the lymphatic system. If you are unsure, seek medical advice. Be particularly aware if a client complains of intractable pain on rest, unexplained loss of weight, feeling generally tired or unwell. (Massage is sometimes given to alleviate pain, but only under medical supervision in particular circumstances.) Acute...

Adapting effleurage

Effleurage must be adapted to suit the client and the objectives of the treatment. For example, on the older thin client with poor muscle tone, the pressure will be light to moderate and plenty of oil will be applied. On a younger or fitter and well-toned client, the pressure can be deeper. A good covering of adipose tissue can take deeper pressure. For a relaxing massage, the effleurage will be rhythmical, slow and of medium depth. For a stimulating or vigorous massage, the effleurage will be...

Answers to questions from Chapter 1 Health safety and hygiene

1 a) A hazard is anything that can cause harm. b) A risk is the chance, great or small, that someone will be harmed by the hazard. 2 The HSE is a body of people appointed to enforce health and safety law. Their inspectors may inspect your premises at any time. 3 There are four actions that the inspector can take if a breach in the law is found. a) Informal notice for minor problems, the inspector will explain what needs to be done to comply with the regulations. b) Improvement notice if the...

Blood pressure

This is the force or pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. The blood pressure in arteries is higher than that in veins. Blood pressure varies with sex, age and weight, and with activities, stress levels or anxiety. The condition of the heart and vessels also affects pressure. Normal average blood pressure rises to around 120 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) as the heart contracts (systolic pressure), and falls to around 80 mmHg as the heart relaxes (diastolic pressure)....

Blood supply to skeletal muscle

Supplies of oxygen and nutrients required by muscles to produce energy for muscle contraction are transported in the blood via the arteries supplying the muscle the waste products are removed via the veins. The arteries branch to form smaller arteries and arterioles within the perimysium. They then further divide forming capillary networks within the endomysium, where they join venules that lead to veins. When muscles are relaxed, the capillary network delivers blood to the muscle fibres. When...

Body brushing

This treatment is used to improve the texture of dry, flaky, rough skin. It is usual to treat the entire surface of the body but it may also be used on legs and arms only. Manufacturers produce a range of different products and specific routines that may vary slightly from each other but the basic technique is the same for all. The following text will provide you with the basic technique, which can be adapted according to the specific requirements of your salon. Prepare the couch, and cover...

Dermis

The dermis lies under the epidermis and is composed of two layers the upper papillary layer and the lower reticular layer. The surface of the papillary layer is ridged, forming an uneven surface. These finger-like projections increase the surface area and are called dermal papillae. They produce the pattern known as finger prints. The blood capillary loops of the dermis transport nutrients and oxygen to basal layer cells and remove waste products. Some elastin and collagen fibres are found in...

Effects of breathing exercises

improve the mobility of the thorax increase the intake of the oxygen, which will improve metabolism increase the output of carbon dioxide thus eliminating this waste product more quickly improve the condition of the lungs the changing pressure created in the thorax aids the flow of blood in the veins and the flow of lymph in the lymphatic vessels the increased mobility of the thorax improves posture.

Effects of massage on bone tissue and joints

Bones are covered by a layer of connective tissue known as the 'periosteum'. Blood vessels from the periosteum penetrate the bone. Deep massage movements will stimulate blood flow to the periosteum and hence indirectly increase blood supply to the bone. Massage around joints will increase the circulation and nourish the structures surrounding the joint. Massage is effective in loosening adhesions in structures around joints. For example, frictions across a ligament help to loosen it from...

Effects of massage on the nervous system

Slow, rhythmical massage produces a soothing, sedative effect on sensory nerve endings, promoting general relaxation. Vigorous brisk massage will have a stimulating effect, producing feelings of vigour and glow. Light hacking on either side of the vertebral column is particularly effective. If massage technique is poor or too heavy, the pain sensors in the skin will be stimulated. Painful manipulations will increase tension, which is counter-productive, and care must be taken to avoid this....

Effects of passive movements

maintain the present range of movement. Moving the joint as far as possible each time and giving slight overpressure will ensure that the range is maintained prevent tightness or stiffness of the joints maintain the extensibility of the soft tissues around the joint prevent the formation of adhesions stimulate the production of synovial fluid and lubrication of the joint may slightly assist venous and lymphatic flow as the muscles are stretched and relaxed over the moving joint have a soothing...

Electrical treatments

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) to underlying muscles is effective because as the muscles contract and relax they exert a pumping action on the blood and lymphatic vessels. This stimulates the circulation in the deeper tissues and the metabolic rate of the area is improved. The sensory nerve endings in the skin will be stimulated and this will produce reflex dilation of the capillaries in the dermis, increasing blood flow to and from the area. Galvanic treatment, using the cathode over the...

Excretory organs

The excretory organs of the body are the kidneys, skin, lungs and large intestine. The kidneys form urine, which passes to the bladder and is excreted through urination. The skin eliminates water and mineral salts through perspiration. The large intestine eliminates waste from digested food through defecation. The lungs eliminate carbon dioxide and water vapour through exhalation. two kidneys - which filter the blood and form urine two ureters - two tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to...

Fibrotic nodules

These are hardened, lumpy zones usually painful to touch, lying within superficial muscles or fascia. They are small areas of tense contracted fibres with restricted circulation. The tight, hardened nodule may be mobile, that is, it moves within the tissues when gently pushed around or it may adhere to the underlying tissues when there is little movement. They tend to be painful in the area of the nodule but do not refer pain to other areas. Nodules are treated with pressure techniques the...

Hand

1 interphalangeal joints, i.e. joints of the fingers movements flexion, extension of the fingers metacarpo-phalangeal joints, i.e. the knuckle joints movements flexion and extension, abduction, adduction. Procedure for finger joints Fix the client's hand by holding with one hand across the palm, at the base of the metacarpals. Place the other hand behind the client's hand along the fingers. Figure 9.13 Extension of the fingers. Figure 9.13 Extension of the fingers. Figure 9.14 Flexion of the...

Home advice

Home care advice is very beneficial for the client, as it involves them in the treatment and encourages them to take control of their condition. It also provides linkage between one treatment and the next. The advice given will obviously depend on the client's need and condition, e.g. the overweight client or a client with cellulite will need dietary advice. For the tense, overworked client you may suggest that s he tries to reduce her his workload, that s he makes time to rest, takes a...

Initial consultation

The consultation is a very important part of the treatment - sufficient time must be allowed so that it is not rushed. This is the time to gather and exchange information. The initial consultation will be the longest and provide detailed information, which must be accurately recorded on a treatment card. This must be filed in a safe and accessible place and used each time the client attends for treatment. Before subsequent treatments, a brief consultation is usually sufficient to establish the...

Joint structure

The classification, structure and factors that affect the range of movement of joints are explained earlier (see Chapter 2). You must revise and understand these facts before performing passive movements. The different types of synovial joint have different movements. Relaxed passive movements are performed on synovial joints, which are the moveable joints of the body. For full range of movement to occur, e.g. from full extension to full flexion, all the component structures of the joint must...

Joints

Movement, which depend on the shape of the articulating bones. All the freely moveable joints of the body are synovial joints and, although their shape and movements vary, they all have certain characteristics in common a) a joint cavity (space within the joint) b) a synovial membrane lining the capsule of the joint up to the hyaline cartilage, which produces synovial fluid c) synovial fluid or synovium - a viscous fluid that lubricates and nourishes the joint d) hyaline cartilage, which covers...

Learning and assessment guidance

This book provides the basic information and direction for those interested in studying head and body massage treatments. The material has been selected and organised to meet the requirements set by the various awarding bodies in line with National Standards. The text includes the main components, namely underpinning knowledge, understanding and skill instruction. When you pursue this course of study and practice, you will acquire the underpinning knowledge and understanding to make you a safe...

Massage

A MEMBER OF THE HODDER HEADLINE GROUP Orders please contact Bookpoint Ltd, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB. Fax (44) 01235 400454. Lines are open from 9.00-6.00, Monday to Saturday, with a 24 hour message answering service. You can also order through our website www.hoddereducation.co.uk British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted...

Methods of controlling microorganisms

The process of controlling micro-organisms in the salon is the responsibility of all therapists and must be taken seriously. Correct hygiene procedures must be adopted as a matter of routine. Any instruments and equipment used must always be cleaned after use then sterilised or disinfected. Various words are used to explain hygiene procedures. Their meaning must be clearly understood so that the appropriate methods are selected. British Standard definitions are as follows Antibiotic. An organic...

Microorganisms or microbes

There are many different types of micro-organism present in the environment. The main groups include bacteria viruses fungi, yeasts protozoa. Micro-organisms entering the body do not always produce disease, as the immune system is stimulated to protect the body. However, if the invading organisms are in large enough numbers to overcome the immune system then disease and illness will occur. Disease will also occur if the body has little immunity to the invading microbes or if the immune system...

Muscle tension

A mild degree of tension is present in healthy skeletal muscle at all times and is known as muscle tone. It ensures that the muscle can contract quickly in response to a stimulus. This tension may increase in response to many factors such as pain, injury, postural or psychological problems, as previously outlined. As tension increases, pain increases due to pressure on and reflex activity of the nerves. More pain results in greater tension, setting up a tension pain cycle. Increased tension...

Muscle tone

Muscle tone is the state of partial contraction or tension found in muscles even when at rest. Only a small number of muscle fibres will be in a state of contraction. This is sufficient to produce tautness in the muscle but not to result in full contraction and movement. Different groups of fibres contract alternately, working a 'shift' system to prevent fatigue. Changes in muscle tone are adjusted according to the information received from sensory receptors within the muscles and their...

Objectives

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to 1. identify the main causes of musculo-skeletal problems 2. recognise abnormalities in the tissues through observation and palpation 3. list the neuromuscular techniques 4. list the effects, uses and techniques of neuromuscular stroking 5. list the effects, uses and technique of trigger point pressure 6. list the effects, uses and techniques of myofascial release manipulations 7. define (a) active movement and (b) passive movement 8....

Pain

Contact with the part may elicit pain it is important to obtain verbal and non-verbal responses. The client will be able to describe the pain but always be aware of the client's reaction when and as you touch her him. If you can see her his face, does s he grimace with pain If s he is lying prone and you cannot see her his face, watch for body reaction. If s he is feeling discomfort or pain s he will twitch and move away from your touch. Ask her him to describe the pain is it sharp or dull How...

Percussion tapotement group

As their name suggests, all the manipulations of this group strike or tap the part. The hands are used alternately to strike the tissues with light, springy, rhythmical movements. When performing these manipulations, particular care must be taken to avoid bony prominences, ridges or areas where the bone is not well covered. They must not be performed on old or very thin clients, or those with loose, poorly toned muscles and little adipose tissue. These manipulations are never used in a relaxing...

Personal hygiene

A daily bath or shower should be taken to maintain cleanliness of the skin, hair and nails, and to remove stale sweat odours. An antiperspirant should be used to prevent excessive sweating and the odour of stale sweat. Hair should be clean and neat it should be kept short or tied back from the face. Hair must never fall forward around the therapist's face and shoulders or touch the client. Nails must be well manicured and kept short nails should not protrude above the fleshy part of the finger...

Precautions

Do not use heavy percussion over bony areas or over the abdomen with poor muscle tone. Do not over-treat one area keep the head moving. Keep the head surface parallel to the surface of the body and adapt to body contours. Hold the head away from the client when switching on in case the head is insecure and becomes detached. Hold the head below the bed for safety. Cover the heads with a plastic bag, which can be changed for each client, for hygienic

Protozoa

These are the simplest of single-celled animals, slightly bigger than bacteria. Each protozoa is composed of cytoplasm containing a nucleus and organelles surrounded by a cell wall or membrane.They move around by pushing out pseudopodia. Many types are known to exist as parasites on humans, particularly in the bowel. Some are harmless, causing few symptoms others cause different types of illness, some very serious depending on the organism involved. Protozoa may be transmitted from contaminated...

Risk assessment

You may be required to carry out a risk assessment in your workplace to ensure that everything possible is in place to prevent anyone being harmed or contracting illness. It is a legal requirement to keep a written record of the risk assessment if there are five or more employees but it is good practice to do so anyway. You must be able to identify hazards, risks and aspects in your workplace that could cause harm to yourself or others. Consider the following safe maintenance, care and use of...

Selection of massage couch

Selecting and purchasing a massage couch can be difficult as there is a wide choice available. Selection is often based on the cost of the couch, but there are other important points to bear in mind when buying. Consider the following points It must be wide enough for the clients to turn over easily and to feel safe and secure. It must be long enough to support the length of the body. It must be robust, secure and firm. It must not move or rock with the massage nor grate or squeak as this will...

Sterilisation will destroy microorganisms and spores

Sterilisation is the best procedure for small articles and instruments and should be a major consideration when purchasing these articles. The therapist should check with the manufacturer that the materials are suitable for the chosen method of sterilisation. Instruments made of stainless steel and certain plastics are suitable, although sharp edges may be blunted by exposure to heat. Methods of sterilising used in salons include ultraviolet light cabinets glass bead steriliser dry-heat ovens...

Strain as a result of repetitive movements RSI

Individuals who perform repetitive movements over a long period of time may be over-loading and over-using their muscles. Tendons and their sheaths may become inflamed, producing pain on movement. Some muscles may be constantly working in shortened positions, resulting in increased tension and adaptive shortening. Joints may be forced to the extreme end of their range. This will alter the stresses and forces on the supporting ligaments and on connective tissue, which contracts and tightens. The...

Stratum basale Stratum germinativum

This is the deepest layer of the epidermis. It is a single layer of cells on a basement membrane and lies directly on the papillary layer of the dermis. The capillary network of the dermis provides nutrients for these living cells. The cells have a nucleus and multiply by mitosis (cell division). Approximately one in ten of these basal cells are specialised cells called melanocytes. They produce the pigment melanin from the amino acid tyrosine. Melanin is produced to protect the cells against...

Table 21 continued

Areolar Connecting skin to tissues and muscles, lying around muscle bundles and binding muscles together Adipose Stores fat under skin and around organs Dense fibrous Gives tensile strength - ligaments and tendons Yellow elastic Gives elasticity to skin and walls of arteries Reticular Found in lymphatic tissue Cartilage Fibro-cartilage - intervertebral discs Elastic cartilage - outer ear Hyaline cartilage - covers the ends of bones at joints Bone Compact - outer layer of bones Cancellous -...

Technique

The stance is usually stride standing. The hands must be warm, relaxed and supple. The tissues are grasped in the palm of the hand and held between the fingers and thumb (taking care not to pinch). The tissues are lifted away from the bone. The tissues are moved diagonally from side to side by pushing the fingers of one hand towards the thumb of the opposite hand. Figure 5.4 Wringing to the lateral aspect of the back. Figure 5.4 Wringing to the lateral aspect of the back. Keeping the tissues...

The functions of the skeleton

1 Support - the bony framework gives shape to the body, supports the soft tissues and provides attachments for muscles. Protection - the bony framework protects delicate internal organs from injury, e.g. the brain is protected by the skull the heart and lungs are protected by the rib cage. 3 Movement - produced by a system of bones, joints and muscles. The bones act as levers, and muscles pull on the bones, resulting in movement at the joints. 4 Storage of minerals - bones store many minerals,...

The large intestine

This is divided into three parts the ascending colon, which passes upwards on the right side of the abdomen the transverse colon, which runs horizontally across the top of the abdomen and the descending colon, which passes downwards on the left side of the abdomen. This ends in the rectum and anus. The colon reabsorbs water from the waste material as it passes through. Healthy bacteria in the colon also help to synthesise vitamins B and K. The colon forms the waste into faeces, which are stored...

The midtarsal joints

The movements are inversion and eversion. Figure 9.24 Inversion and eversion of the ankle Fix the ankle with one hand and hold the foot at the instep and turn it inwards and outwards. A combination of the movements just shown will produce circumduction, i.e. circling the foot. Figure 9.23 Dorsi flexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint. Figure 9.23 Dorsi flexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint.

The percussion and vibration groups

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to 1. list the four manipulations of the percussion group 2. describe the technique for each manipulation 3. explain the effects of each manipulation 4. explain the uses of each manipulation 5. identify areas of the body where the manipulation would be effective 6. state conditions or areas of the body where these manipulations should not be used 7. perform each manipulation on appropriate areas of the body 8. state the difference between...

The stomach

This is a J-shaped sac that provides a reservoir for food and continues its breakdown. There are sphincters at the entrance and exit of the stomach that open and close to control the food coming in and passing out. Food can be held in the stomach for up to five hours while it is being digested. The churning action of the stomach mechanically breaks the food down. The stomach produces gastric juices that break food down chemically. PEPSIN, which begins the chemical breakdown of protein to amino...

The trachea

This is a tube about 11 centimetres long and 2.5 centimetres in diameter, which extends from the larynx to the bronchi. It is composed of smooth muscle with C-shaped bands of cartilage at regular intervals along its length. These cartilagenous bands prevent the walls of the trachea from collapsing inwards. The function of the trachea is to maintain a permanently open pathway to the lungs. Any obstruction of this vital airway, even for a few minutes, will result in asphyxia (suffocation) and...

Tissue fluid

All body cells are bathed in interstitial fluid (tissue fluid). This fluid provides a medium for substances to move across from the blood to the cells and from the cells to the blood. Oxygenated blood flows from the heart, through the arteries and arterioles, and into the capillaries. The walls of the capillaries are very thin consequently the oxygen and nutrients pass out through the walls into the tissue fluid and from there into the cells. The waste products of metabolism pass out of the...

Treatment massage

The aim of this type of massage is to promote rapid healing and aid complete recovery of the tissues, thus restoring normal function. The objectives are to promote healing and reduce pain, swelling and stiffness gradually mobilise and stretch the affected tissues return the body to normal function. Accurate diagnosis is crucial following injury and the athlete must be seen by a doctor as soon as possible. Those without medical training should not attempt to diagnose or treat sports injuries....

Treatment technique

This massage should be given as soon as possible after the event and certainly within the first one to two hours. The massage will then be more effective, as the waste build up is removed more quickly and the recovery will be faster. Great care must be taken when giving post-event massage as the muscles may be tender, sore and painful. This is partly due to the pressure of accumulated waste and also due to any injuries or micro-traumas that may have occurred during performance. Very light...

Treatment Technique Preparation of the client

Figure 10.1 Hand-held vibrator and heads. Figure 10.1 Hand-held vibrator and heads. Check that all jewellery has been removed. Explain the treatment to the client. Select the appropriate pre-heating treatment. Apply talcum powder to the area using effleurage strokes (do not use oil as it may cause deterioration of the sponge heads).

Understanding contraindications

Massage must always be given to bring about improvement, either of specific conditions, or the general well-being of each client. Clients should always feel that the treatment is beneficial and helping them to achieve their desired results. Massage should never be given if there is any risk of harming the client or making any condition worse. Every therapist has a legal responsibility under the health, safety and welfare legislation to protect him herself and the clients from harm. Remember...

Use of heat prior to massage

Heating the tissues prior to massage enhances the effect of the massage. The application of heat will dilate the superficial blood vessels, and increase the circulation and metabolic rate. The warmth will relieve pain and tension, thus promoting relaxation. These factors will increase the effect of the massage that follows. Mild gentle heat may be given for 15-20 minutes. Any form of heating may be used, depending on client preference, suitability and availability for example infra red, radiant...

Use of massage in sport

Massage may be used in four distinct categories to help sportspeople. Although all the basic massage manipulations may be used, certain considerations and adaptations must be made. It is important that athletes and their trainers are aware of these differences and appreciate their effects. Massage may be given in the following instances before an event or performance (pre-event massage) after an event or performance (post-event massage) as part of the training programme (training massage) as a...

Uses

Percussion and audio-sonic vibrators are used to stimulate dry, dehydrated or mature skin the improved circulation and increase in metabolic rate will improve the condition of the skin to stimulate sebaceous glands the warmth generated in the tissues will stimulate the production and release of sebum, which will help to lubricate the dry, tired, mature skin to aid desquamation of a sluggish skin the friction of the heads on the body part will aid the removal of the surface layer, improving...

Preparation of trolley or table

Select a trolley or table with a hard, smooth surface, free of cracks and easy to clean. Ensure that it is robust and sturdy so that it cannot be pushed over. Wheels are an advantage as the trolley may be pulled or pushed into a convenient position. Place the trolley near the massage couch so that all items will be to hand when required. Wipe the shelves with disinfectant of the correct dilution. Cover the shelves with paper sheets - fold under all edges for neatness. Arrange cleaned bottles...

Muscle attachments

As previously explained, a muscle is composed of muscle fibres and connective tissue components - the endomysium, perimysium and epimysium. Certain muscles have connective tissue intersections dividing the muscle into several bellies, as seen in rectus abdominis. Serratus anterior Rectus abdominus External oblique Internal oblique Tensor fasciae latae Quadriceps group Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Figure 2.8a Muscles of the body - anterior. Adductor group Adductor longus...

Massage routine

The suggested massage routine for the leg is as follows effleurage (front, sides and back) deeper effleurage over thigh alternate palmar kneading over abductors and adductors Figure 7.2 Effleurage to the lower leg. Figure 7.2 Effleurage to the lower leg. Figure 7.4 Thumb kneading around the patella. Figure 7.3 Deep effleurage to thigh. Figure 7.3 Deep effleurage to thigh. Figure 7.5 Alternate palmar kneading to abductors and adductors. Figure 7.5 Alternate palmar kneading to abductors and...

Ways in which the body resists infection

A) Unbroken skin forms a physical barrier. b) Mucous membranes, mucus, hairs and cilia help to trap and filter microbes. c) Saliva washes microbes from teeth and mouths. d) Tears wash microbes from the eyes. e) Urine washes microbes from the urethra. f) Faeces remove microbes from the bowel. g) The acidic pH of the skin limits growth of bacteria. h) Sebum produces an oily film that protects the skin. i) Gastric juices destroy bacteria in the stomach. j) Various antibodies are produced by the...

Oedematous arm

The following routine is used to promote drainage of the upper arm into the axillary nodes Elevate the arm to around 30 -45 or over - this is usually done with the client sitting on a chair, with the arm supported on a pillow on the elevated end of a plinth. Allow half to one hour for drainage. Make sure that the axillary nodes are neither stretched nor compressed. Begin just below the axilla. Circle the arm with the hand - left hand underneath with fingers pointing medially, right hand over...

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

This is the main legislation covering health and safety in the workplace other safety regulations and codes of practice come under this main Act. This Act states that employers managers have a legal duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of all persons at work, i.e. all employees and other persons on the premises, such as contractors and clients. The Health and Safety Executive provides information and publications on all aspects of health and safety...

The hip joint

Partes Catedral

The movements are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation and circumduction. Flexion of the hip joint will have been performed with flexion of the knee as already explained. Full extension of the hip joint can only be carried out in prone lying or side lying. In prone lying with the client's foot over the edge of the bed, place one hand on the buttock. The other hand is placed under and above the knee with the client's lower leg supported along the forearm. Figure...

The lymphatic system

Die Menschen

The lymphatic system is closely associated with the cardio-vascular system and connects with it. The lymphatic system removes tissue fluid and proteins from the tissue spaces and returns it to the blood via the subclavian veins. This fluid in the lymphatic vessels is called lymph. The system also transports fats from the small intestine to the blood, and it plays an important role in protecting the body against infection. The parts of the lymphatic system are lymphatic capillaries, vessels and...

Procedures to prevent crossinfection in the salon

While it is impossible to create a perfectly sterile environment in the salon, every effort must be made to limit the growth and to destroy micro-organisms by practising high standards of hygiene. Procedures must be in place and adhered to, in order to protect yourself, other therapists and clients from cross-infection. This is a legal requirement. 1 Hands must be washed frequently, before touching every client and after treatment, after handling equipment and after using the toilet. A...

Effects of massage on blood circulation

Massage is thought to increase the blood flow through the area being treated, i.e. it produces hyperaemia (increased blood supply) and erythema (reddening of the skin). It speeds up the flow of blood through the veins. Veins lie superficially (nearer the surface than arteries). As the hands move over the part in the direction of venous return, the blood is pushed along in the veins towards the heart. The deeper and faster the movements, the greater the flow. This venous blood carries away...

Neuromuscular stroking

This involves sensitively searching through the tissues for abnormalities such as areas of increased tension, dense thickened areas, loss of pliability, and manipulating them. The area is explored in all directions using stroking movements with the thumb or fingers. Superficial pressure is used for assessing and treating superficial tissues but deeper pressure is required for assessing and treating the deeper tissues. Anatomical knowledge of the area is essential, in particular, knowledge of...

The structure of a typical cell

Hamstring Anatomy Cross Sectional

THE CELL MEMBRANE OR PLASMA MEMBRANE This is the outer layer or boundary of the cell. It gives shape to the cell and protects it, separating things inside the cell (intracellular) from those outside the cell (extracellular). It regulates the passage of substances in and out of the cell. Body systems and the physiological and psychological effects of massage Q Body Massage Therapy Basics THE CYTOPLASM This is a soft jelly-like substance where the functions of the cell are carried out. It...

Preparation of working area

Ensure that the working area affords the client total privacy to change and receive treatment without being overlooked by others. The area may be a curtained section in a large salon, an individual walled cubicle or a small massage room. The therapist should ensure there is enough space to walk around the bed and work from all sides, and that there is room for a trolley with commodities, and a stool. The area should be warm, well-ventilated and draught free. It should be quiet, peaceful and...

Combating mental and physical fatigue

For this type of client it is very important to create a stimulating atmosphere. Although the therapist must be caring and sympathetic, a positive, cheerful attitude is also required. During consultation the client should be encouraged to discuss any problems and to establish reasons for the lethargy or tiredness. There are many factors that may cause the condition stress at work or in the home feeling overburdened or overworked insufficient time for rest, relaxation or enjoyment feeling...

Reducing cellulite

Cellulite is a condition, found predominantly in women, where areas of adipose tissue (fat) become hard and lumpy and very difficult to remove. In women fat is found mainly on the outer thighs, hips and buttocks, abdomen, midriff and back of the arms. In men it is usually distributed around the waist. It is more common and more widely distributed in the female because of the greater amount of oestrogen produced. This hormone encourages the laying down of fat. The areas of cellulite look dimpled...

The digestive system

The digestive system is concerned with the intake, breakdown and absorption of food substances. Carbohydrates, fats (lipids) and proteins are broken down into small molecules that can pass through the walls of the digestive tract into the bloodstream and then into body cells. Here they are used for energy, growth and repair of tissues. Sublingual salivary gland Pharynx Epiglottis The digestive system is divisible into two main parts Gastro-intestinal tract or alimentary canal this is a tube...

Blood vessels

The dermis is well supplied with blood vessels, partly to provide nutrients to the actively dividing cells of the epidermis (which has no direct supply), but also to enable the skin to play its part in the regulation of body temperature. Small vessels leave the dermal plexus at right angles and pass upwards to the skin's surface, ending in the dermal papillae. Nutrients and oxygen pass out into the tissue fluid and into the basal cells, and waste products pass out of the cells into tissue fluid...

Uses of passive movements

to maintain and slightly improve the existing range of movement to prevent the formation of adhesions to prevent stiffness of the joint Passive movements in a massage routine should move each joint smoothly and rhythmically through all its movements. The client is relaxed and neither assists nor resists the movement. Passive movements will have an effect on all the structures inside and outside the joint.

Functions of the skin

Sensitivity The skin contains many sensory receptors, which register changes in the external environment. These receptors are sensitive to touch, pressure, pain, heat and cold. From the nerve endings in the skin, impulses are transmitted to the brain where an appropriate response is initiated. Heat regulation The skin is one of the main organs for body temperature control. Normal body temperature is 37 C or 98.4 F. Heat regulation is achieved by evaporation of sweat body heat is used for the...

Questions

Give the organisational levels of the body. 2. Explain briefly the structure of a typical cell. 3. Name the largest of the organelles and explain its importance. 4. List the three types of cartilage and state where each type is found. 5. Briefly outline the structure of the skin. 6. Explain any four functions of the skin. 7. Describe four ways in which massage will improve the condition of the skin. 8. Explain how you would adapt a body massage for the older client with dry, thin, wrinkled...

Gyratory vibrator

Massage with this type of appliance is much heavier than with percussion and audio-sonic vibrators. It is therefore more suitable for heavier work on large and bulky areas of the body. There are two main types of appliance. The hand-held vibrator this is heavy to use as all the electrical component parts are held in the hand. It is useful for domiciliary work. 2 The floor-standing vibrator, commonly called G5 this is a very popular treatment in the salon. Here all the electrical components are...

Effects of massage on the lymphatic system

The flow of lymph in the lymphatic vessels is speeded up. As the hands move along in the direction of lymph drainage to the nearest group of lymphatic nodes, the speed of lymph flow is increased. Massage strokes should always be directed towards the nearest set of lymphatic nodes. Pressure on the tissues will facilitate the transfer of fluid across vessel walls. Fluid from the tissues will pass into the lymphatic vessels and will drain away more quickly this will prevent or reduce oedema...

Structure of skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is composed of muscle fibres arranged in bundles called fasciculi. Many bundles of fibres make up the complete muscle. The fibres, bundles and muscles are surrounded and protected by connective tissue sheaths. Skeletal muscle fibres are long, thin multi-nucleated cells. These fibres are made up of even smaller protein threads called myofibrils. These run the whole length of the fibre and are the elements that contract and relax. Each myofibril is composed of actin and myosin...

Palmar kneading

Palmar kneading applies pressure to the tissues through the palmar surface of the hands and fingers, and moves the superficial tissues over the deep tissues. The hands work in a circular motion, applying pressure on the upward part of the circle. This ensures that the pressure is applied in the direction of venous return to the heart and lymphatic drainage to the lymph nodes. Palmar kneading (a) single-handed kneading (b) alternate palmar kneading. A variety of methods of palmar kneading may be...

Points to consider

Avoid pressure over the clavicle work below. The clavicular glands that lie in the d collet above and below the clavicle may become very tender in the pre-menstrual female and pressure should be kept very light. Always ask the client if she feels tender or sore when touched and adapt the massage accordingly. The abdomen has no bony framework for protection and the underlying abdominal organs will be affected by the massage. If muscle tone of the abdominals is poor, or if they are loose and...

Disinfection will destroy microorganisms but not spores

Equipment made from materials that are not suitable for sterilisation must be disinfected. Also shelves, work surfaces and other surfaces should be regularly wiped over with disinfectant solutions. A wide variety of products is available and any information regarding the products should be carefully studied in order to make an informed choice. Follow the manufacturer's instructions, use with care and protect your skin with gloves. Disinfectants must be used in the concentrations recommended if...

The cardiovascular system

The cardio-vascular (blood circulatory) system is a closed circuit. It is composed of a pump called the heart, a network of interconnecting tubes called blood vessels, and the fluid flowing through the circuit known as blood. The parts that make up the system are The system is designed to carry blood to and from the organs and cells of the body. Blood carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones and enzymes to the cells, and takes away the waste products of metabolism from the cells.

Adaptation of strokes

Men generally have denser, firmer and larger muscles than women, depending on their degree of fitness. Massage manipulations may therefore be deeper and heavier, but this must be adapted to suit each client. Stroking manipulations may be performed in the direction of hair growth, usually downwards. These movements should be light. Effleurage should be performed in the direction of venous return, using plenty of oil or talcum powder. (If this pulls against the direction of hair growth or is...

Treatment technique Oedematous leg

Prepare the client as for a general massage. Make sure that all restrictive clothing is removed and that there is no tight elastic if underwear is not removed. Position of client with leg in elevation. Place the client in the supine position (face up). Make sure that the legs lie on the elevating end of the couch. Elevate the leg to between 30 and 45 from the horizontal by raising the end of the bed if possible, or by using an arrangement of firm pillows. Make sure that the lymphatic nodes in...

The development of modern massage techniques

Modern massage techniques have evolved mainly from a system developed by a Swedish physiologist called Per Henrik Ling (1776-1839). He developed a system of passive and active exercises known as 'Swedish Remedial Gymnastics' and also a system of massage movements. Ling used the terms 'effleurage', 'petrissage', 'vibration', 'friction', 'rolling' and 'slapping'. Most of these terms are still used today, but some changes and modifications have been made in the groupings and names of...

The kidneys

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs approximately 10 cm in length. They are situated on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity and lie on either side of the spine at the level between the twelfth thoracic and the third lumbar vertebrae. Their medial surface is concave and has an indentation or notch called the hilum. They are covered and held in place by fibrous connective tissue and protected by adipose tissue (fat), which insulates and protects the kidneys. Blood is brought to the kidneys...

The small intestine

The small intestine is composed of three parts duodenum, jejunum and ileum. After the contents of the stomach are thoroughly churned, the chyme passes into the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum. In the duodenum, bile formed in the liver but stored in the gall bladder enters the tract to begin emulsifying (breaking down) fats into fatty acids. Pancreatic juice from the pancreas also enters here, containing enzymes that further break down starches, proteins and fats. AMYLASE...

Benefits of sports massage

1 Massage increases the blood flow through the area being massaged, i.e. it produces hyperaemia. The delivery of nutrients and oxygen is therefore increased. These are required for muscle contraction and also to aid recovery of the muscles and maintain them in good condition. Massage generates heat in the tissues through the friction of the hands moving over the surface through the friction between the tissues as they move over one another through the dilation of vessels and capillaries, which...

Home practice of posture correction

You must ensure that the client is always aware of the difference between good and poor posture. Poor posture may be the result of long-term habits. These habits must be changed through constant practice of correct positions. Explain this to the client and give simple pointers, which s he must practise as often as possible. Good posture will become automatic through constant practice. Look straight ahead with the eyes level. Pull the chin in, then relax into a neutral position (neither pulled...

From the side

This should fall through the lobe of the ear, the point of the shoulder and the hip joint, behind the patella and just in front of the lateral malleolus. Is the neck or cervical curve exaggerated and the chin forward This means that the neck extensors, the upper fibres of the trapezius at the back of the neck, are tight and the neck flexors are weak. Is there kyphosis, i.e. an exaggerated thoracic curve, giving a humped look If so, the pectoral muscles are tight and the middle...

Reducing stress and tension

Before commencing a relaxing massage it is important to prepare the mind as well as the body. The atmosphere created in the working environment must be quiet and calming. The area must be private, warm, well ventilated and free from distracting noises. The client must be positioned in a comfortable, well-supported position. S he must feel safe and secure. The therapist should adopt a relaxed, unhurried manner, speaking positively, calmly and quietly. Her his movements should be smooth and...

Evaluation of own performance

To judge how you have performed, ask yourself the following questions Did I make sure that everything was in place prior to the client's arrival i.e. the room (to ensure a suitable, quiet environment), the couch (clean linen, towels and pillows), the trolley (neatly laid out with all commodities to hand). Did I abide by the salon's health, safety and hygiene policies Did I adopt a friendly, relaxed, professional, competent manner Did I respect the client's privacy and dignity Did I observe the...

Sweat glands

Eccrine glands (sudoriferous) these consist of a coiled tube lying in the dermis with a straight duct opening in a pore on the skin surface. They are most numerous on the soles of feet and palms of hands. Apocrine glands (odoriferous glands) these consist of coiled tubes larger than eccrine glands. They open into hair follicles, usually above the sebaceous glands. Sometimes they open directly onto the skin surface near a follicle. They are found in limited areas only, e.g. armpits and pubic...

The conditions required for the growth of microorganisms are

warmth pathogenic bacteria favour a body temperature of 37 C. Low temperatures found in the refrigerator or freezer will prevent growth of bacteria but will not destroy them dark conditions strong UVL will kill bacteria oxygen is required by some bacteria for aerobic respiration but others are anaerobic and survive without oxygen slightly alkaline conditions. (The acidity of the skin - acid mantle - helps to protect against growth of bacteria.)

A reflex arc

Simple Reflex Arc

This is the pathway taken by an impulse, from the sensory receptors in the skin, along the sensory nerve into the spinal cord, via an interneuron and along the motor nerve to the muscles, which contract in response. Figure 2.21 A simple three-neurone reflex arc. Figure 2.21 A simple three-neurone reflex arc. If a hot object is touched, the sensory nerve endings in the skin register something hot and the flexor muscles of the arm will contract to withdraw the hand.

Pigmentation

Repeated and intense exposure to infra-red produces a purple or brown mottled appearance on the area. This may be due to destruction of blood cells and release of haemoglobin. 1 Areas of defective skin sensation and hypersensitive skin. 2 Heart conditions and blood pressure disorders (high or low). 3 Thrombosis or phlebitis or any areas of deficient circulation. 7 Diabetes, as skin sensitivity may be impaired. 8 Recent scar tissue (defective sensitivity). 10 Recent exposure to UVL (sunburn). 11...

Doublehanded picking up technique

This is performed by two hands working in a synchronised manner up and down, usually on the large muscle groups of the leg or on adipose tissue at the sides of the trunk and hips. The hands are placed on the area with the web of each abducted thumb facing towards each other, with the thumbs and fingers placed around the part and elbows out (abducted). One hand starts lifting and squeezing the tissues (as before). On release of the tissues by this hand, the other performs the same action...

Myofascial treatment techniques

These techniques are used to stretch the tissues the first two techniques stretch the skin and superficial fascia while three and four are aimed at the deeper fascial layers. These techniques are applied without any lubricant because the skin must not slide under the hands. 1 Skin rolling may be used to release superficial fascia, and is frequently performed on the back, over the ribs. Place the hands on the part with the thumb abducted, lift and push the flesh with the fingers towards the...

The Fire Precautions Workplace Regulations 1997

These regulations require the employer to ensure that safety measures are in place to prevent and deal with the outbreak of fire in the salon. S he must assess the fire risks, keep a written record of these risks and inform all employees of the findings. The following precautions and measures must be in place Smoke alarms or other fire detection equipment must be fitted, checked regularly and maintained in good working order. Fire fighting equipment must be in good working order and suitable...

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Act 2002 COSHH

This law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health. It protects everyone in the workplace from exposure to hazardous substances. Hazardous substances found in the salon include massage products - oils, creams, lotions and talcum powder micro-organisms, i.e. bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa Hazardous substances can enter the body via many routes, for example broken or damaged skin eyes and ears nose and mouth hair follicles. Substances hazardous to...

Progressive relaxation technique

Select and prepare a suitable area and prepare the client (see Chapter 3). The client should lie on a mattress and be fully supported. The client may choose to lie on the back, in the recovery position or half lying if the client has difficulty in lying flat. The client must be well supported using plenty of pillows under the head, knees or as required. Allow the client a short time to settle and let go of tension. During this time encourage her him to breathe deeply and let go as s he breathes...

Lubricants used for massage

Manufacturers produce a wide variety of oils, creams, lotions, gels and powders suitable for massage. The cheapest products are not always the most cost-effective, as you may need to use more of the product the more expensive may go further. The massage medium should be selected to suit the client's skin type, and with experience you will develop your own preferences. It is important to try different types of lubricant when you are practising massage routines and also to try them on your own...

Evaluation of treatment

After each treatment it is important to assess how effective the treatment has been. You must decide whether the treatment has produced the effects that you were expecting, and whether the goals you set at the beginning have been met. In order to evaluate the treatment you will need to obtain feedback this means gathering all the information you can, which will indicate the effectiveness of the treatment. Knowledge of the results of the treatment will enable you to make changes or modifications...