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A 17-year-old woman comes to your office worried that she might become schizophrenic. She hasn't had any symptoms, but she says that some of her family members are schizophrenic. What would be important historical information to assess her risk?

How closely related she is to those family members with schizophrenia. The more genetically similar to them she is, the higher her risk is.

A 41-year-old Down syndrome patient has had a gradual deterioration in cognitive functioning. Lately, she has been unable to remember her home address, and her daughter has noticed that she has difficulty remembering names of people she has known throughout the duration of her life. Her primary care physician diagnoses her with Alzheimer disease. Which chromosome has been implicated in Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome patients?

Chromosome 21

Four times more prevalent

Male offspring <20 years of age

A 19-year-old male is brought to the emergency room by his college roommate for delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech that has occurred for the last 7 months. The roommate is concerned that the patient may have schizophrenia. The patient's father was diagnosed with schizophrenia at age 22. Not taking into account these new symptoms, what is the lifetime likelihood of this patient developing schizophrenia?

The patient is a first-degree relative of an affected individual—he therefore has a 10% chance of developing schizophrenia.

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