The small intestine

The small intestine is composed of three parts duodenum, jejunum and ileum. After the contents of the stomach are thoroughly churned, the chyme passes into the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum. In the duodenum, bile formed in the liver but stored in the gall bladder enters the tract to begin emulsifying (breaking down) fats into fatty acids. Pancreatic juice from the pancreas also enters here, containing enzymes that further break down starches, proteins and fats. AMYLASE...

Benefits of sports massage

1 Massage increases the blood flow through the area being massaged, i.e. it produces hyperaemia. The delivery of nutrients and oxygen is therefore increased. These are required for muscle contraction and also to aid recovery of the muscles and maintain them in good condition. Massage generates heat in the tissues through the friction of the hands moving over the surface through the friction between the tissues as they move over one another through the dilation of vessels and capillaries, which...

Questions

List six conditions or problems that will benefit from massage. 2. Explain why it is important for the treatment room to be warm, well ventilated and quiet. 3. Give three important considerations of technique when giving massage for relaxation. 4. Explain what is meant by the following 5. List six reasons why clients may feel tired and lethargic. 6. Give two manipulations that may be used for invigorating a tired client that would not be used in a relaxing massage. 7. Explain why the part...

Dcollet and face massage

Decide during the consultation whether the face and head are to be included in the massage. Check for contra-indications in these areas. Female clients may not want their make-up and hair disturbed make sure that you explain what is involved. If the face is included, cleanse it during client preparation. After the client has showered, position her him on the bed, wash your hands and cleanse the face with a suitable cleanser followed by a toner. Clean the feet with surgical spirit wash your...

Home practice of posture correction

You must ensure that the client is always aware of the difference between good and poor posture. Poor posture may be the result of long-term habits. These habits must be changed through constant practice of correct positions. Explain this to the client and give simple pointers, which s he must practise as often as possible. Good posture will become automatic through constant practice. Look straight ahead with the eyes level. Pull the chin in, then relax into a neutral position (neither pulled...

From the side

This should fall through the lobe of the ear, the point of the shoulder and the hip joint, behind the patella and just in front of the lateral malleolus. Is the neck or cervical curve exaggerated and the chin forward This means that the neck extensors, the upper fibres of the trapezius at the back of the neck, are tight and the neck flexors are weak. Is there kyphosis, i.e. an exaggerated thoracic curve, giving a humped look If so, the pectoral muscles are tight and the middle...

Reducing stress and tension

Before commencing a relaxing massage it is important to prepare the mind as well as the body. The atmosphere created in the working environment must be quiet and calming. The area must be private, warm, well ventilated and free from distracting noises. The client must be positioned in a comfortable, well-supported position. S he must feel safe and secure. The therapist should adopt a relaxed, unhurried manner, speaking positively, calmly and quietly. Her his movements should be smooth and...

Evaluation of own performance

To judge how you have performed, ask yourself the following questions Did I make sure that everything was in place prior to the client's arrival i.e. the room (to ensure a suitable, quiet environment), the couch (clean linen, towels and pillows), the trolley (neatly laid out with all commodities to hand). Did I abide by the salon's health, safety and hygiene policies Did I adopt a friendly, relaxed, professional, competent manner Did I respect the client's privacy and dignity Did I observe the...

Sweat glands

Eccrine glands (sudoriferous) these consist of a coiled tube lying in the dermis with a straight duct opening in a pore on the skin surface. They are most numerous on the soles of feet and palms of hands. Apocrine glands (odoriferous glands) these consist of coiled tubes larger than eccrine glands. They open into hair follicles, usually above the sebaceous glands. Sometimes they open directly onto the skin surface near a follicle. They are found in limited areas only, e.g. armpits and pubic...

The conditions required for the growth of microorganisms are

warmth pathogenic bacteria favour a body temperature of 37 C. Low temperatures found in the refrigerator or freezer will prevent growth of bacteria but will not destroy them dark conditions strong UVL will kill bacteria oxygen is required by some bacteria for aerobic respiration but others are anaerobic and survive without oxygen slightly alkaline conditions. (The acidity of the skin - acid mantle - helps to protect against growth of bacteria.)

A reflex arc

This is the pathway taken by an impulse, from the sensory receptors in the skin, along the sensory nerve into the spinal cord, via an interneuron and along the motor nerve to the muscles, which contract in response. Figure 2.21 A simple three-neurone reflex arc. Figure 2.21 A simple three-neurone reflex arc. If a hot object is touched, the sensory nerve endings in the skin register something hot and the flexor muscles of the arm will contract to withdraw the hand.

Pigmentation

Repeated and intense exposure to infra-red produces a purple or brown mottled appearance on the area. This may be due to destruction of blood cells and release of haemoglobin. 1 Areas of defective skin sensation and hypersensitive skin. 2 Heart conditions and blood pressure disorders (high or low). 3 Thrombosis or phlebitis or any areas of deficient circulation. 7 Diabetes, as skin sensitivity may be impaired. 8 Recent scar tissue (defective sensitivity). 10 Recent exposure to UVL (sunburn). 11...

Doublehanded picking up technique

This is performed by two hands working in a synchronised manner up and down, usually on the large muscle groups of the leg or on adipose tissue at the sides of the trunk and hips. The hands are placed on the area with the web of each abducted thumb facing towards each other, with the thumbs and fingers placed around the part and elbows out (abducted). One hand starts lifting and squeezing the tissues (as before). On release of the tissues by this hand, the other performs the same action...

Myofascial treatment techniques

These techniques are used to stretch the tissues the first two techniques stretch the skin and superficial fascia while three and four are aimed at the deeper fascial layers. These techniques are applied without any lubricant because the skin must not slide under the hands. 1 Skin rolling may be used to release superficial fascia, and is frequently performed on the back, over the ribs. Place the hands on the part with the thumb abducted, lift and push the flesh with the fingers towards the...

The Fire Precautions Workplace Regulations 1997

These regulations require the employer to ensure that safety measures are in place to prevent and deal with the outbreak of fire in the salon. S he must assess the fire risks, keep a written record of these risks and inform all employees of the findings. The following precautions and measures must be in place Smoke alarms or other fire detection equipment must be fitted, checked regularly and maintained in good working order. Fire fighting equipment must be in good working order and suitable...

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Act 2002 COSHH

This law requires employers to control exposure to hazardous substances to prevent ill health. It protects everyone in the workplace from exposure to hazardous substances. Hazardous substances found in the salon include massage products - oils, creams, lotions and talcum powder micro-organisms, i.e. bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa Hazardous substances can enter the body via many routes, for example broken or damaged skin eyes and ears nose and mouth hair follicles. Substances hazardous to...

Progressive relaxation technique

Select and prepare a suitable area and prepare the client (see Chapter 3). The client should lie on a mattress and be fully supported. The client may choose to lie on the back, in the recovery position or half lying if the client has difficulty in lying flat. The client must be well supported using plenty of pillows under the head, knees or as required. Allow the client a short time to settle and let go of tension. During this time encourage her him to breathe deeply and let go as s he breathes...

Lubricants used for massage

Manufacturers produce a wide variety of oils, creams, lotions, gels and powders suitable for massage. The cheapest products are not always the most cost-effective, as you may need to use more of the product the more expensive may go further. The massage medium should be selected to suit the client's skin type, and with experience you will develop your own preferences. It is important to try different types of lubricant when you are practising massage routines and also to try them on your own...

Evaluation of treatment

After each treatment it is important to assess how effective the treatment has been. You must decide whether the treatment has produced the effects that you were expecting, and whether the goals you set at the beginning have been met. In order to evaluate the treatment you will need to obtain feedback this means gathering all the information you can, which will indicate the effectiveness of the treatment. Knowledge of the results of the treatment will enable you to make changes or modifications...

Technique of passive movements

Ensure that you know the anatomy and direction of movement of each joint. Remember that the movements will be different depending on the type of joint. The hinge joints of the knee and elbow can move to flexion and extension only, while the ball and socket joints of the shoulder and hip can move through flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation and circumduction. Explain the procedure to the client ask if s he has any questions and encourage her him to relax. If you...

Precautions and responsibilities when using electrical equipment

Annual testing of electrical equipment is required by law. Ensure that people using electrical equipment are trained and competent to do so. Follow the correct procedures when using electrical equipment. Purchase equipment from a reputable dealer who will provide an after-sales service. Ensure that all equipment is regularly maintained and in a safe condition for use. Examine leads and cables regularly to ensure that they are without splits or breaks that may expose bare wires. Use proper...

Reinforced picking up technique

For this method one hand is placed on the area as in single-handed work, but the other hand is placed over it to reinforce and provide more depth to the movement. 1 Place one hand (right if you are right handed) on the part, as explained in single-handed picking up. Place the other hand over the top, with the thumb over the index finger of the underneath hand. The hands then work together (like the wings of a bird) with the fingers of the right and left hand lifting, squeezing and releasing....

Ulnar border kneading

This is similar in technique, effects and uses to digital kneading but the ulnar border of the hand is used to obtain greater depth. The ulnar border of the hand is placed on the part and moved in circles. It is used mainly over the soles of the feet and around the colon in abdominal massage. When performed around the colon the pressure changes the pressure is upwards over the ascending colon (on the right side) the pressure is across over the transverse colon and downwards over the descending...

The skeletal system

The skeletal system is made up of bones, joints and cartilages. The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. These are grouped into two main divisions the axial skeleton, which forms the core or axis of the body, and the appendicular skeleton, which forms the girdles and limbs It is important to identify skeletal bones, particularly those with bony points or prominences, which must be avoided when massaging. Pink long bone Green short bone Yellow flat bone Purple irregular bone Figure 2.4...

Precautions and responsibilities when dealing with hazardous substances

1 Consider any hazardous substances in your workplace. For the therapist these will include any fine powders such as face powder or talcum powder, oils, creams or lotions, cleaning agents, sterilising agents, micro-organisms, blood. 2 Read the labels and manufacturers' instructions on all the products that you use. Manufacturers are required by law to state the dangers and issue guidelines on storage, use and disposal. 3 Ensure that products are clearly labelled and stored correctly and safely....

COSHH requires you to

Assess the risk from exposure to hazardous substances to anyone using your workplace. You will need to examine all the substances stored and used in your salon and identify the ones that could cause damage or injury. You will need to consider any risks that these substances present to people's health. Decide what precautions need to be taken. Check the manufacturers' advice on use, storage and disposal. Read the label carefully. Consider whether the substance can enter the body or damage any...

Functions of the blood

oxygen from the lungs to body cells carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs nutrients from the digestive tract to body cells metabolic waste products from cells to excretory organs hormones from endocrine glands to cells any drugs taken for medicinal purposes. the water content of cells body heat, maintaining normal body temperature pH by means of buffers. against disease and infection, by the action of leucocytes, which destroy microorganisms through phagocytic action and production of...

Digital and thumb kneading

Small circular movements are performed over small areas or small muscles using the pad of the thumb or the pads on the palmar surface of the first, second and third fingers. Again, the pressure must be applied in an upward direction, on half the circle, and then eased as the fingers come round and down. These digital movements are useful over the upper and middle fibres of the trapezius muscle, over the flexors and extensors of the forearm, down the erector spinae, around the colon, and over...

Singlehanded picking up technique

This method is performed with one hand grasping the muscle. The stance is walk standing. Spread the thumb away from the fingers, i.e. Place the thumb on one side of the muscle or group and the fingers together on the other side. Grasp and lift the muscle in the palm of the hand, squeezing with the thumb and fingers (do not pinch). Release the muscle and move the hand forward, Fjgure 5 5 sing e.handed picking up pushing upward with the palm and web of the abducted thumb. Slight flexion and...

Objectives

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to 1. list the problems and conditions that may benefit from massage 2. explain the importance of psychological preparation prior to a relaxing massage 3. perform a relaxing massage for reduction of stress and tension 4. explain how visual and verbal feedback are obtained from the client 5. perform a massage to combat mental and physical fatigue 6. explain what is meant by the term 'oedema' 7. relate oedema to the function of the lymphatic...

Differences between effleurage and stroking

Effleurage Massage

Effleurage must always follow the direction of venous return back to the heart and the direction of lymphatic drainage towards the nearest group of lymphatic nodes. Stroking may be performed in any direction. The pressure during effleurage may be light, moderate or heavy, but always increases at the end of the stroke towards the lymphatic nodes. The pressure of stroking is selected at the commencement and is maintained throughout. It also may be light, moderate or heavy pressure depending on...

The therapists role in maintaining health and safety in their place of work

The employer manager is responsible for the management and control of health, safety and welfare issues, which will ensure a safe environment for all persons working in or attending the salon clinic. However, all therapists at work also have a duty under the Act. take reasonable care to avoid harm to themselves or to others by their behaviour or working practices cooperate with and help employers managers to meet the statutory requirements refrain from misusing or interfering with anything...

Skin lesions disorders and diseases

It is very important to examine the skin thoroughly before giving massage. The skin can be affected by many problems, which must be identified prior to massage. Some will have to be avoided whereas others may need medical referral. If you have to encourage a client to see the doctor, you must do so in a very tactful manner and not alarm nor offend the client. Macule this is a mark or discoloured patch that lies flat on the skin. Papule this is a small elevated pimple. Vesicle this is a very...

Local contraindications to massage

Areas with these conditions should be avoided skin diseases or disorders these may be irritated or spread by the friction of the hands over the part or by the lubricant, e.g. eczema, psoriasis, acne, any skin infections such as pimples, boils, carbuncles, rashes, bites. See list on pages 120-122. wounds, cuts and abrasions risk of infection and blood contamination recent or extensive bruising small bruises can be avoided recent haemorrhage or bleeding in an area recent scar tissue there is a...

The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992

This regulation requires all employers to assess the risk to employees when lifting or handling heavy goods and to provide training in safe techniques. More than a third of all over-three-day injuries reported each year to the HSE and LAs are caused by manual handling, i.e. lifting, transporting or supporting loads by hand or bodily force. The accidents primarily result in back injuries, but hands, arms and feet may also be injured. These injuries may build up over time as a result of...

Classification of massage movements

The terminology used to describe and group massage movements has evolved over the centuries. There are differences in terminology from country to country and from school to school. The terminology used today is based on the Swedish remedial massage devised in Sweden by the physiologist Per Henrik Ling, and Dr Johann Mezgner of Holland. This has been modified over the years with input from French, German and British physicians and practitioners. The names of the groups describe the action of the...

Essential information

The following personal, medical and environmental factors should be recorded on the consultation card status name address date of birth home and work telephone numbers occupation doctor's name, address and telephone number These details will enable you to contact the client quickly should you need to cancel or change an appointment or for any other reason. They will also enable you to seek advice from his her doctor should this be necessary. These details will enable you to establish the...

Types of massage lubricants

Vegetable oils are the most widely used these include almond oil, grapeseed oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, wheatgerm oil, avocado oil, coconut oil, peanut (arachis) oil. Mineral oils are also used these include baby oil, liquid paraffin, cold cream. Lanolin from sheep's wool is used as a base for some products. Mineral oils are sometimes used but are not recommended as they are not absorbed easily and may block the pores in the skin. Less mineral oil is needed because it tends to lie...

Skin contact and friction

As the hands move over the client's skin, any bacterial, viral or fungal infections can be spread over the skin to a non-infected area or onto the therapist's hands. Infections may be transmitted from client to therapist or from therapist to client in this way. Friction of the hands may open healing wounds or abrasions. This will expose the area to infection by micro-organisms. There will also be a risk of blood contamination between the client and the therapist. Blood contamination must be...

Effects

The alternate pressure and relaxation of the hands as they move over the area exert a pumping action on the underlying capillaries and veins. This speeds up the flow of blood through the vessels so that waste products are removed and fresh blood delivers nutrients and oxygen more quickly. This will improve the condition of the tissues. The flow of lymph through the lymphatic vessels and towards the lymph nodes is speeded up in the same way. Thus, large particles of waste and tissue fluid are...

The Local Government Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1982

Local Authorities issue licences and register businesses offering beauty therapy treatments including massage. They also issue regulations with which, by law, you must comply. Before setting up a business you must contact your Local Authority to ensure that you comply with the exact requirements. When you meet all the requirements you will be issued with a certificate of registration. These bye-laws are mainly concerned with issues of hygiene and safety as explained in this text. Environmental...

Blood vessels

There are three main types of blood vessel arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries transport oxygenated blood from the heart around the body to all tissues and organs. The main artery, the large aorta, leaves the left ventricle of the heart and divides to form other arteries, which further subdivide forming a network of arteries all over the body. Arteries finally divide into small thinly-walled vessels called arterioles, which enter the capillary networks among the tissues. Arteries...

The Workplace Health Safety and Welfare Regulations 1992

This regulation covers health, safety and welfare in the workplace. Workplace means any place where people are employed or are self-employed it includes the outdoor areas such as paths, etc. Health issues under this Act include ADEQUATE VENTILATION Premises must be well ventilated, removing stale air and drawing in fresh clean air without draughts. It is difficult to select the temperature to suit everybody around 16 C is recommended. The temperature should be comfortable for working but the...

Twentiethcentury developments

During the First World War the demand for massage to treat the injured grew and many more massage therapists were trained. Membership of the Society of Trained Masseuses grew and in 1920 it amalgamated with the Institute of Massage and Remedial Exercise. In recognition of the valuable work contributed by its members during the war, a Royal Charter was granted and the title was changed to the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics. The title was changed again in 1943 and became the...

Infestation by animal parasites

Pediculus capitis this is infestation of the head the louse obtains nourishment through blood sucking, causes intense irritation and lays eggs called nits among the hair. Pediculus corporis this is infestation by the body louse. It lives in clothing and sucks blood for nourishment. It causes intense irritation of the body. Pediculus pubis this is an infestation of the pubic hair by crab lice causes intense irritation and sucks blood. Fleas these jumping insects suck blood and their bites appear...

Ectoparasites

The head louse is an insect found on the human scalp. It obtains its nourishment by piercing the skin and sucking blood. The adult female is slightly larger than the male, about 2 mm-3 mm long and 1 mm wide. The female lays white, shiny oval-shaped eggs called nits they are cemented to the hair close to the scalp. They take approximately 1 week to mature and can reproduce in another week. The life cycle of a louse lasts for 4-5 weeks during which time the female will lay around 300 eggs. They...

Invasion of the body

Micro-organisms enter the body via many routes a) through broken or damaged skin b) through orifices such as the nose, mouth, anus, vagina, urethra e) into the bloodstream by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes and lice. Some micro-organisms produce immediate symptoms while others can lie dormant for a long time and attack when the body's immune system is low.

Types of joint

Fibrous immoveable joints the bones fit tightly together and are held firmly by fibrous tissue. There is no joint cavity. Examples are the sutures of the skull. Cartilaginous slightly moveable joints the bones are connected by a disc or plate of fibro-cartilage. There is no joint cavity. Examples are the symphysis pubis (between the pubic bones) and the intervertebral joints (between the vertebral bodies). Synovial freely moveable joints these are the most numerous in the body. There are six...

The Dark Ages to the Renaissance

Little is known about massage or health and beauty practices throughout the Dark and Middle Ages, i.e. from the decline of the Roman Empire around 500 ad until the Middle Ages around 1400 ad. Few records remain from those days of wars, strict religions, superstition and persecution. Little value was placed on education, the arts, physical health and fitness. Following this period came the Renaissance (rebirth) in 1450 ad. Interest in the arts and sciences flourished and there was renewed...

Massage in ancient times

Persian Massage

The earliest evidence of massage being used is found in the cave paintings of ancient cave dwellers. These wall drawings and paintings show people massaging each other. Various artefacts also found contain traces of fats and oils mixed with herbs. These indicate that lubricants may have been used, perhaps for healing, soothing or beautifying purposes. As early as 3000 bc, the Chinese practised massage to cure ailments and improve general health. Records of this can be found in the British...

Massage in classical Greece and Rome

The Greeks believed in the cultivation of a healthy mind and body, which is similar to the 'holistic approach' practised by many people today. Rituals of bathing, massage, exercise or dancing were practised by men and women. They encouraged the pursuit of physical fitness and organised regular sporting, gymnastic and athletic competitions. Massage was used before events to improve performance and after events to relieve fatigue and aid recovery. Gladiators and soldiers were massaged before...

Effects of massage on the respiratory system

The air passages are lined with a mucous membrane that continuously secretes a small quantity of mucus. This moistens the tubes and traps any organisms and particles in the inspired air. Any irritation of this membrane will result in an increase in the production of mucus. This mucus may thicken and become difficult to remove through coughing. Shaking and vibration manipulations performed over the chest can help to loosen these secretions so that they can be coughed up more easily. Deep...

The nervous system

The nervous system is the communication and control system of the body. It works with the endocrine system to maintain homeostasis (body balance). The nervous system will sense changes inside and outside the body, interpret them and initiate appropriate action. The nervous system is made up of the central nervous system, comprising the brain and spinal cord peripheral nervous system, comprising 12 pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain and 31 pairs of spinal nerves arising from the...

Sebaceous glands

These glands secrete an oily substance called sebum. (It consists mainly of waxes, fats and fatty acids, and dehydrocholesterol, which forms vitamin D in sunlight.) The glands are found in all areas except the soles and palms and between the fingers and toes. They are numerous on the scalp, forehead, nose, chin, chest and between the shoulders. The glands are sac-like and are usually attached to the side wall of hair follicles into which the secretions enter via a duct, but some open directly...

The endocrine system

The endocrine system is made up of separate glands located in different parts of the body. Each gland makes chemical substances called hormones, which regulate and influence body processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction and responses to stress. The endocrine system and the nervous system control and co-ordinate body functions and maintain the body's internal balanced state (homeostasis). Endocrine glands are known as ductless glands because the hormones they secrete pour...

Deep effleurage

Effleurage

Heavier pressure is sometimes required to affect the deeper tissue and muscles. This does not mean the use of greater force but rather the more effective use of body weight. Deep effleurage is used for promoting relaxation in deep muscles and improving the local circulation. The manipulations are also used for athletic well-toned clients with muscle bulk. Deeper effleurage movements include reinforced hand manipulations where one hand applies almost perpendicular pressure into the tissues...

Reporting of Injuries Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 RIDDOR

This regulation places a legal duty on employers, the self-employed and those in control of premises to report work-related incidents. These incidents must be reported to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) or your Local Authority (LA). If you inform the Incident Contact Centre (ICC), they will report and forward the information to the correct enforcing authority on your behalf. The Incident Contact Centre (ICC) Caerphilly Business Park Caerphilly CF83 3GG Tel 0845 300 9923 Website...

Effects of massage on adipose tissue

Adipose tissue is a connective tissue composed mainly of specialised cells called adipocytes, adapted to store fat. It is found under the skin in the subcutaneous layer and around organs. Fat is the body's energy reserve. It is stored when energy intake is greater than energy output and utilised if energy intake is less than energy output. Therefore, the only way of losing fat is through sensible eating and increasing activity or exercise. However, massage is thought to help the dispersal of...

Contraindications to passive movements

Examine the joints carefully and ask appropriate questions. If any of the following conditions are present then the treatment should not be carried out. Bone fractures avoid working on the affected limb until healing is complete the other unaffected limbs can be treated. Swelling of the joint swelling may indicate some damage to the joint and passive movements are contra-indicated. However, if there is no damage, swelling around the ankles may be due to an accumulation of tissue fluid passive...

Immunity

1 Natural immunity acquired by previous contact with disease antibodies remain in the body or are acquired via the placenta or milk from the mother. 2 Artificial immunity acquired from vaccines introduced into the body that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies or may be acquired by transfer of antibodies from a person who has recovered from the disease. Bacteria single-cell organisms, non-pathogenic - cocci, bacilli, spirochetes. Diseases caused by bacteria boils, impetigo, sore...