Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Permanently STOP Having A Bad Body Image. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To A Guide To Better Body Image.

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Emaciated Body Images in the Media

The pop culture industry's idealization of stick-thin body types has received a large amount of attention in recent years, especially due to increasing evidence that American women are less satisfied with their bodies than ever before. Eating disorders are commonly discussed in the U.S.A., and body image is distorted to the point that 45 percent of healthy-weight women believe that they are overweight (and many of those report being on a diet ). The literature attributes a large portion of this problem to the extremely large number of airbrushed images of stick-thin models bombarding the American population every day. Considering that average model is 5 foot 9 inches and 110-15 pounds and the average American woman is 5 foot 4 inches and 138 lbs, none of this is very surprising (Rowland). The irony in this idealization of an emaciated body image is that only a few centuries ago in Western culture, and continuing today in some non-Western cultures, a starving body was associated with...

Body Image

The term body image refers to the view that a person has of his or her own body size and proportion. Body-image distortion occurs when a person's view of their body is significantly different from reality. Many factors impact the perception of one's body image, including the mass media, peer groups, ethnic groups, and family values. There is no such thing as an ideal or perfect body, and different cultures have different standards and norms for appropriate body size and shape. Even within a particular culture, societal standards shift periodically. For example, in the United States, the value of being thin has been the predominant stereotype for women since the model Twiggy arrived on the scene in the 1960s. The average fashion model (at the beginning of the twenty-first century) is almost six feet tall and weighs 130 pounds, whereas the average American woman is five feet, four inches tall and weighs 140 pounds. This disparity in height and weight may lead to problems with...

Psychosocial Concerns

Cancer survivors with preexisting anxiety or affective disorders appear to be at greatest risk for ongoing distress.25 Changes to body image from cancer therapy, such as that resulting from mastectomy or colostomy, can be a source of problems with psychological adjustment.72 Distress appears to dissipate with time, however. There are a small proportion of patients who experience ongoing effects characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder.73 Having a spouse or partner decreases the risk of psychological sequelae,74 although these caregivers may also themselves be adversely

Psychological and spiritual issues

Cancer cachexia is the most easily recognizable external sign of serious illness and is a major concern to patients and their families (Higginson and Winget 1996). Above all, cachexia is seen as a sign of impending death. Changes in body image impact on emotional well-being, one of the primary domains of health-related QOL (Fallowfield 2002). Fatigue appears to be an independent predictor factor of QOL. In fact, it was claimed as being the most distressing symptom experienced during cancer treatment (Richardson 1995).

Alison E Field and Kendrin R Sonneville

P., Williams, R. J., and Thompson, J. K. (2007) The role of ethnicity and culture in body image and disordered eating among males , Clinical Psychology Review 27 582-606. Story, M., French, S. A., Resnick, M. D., and Blum, R. W. (1995) Ethnic racial and socioeconomic differences in dieting behaviours and body image perceptions in adolescents , International Journal of Eating Disorders 18 173-9.

Michael J Devlin Stephen A Wonderlich B Timothy Walsh and James E Mitchell

Addiction and BED 250-1 Addiction Transfer Model 187-9 addiction treatment models 102 adolescents anxiety in 45 in behavioral weight loss programs 170 binge eating in 42-8, 118-19 body dissatisfaction in 45, 223 body mass index in 171 depression in 45, 222 development of body image disturbance 82 dietary restraint in 46, 47 family-based therapy for anorexia nervosa 100 loss of control eating in 42-8, 119, 148, 156-7, 170-8 low self-esteem in 171, 172, 222 and negative affect 82, 171, 172 obese 43, 224 overweight 45, 47, 170, 171, 220, 224 parental influences on 36-7, 82, 177, 222 prevalence of BED 16, 18, 44 prevention of BED in 223, 224 psychosocial impairment in 43, 45, 223 risk factors for BED 94, 219, 220, 221, therapy 127, 129-31 anorexia nervosa (AN) and the 5HTTPR gene 31 and BED 113, 115 blame in 95 body checking and avoidance behaviors 81 body image disturbance as a diagnostic criterion 79 and childhood trauma 57 cognitive behavioral body image therapy for 84, 85, 87 dieting...

Cynthia M Bulik and Sara E Trace

D., Richards, K. J., Johnson, S., and Cattarin, J. (1995) Development of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in female adolescents covariance structure modeling and longitudinal investigations , International Journal of Eating Disorders 18 221-36.

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

DBT also has been modified by a group at Stanford University for people with BED without co-occurring disorders (Safer et al. 2009).The Stanford DBT Model for BED has been supported through a case report (Telch 1997b), a small case-series (Telch et al. 2000), and two randomized controlled trials (Safer et al. 2010 Telch et al. 2001). Telch et al. (2001) reported that 8 per cent of women receiving the Stanford DBT Model for BED were abstinent from binge eating compared to 12.5 per cent of the wait-list controls at the end of the 20-week treatment study. These abstinence rates dropped over the six-month follow-up period to 56 per cent. In addition, as compared to wait-list control, DBT improved body image, eating concerns, and urges to eat when angry. progressive muscle relaxation) incompatible with binge eating are identified. For patients with poor body image, mindfulness exercises concerning eating and body awareness are utilized, including imagining themselves in a full-length...

Debra L Franko Meghan E Lovering and Heather Thompson Brenner

With ED symptoms, whereas more traditional measures of SES (e.g., education level) were not. However, when BMI, current and past depression, and childhood abuse were co-varied, financial strain was no longer significant (Marcus et al. 2007). In a study of white, black, and Hispanic women (Fitzgibbon et al. 1998), education, depression, and body image ideal (preferring a slimmer ideal) were all found to be significant covariates of binge eating. This study found education level to be a stronger predictor of binge eating symptoms among white women than it was among black or Hispanic women. BMI was only a significant predictor of BED severity for Hispanic women however, depression was a predictor for both Hispanic and white women. This study suggests that the effects of education (a proxy for socio-economic status) may differ by ethnic group, and that the protective effect of higher socio-economic status maybe more relevant for white women than those from other racial and ethnic groups....

Clare Stevinson Kristin L Campbell Christopher M Sellar and Kerry S Courneya

Alterations in body weight and body composition affect many cancer survivors. Weight loss is a typical symptom of many cancers, and both chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause mucositis, anorexia, and nausea, making food intake difficult.11 Conversely, weight gain is associated with some chemotherapy protocols used in treating breast cancer,12 and increased appetite caused by some steroid treatments. Reduced activity during and after cancer treatment also contributes to weight gain. Further side effects include pain, sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments (e.g., forgetfulness, inability to concentrate),13 and a host of psychological sequelae.14 These can range from clinical depressive or anxiety disorders, to occasional feelings of anger, guilt, confusion or loneliness. Loss of self-esteem, and concerns over body image, are also frequently reported. Psychological distress may persist long beyond the end of treatment in some cancer survivors,15,16 and can have a significant impact...

Impact Of Chronic Rheumatic Disease On Growth And Development

Young people with such conditions may experience either condition or both. Together they can result in short stature, reduced bone density (see Chapter 12), low self-esteem, poor body image, and delayed development of the psychosocial tasks of adolescence (see Chapter 1).

Group Differences Level

African American Anorexia

Other group dif ferences include cultural or ethnic group dif ferences. For example, in the United States, there is a lar ge difference in body image satisfaction between European American women and African American women. European American women tend to be, as a group, much less satisfied with their bodies tha are African American women with theirs. Consequently, European American women are much more at risk for developing eating disturbances, such as anorexia or bulimia, compared with women in other groups. This group dif ference emerges primarily around puberty, when a larger proportion of white women develop feelings of dissatisfaction with their physical appearance, compared with African American women.

Important Issues to Consider When Measuring Puberty

The appropriate measure(s) of puberty to use in a study must be purpose-dependent (Hayward, 2003). Indicators of puberty are correlated, but not equivalent, as each indicator captures a different aspect of the pubertal process (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 Graber et al., 1996). Each indicator involves limitation in how it is measured. For example, validity of Tanner self-ratings may vary by degree of body image disturbance (Hick & Katzman, 1999 Litt, 1999) and cross-sectional measurements of hormonal levels are difficult to interpret (Hayward, 2003). The ideal way to measure the pubertal process would be multiple indicators of puberty collected longitudinally.

Hauser Bengamin Gayelord 18951984 Popular advocate of diet and nutrition

Gayelord Hauser's advertising strategy largely relied on his personal image that is, his physical attractiveness and glamorous social life added to his mass appeal, as did having media celebrity followers such as Cary Grant, Mae West, and Greta Garbo, whom he personally advised. As one critic commented recently about Hauser's importance in changing Hollywood's body image Hefty

The Role of Parents During Adolescent Development

The impact of a chronic condition on the fulfillment of the developmental tasks of the adolescence may be huge (6). Throughout adolescence new competencies are acquired Physical development including sexual (pubertal changes, body image) cognitive (development of abstract thinking and identity construction), and social (development of autonomy change in the relationship with parents and peers, planning for the future). However, and above all, an adolescent with a chronic condition is an adolescent.

Laura M DeRose Jeanne Brooks Gunn

Being less prepared cognitively and emotionally, but also socially. This may make it more difficult for early maturers to successfully navigate the pubertal transition. Third, timing of puberty may interact with social context. Experiencing the pubertal transition either earlier or later than one's peers may have negative effects on the individual as he or she is perceived as deviating from normative development (Brooks-Gunn & Petersen, 1983 Neugarten, 1979). For example, earlier-maturing girls gain weight at a time when most girls still have childlike physical appearance, which may be one reason why early-maturing girls have reported poorer self-esteem especially related to their body image (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985 Tobin-Richards, Boxer, Petersen, & Albrecht, 1990).

Morton Richard 163798

In order to illustrate his argument, Morton described two case histories. He saw them in the light of his understanding of consumption (tuberculosis), noting that I do not remember that I did ever in all my Practice see one, that was conversant with the Living so much wasted with the greatest degree of consumption (like a Skeleton only clad with skin) (Morton 1694 9). He makes a differential diagnosis, noting that there is neither cough nor fever in these patients. Nevertheless, they demonstrate self-starvation, emaciation, a refusal to gain weight, body image distortion, and a denial of illness the symptoms that, centuries later, would define anorexia nervosa.

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

Brooks-Gunn and colleagues have also examined the significance of breast and pubic hair development to adolescent girls in the fifth and sixth grades (Brooks-Gunn, 1984 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). The majority of girls (82 ) reported that breast growth was more significant to them than pubic hair growth because other people can tell. Girls also reported that mothers talked to them more about their breast than their pubic hair development. Onset of breast growth was associated with positive peer relationships, greater salience of sex roles linked with reproduction, and a positive body image, while the onset of pubic hair growth was not (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). However, girls were likely to experience teasing by family members and boys about their breast development (Brooks-Gunn, Newman, Holderness, & Warren, 1994 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). Girls tend to experience the normal height and weight changes of puberty negatively, particularly increases in weight and or fat. More...

The Language of Direct Experience

Polysynthetic languages can express more complex direct perceptions in single words. For example, in Navajo, a chair is bikaa'dah'asdahi or on-it-one-sits. To take a more familiar example, many languages refer to a corkscrew as a cork puller. Languages can also capture aspects of direct experience through the projection of the body image. In English, we speak of the hands of a clock, the teeth of a zipper, and the foot of the mountain. In Apache, this penchant for body part metaphors carries over to describing the parts of an automobile. The tires are the feet of the car, the battery is its heart, and the headlights are its eyes. Adjectives encode images of direct perceptions for attributes such as weight, color, or smell. Perspective taking in space and time depends on a different set of cognition mechanisms. For direct experience, perspective taking involves the projection of the body image onto the body and motions of other agents. For space, perspective taking involves the...

Social and Emotional Health

This sort of treatment, which is hypothesized to produce adverse emotional consequences such as low self-esteem, negative body image, and depressive symptoms for obese children, is not limited to peers it may also come from adults, including parents, teachers, and health-care providers (Strauss et al., 1985). Even though obesity in children has become more common, such negative treatment has not diminished (Latner and Stunkard, 2003), as revealed by obese children who continue to be socially marginalized by their peers (Strauss and Pollack, 2003).

Feminist Accused of Unsightly Weight Gain

AS THE PREVIOUS CHAPTER ATTESTS, this book was born of an investigation into the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal. The deeper I delved into that topic, the more I discovered the extent to which anxieties about food, fat, weight, and body image seemed to play major roles in the lives and actions of the principal actors in that drama.

Why should I take drugs that have side effects

Weight gain and altered body habitus Steroids and ACTH result in an increased appetite. Their use can result in tremendous weight gain, even as high as 70 pounds in a few days. There is also a redistribution of body fat that women in particular do not like. Fat is deposited over the face and upper part of the chest and neck, abdomen, and buttocks. As easy as it is to gain the weight, it is difficult to take it off. When caloric intake is managed (restricted), the deposition of fat over the upper back, abdomen, and buttocks is minimized, but not eliminated. The alteration of body image may be traumatic, particularly to women. Acne often accompanies the use of steroids and ACTH. It can be easily managed with use of low doses of tetracy-cline antibiotics.

Types of Self Help Programs

A hybrid form of self-help with limited professional guidance also is available. This format typically follows a structured format that unfolds over time. The majority of structured self-help programs take a socio-cognitive or CBT approach that is, they instruct the participant to identify one or a small number of specific, time-limited goals or treatment targets help the participant better understand related environmental conditions, antecedents, reinforcement contingencies, and cognitions and outline specific steps for change. Specific treatment topics typically address meal planning, normalization of meal pattern, behavioral strategies to avoid triggers for binge eating and purging, cognitive restructuring, body image concerns, and prevention of relapse. The participant usually is responsible for maintaining his or her own motivation and adherence to the program protocol.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The research to date suggests that self-help approaches for women with eating disorders and those at risk for developing an eating disorder are widely used, feasible to deliver, and effective. Studies conducted in Europe, Canada, and the United States contribute to the generalizability of findings. However, the majority of studies sampled young, white women and recent research shows that eating disorders and body image issues occur across a broader age range and among more ethically diverse groups than once assumed. As noted earlier, most of the studies evaluating self-help approaches employed structured interventions with assistance from either a professional or lay helper. Consequently, our knowledge of the effectiveness of self-help approaches is best defined in terms of assisted self-help. That said, most studies found improvement rates in the range from 20 to 50 . In particular, there is significant empirical evidence that self-help approaches are effective in the treatment of...

Progesterone derivatives

The exact mechanism of action of these agents remains to be elucidated. It has been postulated that central appetite stimulation effect (probably mediated by NPY) (Engelson et al. 1999 McCarthy et al. 1994), reduction of serotonin and cytokine release (Mantovani et al. 1997, 1998), and a corticosteroid-like effect (Beller et al. 1997), suppressing baseline cortisol levels, suggest an impact on the HPA axis (Oster et al. 1994). MA inhibits secretion of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males and females (Engelson et al. 1999) and reduces testosterone levels (Engelson et al. 1999 Venner et al. 1988). In vitro studies have identified that MA enhances the differentiation of pre-adipocyte mouse fibroblasts to adipocytes (Engelson et al. 1999) which suggests that MA increases not only cell size, but also cell number (Neuenschwander and Bruera 1998). Data are contradictory on the possible down-regulation of IL-6 levels by MA (Mantovani 2002 Jatoi et al. 2002). The effect of these...

L Psychosocial Aspects of Overweight and Obesity

A number of reviews have been published on the psychosocial aspects of obesity. 124-128 183 The specific topics that will be reviewed here include social stigmatization, psychopathology, binge eating, and body image perceptions. Body Image Body image is defined as the perception of one's own body size and appearance and the emotional response to this perception. 183,244 Inaccurate perception of body size or proportion and negative emotional reactions to size perceptions contribute to poor body image. Obese individuals, People at greater risk for a poor body image are binge eaters, women, those who were obese dur ing adolescence or with early onset of obesity, and those with emotional disturbances. 127, 235 244 250-253 It is no surprise, then, that in some groups of obese persons, these individuals are more dissatisfied and preoccupied with their physical appearance, and avoid more social situations due to their appearance. 254, 255 Body image dissatisfaction and the desire to improve...

Internationalcultural Perspectives On Quality Of Life

It was reported that the Chinese women felt that the cause of these types of cancers, similar to other sexual disorders, was a result of an imbalance of the Yin and Yang elements due to excessive sexual activity that has, in turn, weakened the female body.32 Other factors, such as education level,the patriarchal family structure, and the submissive role of women within the culture were also thought to influence beliefs about cancer.33 These factors were found in another study of 62 long-term gynecological cancer survivors where it was demonstrated that many of the women felt guilty for not being able to meet their husband's sexual needs and felt the disharmony in their sex lives.34 The Chinese women in this study defined quality of life as having mobility, accepting one's outlook, social support, and being able to eat. This focus on practical functional matters follows from the tendency that the breast in Asian cultures does not hold the same meaning on...

Acute Pcp Intoxication

Mescaline, and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD). Users typically report a feeling of dissociation from the environment and abnormal body sensations and body image. The perceptual distortions often cause things to appear far away or abnormal in size. Compared to LSD, the effects of PCP are not very PSYCHEDELIC.

Psychological Morbidity

With social support and poor body image. In both anxiety and depression, the most important predictive factor is self-efficacy, patients' belief that they can achieve a specific behavior or control a specific symptom. This measure may indicate either less predictability of symptoms in those patients or difficulty coping with similar levels of symptoms experienced by other patients. Self-management courses, with specific techniques being learned and practiced, not only improve self-efficacy but also benefit adult patients' health outcomes (51). Similar studies have yet to be conducted in adolescent populations.

Professionally Assisted Self Help Treatment for Bulimia Nervosa

A number of studies evaluated professionally assisted self-help treatments for BN. The earliest study of combined bibliotherapy and support intervention for women with BN was completed by Huon in 1985. This study evaluated three versions of a self-administered intervention that included seven monthly readings containing information and specific suggestions about food, body image, self-concept and emotional support. The first version received information alone, the second received support from a woman with BN who was improved, and the final version received support from a woman with BN who was cured. Women were randomly assigned to one of the three interventions and an additional 30 women agreed to be in a comparison group. For the entire sample, 19 of subjects were abstinent at the end of the 7-month treatment, and an additional 68 were improved at 6-month follow-up, abstinence rates increased to 32 . Those who received both the mailing and either form of contact were most successful.

Methods of Measuring Body Composition

Almost everyone has some small degree of distorted body image. You seldom see changes in your own physique as readily as others do. That's why you need an objective, accurate and scientific method of measuring your progress. There are at least a dozen methods of body composition testing. The various experts will probably debate forever over which one is the best. After weighing the pros and cons of each method, you'll undoubtedly conclude that for your purposes - tracking personal weekly progress -skinfold testing is the easiest and most practical method.

Trisha M Karr Heather Simonich and Stephen A Wonderlich

Childhood emotional abuse is infrequently reported and consequently prevalence rates are difficult to estimate. Nevertheless, some studies have shown that 15-20 per cent of adults in the general community report experiencing some form of CEA (Baker and Maiorino 2010). Several factors may contribute to the likelihood that this type of abuse goes unreported. First, it is difficult to determine what meets the threshold of emotional abuse and therefore mandated reporters may be reluctant to make a report to social services. Additionally, childhood emotional abuse is similar to childhood neglect in that the effects are often minimized. Finally, other forms of abuse that commonly co-occur (e.g., CPA) and are often thought to be more damaging, may overshadow CEA. However, researchers have found strong associations between CEA and numerous psychological problems in adulthood including eating disorders and body image disturbance (Allison et al. 2007 Brewerton 2007 Grilo and Masheb 2001...

Chronic Illness And Friendship

Various authors have studied the significance of peer relationships in the context of chronic illness during adolescence. Friends of adolescents with chronic illnesses are often younger and nondisabled (8). Wolman et al. (9) reported that 32 of the variance in the emotional well-being of adolescents with chronic condition was explained by concern about peer relationships along with body image and family connectedness. When data of young people with visible versus invisible conditions were compared, there was no difference (9).

Dieting and Eating Disorders

11 is easy for anyone who has been exposed to mass and popular culture in the U.S.A. in the past twenty years to believe that dieting is an exclusively female activity and that eating disorders only affect woman. Advertisements for weight-loss companies such as Weight Watchers and Jenny Craig primarily feature women, and young women have also been, until recently, the primary focus of discussions about anorexia and bulimia. Since the 1990s, however, diet companies, doctors, and the media have discovered that men deal with body-image problems and struggle with overweight and disordered eating as well. While men have actually been dieting and struggling with eating disorders for centuries, an increasing number of popular and professional publications in the past fif Similarly, the early contemporary literature on men and dieting tended to reinforce the idea that men diet for objective reasons, like health and performance, have more realistic body images, and are not vulnerable to the...

Sexual and Reproductive Health

There is an increased risk (at least 3.4 ) of premature ovarian failure in women with JIA compared to the general population (53). There are significant implications for women with JIA in terms of when they should consider starting a family, as delay may put them at risk of infertility. Early loss of ovarian function has both significant physical sequelae (amenor-rhoea, breast atrophy, mucosal dryness, fatigue, and loss of libido) and psychosocial sequelae (exclusion from motherhood, loss of self-esteem, and poor body image). It also has major health implications, with a nearly two-fold, age-specific increase in mortality rate (54). Sexuality includes the adoption of certain gender roles (55). Society's definition of masculinity traditionally identifies the male as strong, practical, and the main bread winner in a family. The corresponding role for a woman traditionally identifies her as a wife, homemaker, attentive mother, and, more recently, an income provider. Arthritis may...

Anja Hilbert and Andrea S Hartmann

Definition of body image disturbance The term body image is often used ambiguously. Head (Head and Holmes 1911) and Schilder (1923) first described body image as a somatosensory representation of one's own body and a mental image that one has about oneself, constructed by perceptual impressions. These early definitions already show that body image is a construct that cannot directly be observed, involving difficulties in operationalization. Currently, body image is defined in a multidimensional way (Rosen 1990 Thompson 1990). Figure 7.1 illustrates the components of a disturbed body image. Regarding the cognitive-emotional component, people with body image disturbance are dissatisfied with their body and are overly concerned with their weight and shape. The feelings about weight and shape may even determine their self-esteem. Perceptually, they also overestimate their body size. Additionally, body image disturbance involves behaviors like body checking, e.g., pinching themselves and...

Potential Nutrition Related Problems

Adolescents tend to be very conscious of appearances and may feel pressure to be thin or to look a certain way. Fear of gaining weight may lead to overly restrictive eating habits. Some teens resort to self-induced vomiting or laxative use to control their weight. Both boys and girls are affected by eating disorders. Teens who suspect they have a problem with body image or eating habits should talk to a trusted adult.

Food and Nutrient Intakes of College Students

To body image dissatisfaction females that are underweight, as measured by their body mass index (BMI), sometimes consider themselves to be overweight. The incidence of anorexia and bulimia may increase when there is excessive preoccupation with weight, academic achievement, body image, and eating, as well as during stressful periods, such as final exams.

Self Help Therapies for Eating Disorders

Eating disorders, including subclinical disorders and disordered eating, are common psychiatric problems in women (Fairburn, Cooper, Doll, Norman, & O'Connor, 2000 Lewinsohn, Streigel-Moore, & Seeley, 2000). For example, between 1 and 2 of the young adult female population suffers from full syndrome bulimia nervosa (BN Fairburn & Beglin, 1990 Kjelsas, Bjornstrom, & Gotestam, 2004) and, depending on the diagnostic criteria used, between 1 and 14 meet criteria for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) or subclinical eating disorders (Fairburn & Beglin, 1990 Kjelsas, Bjornstrom, & Gotestam, 2004). Excessive weight concerns, body image dissatisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors are common among female college students, and although they may not meet strict diagnostic criteria, they result in clinically significant distress and impairment in multiple areas of functioning (Bushnell, Wells, Hornblow, Oakley-Brown, & Joyce, 1990 Drewnowski, Yee, Kurth, & Krahn, 1994).

Preventing Eating Disorders

Self-help interventions also have been applied to the prevention of eating disorders primarily with female adolescents and young adults. A number of studies evaluated these interventions using individual and group formats (Kaminski & McNamara, 1996 Zabinski, Wilfley, Calfas, Winzelberg, & Taylor, 2004 Zabinski, Wilfley et al., 2001). An exemplar of prevention programs can be seen in the work developed at the Stanford University Behavioral Medicine Media Laboratory. Named Student Bodies, the program targets young women with weight and shape concerns, as well as unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors. Student Bodies has three central components and is divided into eight sessions. The components are psychoeducational readings, an Internet-based body image journal, and a moderated asynchronous electronic discussion group. The readings were selected to educate women about body image, healthy dietary and physical activity practices, and eating disorders. The body image journal allows...

Relationships with interpersonal factors in IBD

Sources of anxiety in IBD patients include concern about surgery, lethargy, perceptions of body-image and hygiene. These concerns may have a significant influence on an individual's psychological health. Patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have different worries. Crohn's disease patients appear more concerned with the impact of their disease upon lifestyle, whereas ulcerative colitis patients more commonly report fears of cancer.

Management of colorectal cancer

The nurse who has charge of stoma patients has a responsibility for their nursing care in the immediate pre- and post-operative period, to help them adjust to their new situation and to overcome potential psychological problems, such as difficulties with body-image, as well as providing emotional support, encouragement and advice which may be required. Such patients require conscientious stoma nursing care, with priority given to protecting the skin and to controlling odour and faecal drainage.

Psychotherapy and Weight Change

Psychotherapy has regularly been used in conjunction with exercise and dieting to help with weight loss. Certain forms of psychotherapy, such as behavioral therapy have been more recently employed in order to facilitate weight loss. Indeed body image treatment through cognitive behavioral therapy has become commonplace in the self-treatment of both over- and underweight individuals since the development of Jonathan Butters and Thomas Cash's approach in the mid-1980s (Butters and Cash 1987). Cash's audiotape program Body-Image Therapy A Program for Self-Directed Change, while aimed at mental-health practitioners, set the stage for self-treatment for women who desired to change their own negative body image. Other nonclinical settings like weight-loss support groups also use a psychotherapeutic model to enable the loss of weight (Jeffery et al. 1998). Experts suggest that behavioral therapy is a good non-surgical alternative when it comes to weight loss the results, however, are not...

Early Effects Of The Diagnosis And Initial Treatment On

Also with regard to breast cancer, most studies indicate that the major difference between breast sparing surgery and a mastectomy are found in body image with poorer body image being associated with mastectomy.31 In our study of breast cancer survivors we also found that among those who had a mastectomy, women who chose

Accounts Of Survivors With Advanced Cancer

The review focused specifically on those who had an awareness of impending death which makes it relevant to this chapter. The authors concluded that the reasons for these narratives include the need to make sense oftraumatic events surrounding a diagnosis of potentially terminal disease, subsequent treatment, facing death as the illness progresses together with the encroaching disability and debility, as well as charting the changes in relationships with loved ones, oneself and one's body image. Narrators express the wish to restore everything back to normal, they describe the chaos associated with death and dying, and they explore the quest for meaning that may be found in the experience of serious illness and facing death. There is a clear need for creating and renewing different constructions of self through the illness narrative and to ensure a continuity of self after death. 62 An analysis of a professional writer's account of his oral cancer is presented in Textbox 2. This area...

Directions For Future Research

Treatment choices and their impact over time Especially in the case of breast and prostate cancer, treatment choices must be made at the outset. As indicated earlier, there are clear differences in body image between mastectomy and breast sparing surgery31 while mortality is the same. There are also differences in physical side-effects for treatment choices that men diagnosed with prostate cancer must make. Given the information on treatment options and the long-term QOL, how much are these men and women participating in choices about the treatments that they receive what kind of choices would informed patients make In some of our ongoing research, congruence between the desires for participation and actual participation results in different treatment choices and also affects QOL.96 Clearly, this question is only beginning to be studied in breast cancer and further research is needed, not only for breast cancer treatment decision-making, but also for prostate cancer treatment...

Treatment Related Factors

The development of a positive self-concept and body image in adolescents with chronic rheumatic diseases is challenged by the experience of side effects of the medications. NSAIDs and DMARDs are associated with a number of adverse effects, of which gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dyspepsia) are most common. Pseudoporphyria or linear facial scarring was estimated to affect 11 of children taking chronic NSAIDs (68). Hepatotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, lung disease, rash, fever may also occur (21). The cosmetic side effects may be particularly


Most eating-disorder research focuses on females, who represent 90 percent of all cases. The additional 10 percent are males, a group that is often underdiagnosed due a widespread misperception that this disease only affects females. This belief also makes males less likely to seek treatment, frequently resulting in poor recovery. Among males, body image is a driving factor in the development of eating problems. Gender identity may also play a role in the evolution of eating disorders, with homosexual males more prone to this disorder than the overall male population.


Factors associated with greater prevalence of depression include a higher level of physical disability, advanced disease stage, and the presence of pain.12 Also, higher rates of depression have been associated with the side effects of medications and treatment for cancer. Chemotherapy and oncological surgical procedures are a source of possible iatrogenically-induced depression in cancer patients because of their negative side effects that may include body image disturbances and physical symptoms.13 For example, it has been estimated that 40 to 60 of patients' emotional distress is directly attributable to the cancer treatment itself.14

Cosmetic Problems

Psychological problems Some overweight obese children maintain high self-esteem and have little concern about their body image. These children may excel in sports in which their excess weight and tall stature are advantageous. However, many obese and overweight children have low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with their body image, and difficulty with peer relationships. Often, they underachieve at school. For some obese children, psychological problems antedate the obesity. Low self-esteem and difficulty with peer relationships have led to withdrawal, inactivity, and seeking solace in food. For other obese children, however, obesity is the prime cause of their psychological problems. Studies using silhouettes of figures with different body builds show that most children perceive obese silhouettes very negatively, prefering those portrayed by slimmer figures as friends.

Chevese Turner

Weight stigma is not an issue that is exclusive to those who are obese. It is impossible to talk about body image or esteem issues and not talk about weight stigma. People all along the spectrum of eating disorders are fearful of living in a larger body. A percentage of those with BED are not only afraid, but actually realize the severe disapproval of others based on the characteristic of size. A


Psychopathophysiology Bulimia Nervosa

The description of body image disturbance that is central to both anorexia and bulimia nervosa has undergone revision. A distinction has been argued for between dissatisfaction with body shape and overvalued ideas about weight and shape. Although body shape dissatisfactions are commonly found in these patients, it is their overvalued ideas about weight and shape that are the necessary diagnostic feature. In other words, concern should go beyond simply feeling fat to a point where a person's life is dominated by their feelings about body weight and shape.

Lynn Grefe

So, what are we left with in moving forward In the United States at least, we are subjected to far-reaching, misguided anti-obesity campaigns, which are targeted to shame children and their parents into losing weight obesity prevention efforts that often do more harm than good millions of children and adults with low self-esteem and negative body image and nationally reported cost projections that state if nothing is done about the prevalence of obesity-related health problems one third of our population will suffer from diabetes by the year 2050. Meanwhile millions of people who suffer from a bona fide mental illness, such as BED or another eating disorder, some of whom may or may not be obese, or struggle with weight challenges, are lumped in with non-BED people who are obese.


Individuals with eating disorders are obsessed with food, body image, and weight loss. They may have severely limited food choices, employ bizarre eating rituals, excessively drink fluids and chew gum, and avoid eating with others. Depending on the severity and duration of their illness, they may display physical symptoms such as weight loss amenorrhea loss of interest in sex low blood pressure depressed body temperature chronic, unexplained vomiting and the growth of soft, fine hair on the body and face.


Because bodybuilding is a sport in which weight must be controlled, it is considered a high risk sport for developing an eating disorder. In addition, the bodybuilding community centers on body image, which can also make bodybuilders more vulnerable to eating disorders. A new study by Amanda Gruber found that female bodybuilders are more likely to suffer from eating disorders and distorted body images than other females. Many male and female bodybuilders have a disorder known as the eating disorder bodybuilder type (ED BT), which involves a diet high in protein, calories and low in fat. They also suffer from muscle dysmorphia, a disorder in which they view themselves differently, generally smaller than they really are. Many male athletes, especially bodybuilders, believe that they have smaller muscle mass than they actually do. It is estimated that 10 percent of men in any intense gym setting have muscle dysmorphia. body image. Bodybuilders, as well as other athletes, tend to use...

Contextual Models

A study by Brooks-Gunn and Warren (1985) illustrates how effects of puberty are mediated by social context. The study examined effects of menarcheal timing in a sample of ballet dancer and nondancer girls aged 14 to 18. Girls who were 1.2 years earlier or later than the mean menarcheal age of 12.6 to 12.8 years for American White adolescents (Damon, Damon, Reed, & Valadian, 1969) were classified as early or late maturers. In the nondance school sample, 11 of the girls were early, 59 were on time, and 57 were late. In contrast, 6 of the dance students were early, 38 on time, and 57 late. Another difference between groups was that dancers weighed less and were leaner than nondancers, and dancers expressed more concern about their weight. Since so few dancers were early, only on-time and late maturers were compared across social context. On-time dancers had higher psychopathology, perfection, and bulimia scores and lower body image scores than the late maturing dancers while these...


Sports involving judging are also particularly dangerous because their goal is not to reach specific weight requirements but to achieve a certain appearance. Since the focus is already on appearance, it is a very small leap to the development of a distorted body image (Brownell et al. 1992). Sports in this category include gymnastics, figure skating, dance, and diving (Vincent 1989). These activities also tend to draw young women from the age group that is already supposedly at the highest risk for the development of distorted body images and or eating disorders (Byrne 2002 256-9). When this high-risk There are countless horror stories about anorexic dancers and wrestlers passing out from dehydration while trying to make weight, but it is important to realize that these cases are the exception, not the rule. In most cases, sports are extremely beneficial to a person's health. When approached in a healthy way, athletics can dramatically raise self-confidence and improve body image....

About the Editors

Patti Lou Watkins, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Women Studies Program at Oregon State University. Her background is in psychology, having obtained her bachelor's degree from West Virginia University, her master's degree in applied behavioral analysis from the University of the Pacific, and her doctoral degree in clinical psychology from Virginia Tech. There, she began her collaboration with her former professor and current coeditor, George Clum, evaluating interventions for panic disorder. Dr. Watkins's areas of interest revolved around adult stress and anxiety disorders, which she pursued during her internship at the University of Mississippi Medical Center Jackson VAMC and her NHLBI postdoctoral fellowship at Washington University Medical Center in St. Louis. In her research, Dr. Watkins was attentive to gender issues, noting differential manifestations of Type A behavior and differential experiences when seeking professional help for anxiety disorders. She was initially...


Children seem to be in a precarious position in the contemporary global dieting culture. Threatened with rising rates of obesity and related diseases (Wilfley and Saelens 2002), young people, from toddlers to teens, must wrestle with body image in a culture that worships slender-ness. Much is being done in schools and homes to reduce obesity numbers in children (Goldfield and Epstein 1995 573-7) however, the preoccupation with preventing overweight may distract parents and doctors from the equally important problems of body-image disturbance and dieting behaviors in children and adolescents. In addition, interviews with eight-year-old girls have revealed a concern about weight gain and a desire to be thin, while similar interviews with five-year-old boys revealed that they were aware of body size and desired a muscular body type (Grogan 1999 119-20 Harris 1997 15). Finally, studies reveal that even second-grade boys and girls report preoccupation with food and dieting (Cherene et al....

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are characterized by disturbances in eating behavior and an overconcern with body image or size. Although eating disorders are classified into two discrete diagnostic categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), many symptoms overlap. The principal diagnostic distinction is based on ideal body weight. When abnormal eating behavior causes body weight to fall below a defined percentage of expected body weight, a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is made. If ideal body weight is maintained in the presence of abnormal eating behaviors, a diagnosis of bulimia nervosa is made. Eating disorders likely lie along a continuum of disturbances in eating behavior and often are associated with mood disorders and other psychiatric illnesses (Table 6-1). Anorexia nervosa is a severe eating disorder characterized by low body weight. Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when a person's body weight falls below 85 of the ideal weight for that...


T he medicalization of disorders of eating begins in the seventeenth century. The Christian tradition of self-abnegation meant that fasting became a common form of religious practice in the Middle Ages with spiritual rather than pathological implications (Ove 2002). In the course of the nineteenth century, self-imposed starvation came to be a syndrome clearly delineated by physical signs and symptoms and which was understood to have a psycho-genic origin. This idea that food had a special status was uncontested. Some theoreticians saw the manipulation of the middle-class family by their daughters as the place where rebellion could most meaningfully take place (Brumberg 1988). Yet anorexia nervosa, a name coined by William Gull in 1868, was still a rare and therefore clinically fascinating aberration. In the 1920s, the view of Morris Simmonds dominated Anorexia was the result of a lesion of the pituitary gland. This endocrinological definition of radical thinness fitted well with the...

Anorexia Nervosa

A clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa necessitates body weight less than 85 percent of average for weight and height. Subtypes of this disorder include the binge eating purging type (bingeing and purging are present) or the restricting type (bingeing and purging are absent). see also Addiction, Food Body Image Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders Eating Disturbances.


Although there are undoubtedly some inter- and intrapopulation variations in the genetic predisposition to become overweight or obese, several lines of evidence suggest that genetic factors alone cannot explain the demographic and ethnic variations in overweight and obesity prevalence. For example, there is a difference in obesity prevalence among low- and high-income white women in industrialized societies. 323,324 Other studies of populations, including migration studies, have shown an increase in average body weight in those who move from a traditional to a Westernized environment. 325-328 Culturally determined attitudes about food, physical activity, and factors that vary with income, education, and occupation may increase the level of difficulty in weight management. Body image concerns and other motivations for


Phencyclidine (PCP) is the chief member of a unique category of drugs classified as W-methyl-d-aspartate agonist inhibitors that have high abuse potential and severe neurotoxicity at high doses (Zukin and Javitt, 1989). PCP causes pathological changes in the CNS which ultimately result in behavioral and psychological alterations. The resemblance of PCP psychosis to schizophrenia has led to extensive research on abnormalities of PCP receptors in schizophrenic patients. Administration of the drug can induce a full schizophrenic-like syndrome, characterized by alterations in body image, apathy, negativism, and disorganized thinking (Rainey and Crowder, 1975). A psychotic state is often observed after extremely low doses of PCP, although it does not appear to cause significant long lasting brain toxicity (Brust, 1993). Decreased frontal lobe metabolism, a finding often reported in schizophrenia, has been reported in subjects who have taken PCP (Olney et al., 1989). Although the drug has...

Life During Wartime

IN THE COURSE of writing this book I interviewed more than four hundred people about aspects of their relationship to food, fat, dieting, body image, and our culture's obsession with these topics. The scope of the interviews ranged from fairly limited question-and-answer e-mail exchanges, to in-person conversations that lasted several hours. I have talked to, among others, very fat people, very thin people, thin people who think they are fat, people who would be considered thin in most other cultures but are labeled overweight in this one, people who are always trying to lose 10 pounds, people who have lost and gained back hundreds of pounds, people who have lost weight and kept it off, and people who have given up trying to lose weight at all. running-inspired eating-disordered behavior, for me running was almost always a source of health. It forced me to eat enough to have muscles to run. It disciplined me not to binge and then purge when I was in competition. On the negative side,...

About men

Making Weight (Anderson, Cohn & Holbrook, Gurze Books) - this book is written by three of the leading experts on eating disorders in males in the US. It describes the explosion in the numbers of men with eating disorders, body image conflicts, compulsive exercise and obesity. This book examines why men have become affected by such issues and what to do about it.

Future perspectives

CACS requires a multidisciplinary management approach. Changes in body image impact dramatically on emotional well-being, as well as a patient's QOL. Psychological and behavioural interventions must be an integral part of the management of this syndrome. As discussed in this chapter, CRF probably shares common pathophysiological pathways with cancer cachexia. In recent years knowledge of basic biology in this area has greatly increased. But it is necessary also to extrapolate this knowledge into clinical research in rational, controlled, randomized clinical studies (see Box 4.1).

Self Help

Self-help diet books like those by Powter and Simmons almost invariably contrast the disorderly, overweight person (before) with the successful and happy person (after) who has gained self-control by learning to flip the switch or stop the insanity. Jim Karas, for example, speaks to his imagined readers about their dieting history, which he suggests has been a disordered mess of yo-yo diets and disappointments. About their body image and motivation to lose weight, he assumes, Right now, you are probably comfortable not believing in your ability to flip successfully complete the program . You are, however, unhappy with your weight. He immediately follows his comment about body image with, Holding this book in your hands indicates that you have a desire to change (Karas 2002 10). Buying Karas's book, it seems, it the first step in real and lasting weight loss, and he assures his readers that following the written exercises and visualization techniques in his book will pave the way to...

Middle Childhood

During and just before a growth spurt, a child's appetite and food intake will increase. The percentage of body fat in older school-age children increases in preparation for the growth spurt during adolescence. Parents should be aware that a child's body image becomes very important at this time. The increased fat mass that naturally occurs during these periods, particularly among girls, can be alarming unless the family realizes that this is normal development. Some preadolescent children may become concerned that they are overweight and may begin to eat less, therefore compromising their normal growth and development. It can also lay the foundation for future psychological issues, such as eating disorders.

Systemic Therapy

Among breast cancer survivors, sexual dysfunction appears to be more closely related to receipt of chemotherapy56,57 than the body image concerns resultant from mastectomy58 or tamoxifen effects,59 although all may play a role.60 Many of these symptoms improve with prolonged (i.e., 5 years) follow-up.61

Couples and Intimacy

There are many reasons that emotional and physical intimacy may be affected by cancer and its treatment. For example, cancer can lead to embarrassment about an altered body image due to loss of a body part (a breast, a testicle, or an extremity) or disfigurement (as in head and neck cancers) or weight gain or loss changing roles of the partners, so that one becomes more of a caretaker or depression or other emo

Social Functioning

Adolescence is also a time of social change when a young person has to establish self-identity and relationships outside the family (see Chapters 2 and 5) . Body image is important to all adolescents (36,37) and may be detrimentally affected in JIA. Generalized growth failure and pubertal retardation (38) are seen in severe JIA. Some local growth anomalies (e.g., a short digit) are often mild but may cause concern to the patient, while other anomalies, such as micrognathia, can profoundly change facial appearance. Drug therapy in JIA may also have detrimental effects. Oral corticosteroids alter the distribution of fat stores and can change skin appearance with acne, striae and hirsuitism. Chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide may cause

Fonda Jane 1937

Academy Award-winning actress, Jane Fonda, nicknamed Hanoi Jane in the 1970s for her controversial anti-war activism, has also battled a variety of body-image related issues in private. She came out about her struggles with bulimia and binge-eating in her 1981 book Jane Fonda's Workout Book. In publicizing it, she critiques the thin is better, blonde is beautiful and buxom is best feminine beauty ideal and recommends a series of exercises and dietary measures to forge strong healthy bodies that are also esthetically pleasing. In addition to her workout book, she was at the forefront of the exercise-video craze of the 1980s, a phenomenon that allowed people to experience celebrity workouts from their own homes. The ability to see celebrities undertake a program of exercise created a new commodity that