Improve your Baseball Swing
Major league baseball in Toronto suffered, too. WHO's warning came just as the Toronto Blue Jays' season was getting underway, and league officials were hesitant to allow the season to go on as scheduled. Many teams who were supposed to travel to Toronto to play baseball were nervous when baseball league officials Although baseball officials agreed that most likely the chance of a player catching SARS in Toronto was small, they maintained it was important for players to be careful. One player agreed, saying that as long as people were still contracting SARS, it made sense for players to be cautious. I think right now we have to back off a little bit, he said, and make sure everybody stays safe until they find out what's going on. I think fans should understand what's going on, because people are dying from this thing. It's not like people are just sick. People have died. 75
Baseball is a sport enjoyed by young people as well as adult players. The act of throwing requires maximally accelerating and decelerating the arm within a short period of time. According to research of baseball injuries over a 3-year period among college baseball teams, 58 of the injuries were to the upper extremity, 27 to the lower extremity, and 15 to the trunk and back.18 The shoulder and elbow are the joints most vulnerable to injury in baseball players as a result of the high forces and torques, extremes of range of motion, and repetitions of throwing motion that they experience. Regular de-stressing treatment, in addition to other procedures such as strengthening and conditioning training, are recommended.
Aspects of reasoning are essentially serial. Whenever possible, human cognition is accelerated by employing our inherently slow hardware in parallel processing. Unfortunately, much of reasoning cannot be done in parallel, so human cognition includes many nonratiocinative processes that also issue in beliefs and actions. For instance, a human being does not have to pull out a pocket calculator and compute trajectories in order to catch a baseball or get out of the way of a bus. We have a built-in mechanism that allows us to estimate such trajectories very quickly. Such nonratiocinative processes have sometimes been called quick and dirty , but that is a misnomer because they need not be at all dirty. For example, our built-in procedures for computing trajectories are incredibly accurate. Their shortcoming is not inaccuracy but inflexibility. They achieve their speed by building in assumptions about the environment, and when those assumptions fail, the processes may yield wildly...
Many children with ADHD are not socially accepted because they have poor skills in playing various games sports. It helps to involve them in as many opportunities as possible to build their skills and competencies so that peers will want to include them in their play and sport activities. As Dr. Pelham points out, in their renown summer treatment programs for children with ADHD, there is a major focus on teaching sports skills to the children. If you teach a child to be a better baseball player, and therefore make him more popular among children in the neighborhood, he'll be a better baseball player forever. Medication will help him pay attention when he's playing baseball, but it won't teach him to catch, throw, and hit. That's an example of where a child might have an attention problem and a skills deficit, and both forms of treatment might be helpful (Pelham, 2002).
In 1977, Otto had been coaching little-league baseball and youth hockey and was uninformed on the youth drug culture. After four of his players changed in attitute and ability, he discovered the cause MARIJUANA. The Moultons began learning about the health effects of marijuana, which was not an easy task. PRIDE and The American Council on Marijuana provided research reports and, armed with facts, the Moultons shared them in their local communities, alerting parents and students to marijuana's effects.
Casinos) and posting notices of the availability of help, usually in the form of a toll-free helpline number. The government has made almost no effort to educate youth or the general public about risk factors for pathological gambling and its dangers, in spite of the high prevalence of gambling problems among adolescents. Although children of problem gamblers and alcoholics are known to be at higher risk than others, they have not been the target of organized prevention programs. Since the 1980s, makers of trading cards (e.g., baseball or basketball cards) have begun to insert valuable so-called chase cards at random into the packets of cards at pre-determined rates (e.g., one special card per 700 cards), to stimulate interest in purchasing the product. Because this is similar to a lottery, there has been concern about its immediate and future effects on the children who buy these packets in hopes of finding the valuable cards.
While Ann was married, she became involved with a lesbian softball team (i.e., different friends) in an adjacent town. It was through this team that Ann met acquaintances and began participating in lesbian affairs. During this period, frequent partying involved various drugs and alcohol. Ann felt that her alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use had escalated and become problematic. During this time period, Ann was arrested for DWI (driving while intoxicated) and assault she spent the night in jail. In an attempt to establish some normalcy, Ann moved to Pennsylvania, where she enrolled in a junior college and completed an associates in arts degree, with a major in social services over a 3-year period. The extended time was because Ann worked at the college while attending classes.
The duration and extent of repetitive load raise wear-related concerns after THR. These discussions involve questioning whether a patient can or should do an activity. A common concern centers on running after THR. A patient is able to run in times of need, and is not limited from running short distances infrequently, as in softball or tennis however, the repetitive joint reactive forces resulting from jogging raise appropriate concern for the durability of the prosthesis. The bearing surface is prematurely stressed, with repetitive loading up to five times body weight caused by each heel strike 9 . Cardiovascular fitness can be maintained instead with alternative low-impact, closed-chain exercises. Because the joint loads are reduced, patients are encouraged to achieve an aerobic workout with power walking, biking, swimming, the stair climber, and elliptical machines.
Which would be the equivalent of hitting a home run in a baseball game or a six in cricket. Rather, small scientific gains (like base hits or ones) can be meaningfully used within a clinical setting. The purpose of this section is to discuss ways that the clinician can introduce current knowledge of BED genetics into his or her work with patients and their families in order to enhance the therapeutic process and to help provide explanatory models to patients and their families that incorporate biology.
I n 2004, Forbes magazine reported that the thirty-two teams in the National Football League had an operating income of 851 million dollars on revenue of 5.3 billion dollars. As a result, players on professional sports teams are making millions. In 2003, the average salary for a Major League Baseball player was 2,555,476 dollars, amazingly high but not even the highest in professional sports. Players in the National Basketball Association in 2003 brought in an average of 4.5 million dollars a year. This is big-time money, and the players in these leagues are big-time athletes who work hard to keep their bodies at the peak of physical performance. Many times, players do more than just eat right and exercise to stay physically competitive they look for alternative means to enhance performance. Most often, these alternatives come in the form of supplements ranging from simple protein shakes to manufactured hormones. However, it is not just these professional athletes using hormone...
Consider the many words that baseball players have invented over the years for different kinds of pitches. There are fast balls, curve balls, sliders, knuckle balls, and so on. Words for all these types of pitches have been invented, and have been found useful by others, so they have become encoded within the baseball lexicon. By analogy, the dif ferences among people that have been especially important in navigating the social environment have been noticed, have been talked about, and have become part of the natural language (Goldber g, 1981).
The antisocial person shows a general disregard for others and cares very little about the rights, feelings, or happiness of other people. The antisocial person has also been referred to as a sociopath or a psychopath (Zuckerman, 1991). Adults with this disorder typically had a childhood that was fraught with behavioral problems. Such early childhood behavioral problems generally take the form of violating the rights of others (such as minor thefts) and breaking age-related social norms (such as smoking at an early age or fighting with other children). Other common childhood behaviora problems include behaving aggressively or cruelly toward animals, threatening and intimidating younger children, destroying property , lying, and breaking rules. Behavioral problems in childhood are often first noticed in school, but such children als come to the attention of the police and truant of ficers. Sometimes even very youn children, during an argument with another child, use a weapon that can...
Atraumatic instability can occur due to overuse or repetitive motion. This is a common complaint in athletes who participate in sports involving repetitive hip rotation with axial loading (ie, figure skating, gold, football, baseball, martial arts, ballet, gymnastics, and so forth). The history provides the greatest clues to the diagnosis because patients can usually describe the motion that causes the pain such as swinging a golf club during a drive or throwing a football toward the sideline. These repetitive stresses may directly injure the iliofemoral ligament or labrum and alter the balance of forces in the hip. These abnormal forces cause increased tension in the joint joint capsule, which can lead to capsular redundancy, painful labral injury, and subsequent microinstability. On physical examination, patients will usually experience anterior hip pain while in the prone position with passive hip extension and external rotation 1,7 .
In Bandura's theory, one of the most important concepts is that of self-efficac , which refers to the belief that one can execute a specific course of action to achieve goal. For example, a child learning to bat a baseball may believe she can hit most balls pitched to her. We would say she has high self-ef ficacy beliefs for batting. A child who doubts his hitting ability , on the other hand, has low self-ef ficacy beliefs in this area As it turns out, high self-ef ficacy beliefs often lead to e fort and persistence on tasks, and to setting higher goals, compared to people with low self-ef ficacy beliefs (Bandura 1989). As another example, college students who have higher self-ef ficacy beliefs abou their studies are more persistent in their academic work and perform better in their classes than students with lower self-ef ficacy (Multon, Brown, & Lent, 1991)
When asked for a self-description, young children describe themselves in terms of where they live, their age and gender , what they look like, and what they do. Adolescents, however, describe themselves in terms of their personality characteristics and their beliefs, qualities that produce a picture of the self that is unique. Self-concepts undergo transformations as children age, based mainly on the child' s ability to infer characteristics that underlie their behavior. For example, a young child might say that he likes to play basketball, hockey , or baseball, whereas an older child might say I am an athlete. Adolescents infer from their own behavior the existence of underlying personality traits, abilities, and motives.
Socialization theory, the notion that boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and the media for being masculine, and girls for being feminine, is probably the most widely held theory of sex dif ferences in personality The theory can be summarized as follows Boys are given baseball bats and trucks. Girls are given dolls. Boys are praised for engaging in rough-and-tumble play. Girls are praised for being cute and obedient.
Rehabilitation focuses initially on rest from throwing, pitching, and overhead activity for six weeks to six months. This restriction includes no upper extremity weight bearing or lifting activities, which may continue to injure the affected area. The daily rehabilitation program focuses on flexibility and strengthening of the scapular stabilizers, rotator cuff, and wrist flexors. Core body strengthening is another important focus of rehabilitation as power and control during pitching comes from these muscles and deficits can contribute to injury and reinjury. Occasionally, surgical fixation of the avulsed fragment is necessary. Attention to proper throwing form is imperative when the athlete returns to throwing and pitching. Athletes must complete a throwing program before returning to overhead throwing activity. Prevention of little league elbow should be a primary focus of baseball organizations, coaches, parents, and athletes. Recent studies suggest that some degree of...
Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using ''nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...
(13) The pitcher hurled the baseball to you. (14) You hurled the baseball at the batter. There is nothing different about the intrinsic properties of the baseball in (13) and (14), such as shape or orientation. The only difference between the baseball in (13) and that in (14) is the direction of motion. Although the traditional view would not predict any differences in the mental representations of baseballs formed during comprehension of these two sentences (and may even have trouble explaining it post-hoc in an elegant manner), there is evidence that the direction of motion is incorporated into the representations of the two baseballs, yielding distinct simulations (Zwaan, Madden, Yaxley, & Aveyard, 2004). We will discuss this evidence and other relevant evidence in more detail later. (26) The shortstop hurled the softball at you. (27) You hurled the softball at the shortstop.
Of thought and sensory perception to the control and execution of movement. All physical activities in sports and exercise modify the brain systems, first consciously and then unconsciously. Athletes first learn coordinated motor skills through conscious mental processes and physical repetition. The learned skills are stored in the form of short-term memory. Short-term memory is created by a functional, nonstructural modification in the ability of neurons to signal each other. For example, the neurons representing a group of muscles signal each other, after proper training, with clearer, faster, and stronger communication. Further training transforms this short-term memory into long-term unconscious memory in the synaptic connections of different brain systems. Long-term memory involves an actual structural or anatomic change in the number of signaling sites. Repetitive training causes the ability to perform a particular motor skill to be embedded in the neural circuits that produce...
L5 posterior cutaneous (H22), 120 superior cluneal (H14), 120 T6 posterior cutaneous (H21), 119 T7 spinous process (H20), 118-119 muscles of, 193, 194 average length, 194 , 194i long, 193 i, 194 short, 195 195t Back and spinal injuries, 223-225 back ligament strain, 224 back muscle strain, 223-224 disc herniation, 224 in football players, 243 in swimmers, 249 in tennis players, 250-251 thoracic contusion, 224 vertebral stress fracture, 224-225 Baseball player's injuries, 240-241 other position-specific injuries, 241 throwing injuries, 240-241 Basketball player's injuries, 238-240 Bernard, Claude, 6 Beta (P)-endorphin, 10-11 Biceps brachii muscle strain and bruising, 217 Biceps brachii tendon rupture, 217 Biceps femoris tendinitis, in cyclists, 237 Biceps tendonitis, in baseball players, 240 Safety issues. for specific sport injuries, 234-255 baseball, 240-241 basketball, 238-240 cycling, 236-238 football, 242-243 golf, 241-242 ice hockey, 246-247 other sports, 253 running, 235-236...
The evidence offered by Coren and colleagues for reduced longevity in left handers was of two sorts. First, the mean age of death of consistently left-handed baseball players was slightly younger than that of left-handed players (Halpern & Coren, 1988). The findings were not replicated by Fudin, Renninger, Lembessis, and Hirshon ( 1993) nor by Hicks, Johnson, Cuevas, Deharo, and Bautista (1994) in their own analyses of baseball data (see also Lembessis & Fudin, 1994). Supporting findings have, however, been claimed (Rogerson, 1993).
Brewers and beer distributors spent many millions of dollars sponsoring sporting events, rock concerts, spring break promotions, and other activities heavily oriented to students on college campuses. They were also heavy advertisers and supporters of baseball, football, racing events, and concerts or other cultural events.
As a kid, there wasn't anything I did not do. I ran, played baseball, basketball, football, volleyball, punchball, stickball, tennis, horseback riding, swimming, water skiing, sailing, hiking, you name it, I did it. I taught horseback riding and jumping and was on the team in college. Skiing got me through law school, since I went every other weekend. The funny thing is, I see myself as uncoordinated and gawky, not athletic at all. I love to use my body, but don't see myself as an athlete. It was drilled into my head at a very young age to exercise every day to bring down blood sugar. I was outside running around as a kid, for
In the previous section, we considered how people move through a stationary visual environment. More complex issues are raised when the crucial part of the visual environment is also moving. The example we will consider is that of a fielder at rounders, cricket, or baseball who has to run several metres at high speed to catch a ball. This ability is more surprising than you might imagine. The fielder only has information about the trajectory or flight path of the ball as seen from his or her perspective (this is the optical trajectory), and that trajectory is influenced by various factors such as wind resistance. The theoretical approaches of McLeod and Dienes (1996) and of McBeath et al. (1995) have definite strengths. They show that fielders can make use of some invariant feature of the information potentially available to them to run into the optimal position to catch a ball. However, there are some unresolved issues. First, the research evidence is consistent with the theoretical...
Series of professional athletes who had labral tears from seven different sports demonstrated successful return to preinjury athletic activity after hip arthros-copy 11 . The earliest return to sport was seen with the golfers (average 6 weeks), followed by hockey players and skaters. Baseball and soccer players averaged twelve weeks. Addressing bony abnormalities during arthroscopic intervention for labral tears may require extended protected weight bearing, however, which may potentially prolong return to sport.
Blisters are formed where the skin encounters physical friction. Such friction can be caused by footwear during running or skating or by other sporting apparatus such as that used in gymnastics, baseball, or racket events. Physical friction causes separation of the epidermis from the dermal layer of skin or separation within the multiple layers of the epidermis itself. Serum, lymph, blood, or extracellular fluid fills the space between layers. The fluid in blisters is clear, but bleeding into the blister occasionally occurs and causes red or blue discoloration. The usual complaints are pain, stinging, and sensitivity at the injury site.
In establishing the problem list with Ann, the therapist asked Ann to relate a critical incident to illustrate each of the problem areas (Fusco & Freeman, 2004). This allowed the therapist to gain clarity into each of the problem areas as perceived by Ann. For example, when Ann saw her son playing softball in a local school yard, she wanted to move closer to see him (and, presumably, to have him see her), but she stayed in her car and watched him from a distance. This epitomized Ann's behavior distant and shielded, but still yearning for contact.
Many children with ADHD, due to the core and related symptoms of the disorder, are not successful in baseball, and some other team sports (especially those that require having to wait patiently for their turn to participate). Poor performance in a team sport unfortunately can lead to more ridicule and social rejection for a child with already fragile self-esteem. Children with ADHD often do better in sports such as swimming, track and field, gymnastics, and martial arts.
Injury to ligaments of the wrist is common when the hand is extended to break a fall. Such accidents occur in ice skating, snowboarding, roller skating, cycling, soccer, football, baseball, and volleyball. An athlete with this injury may feel pain, swelling, and burning or tingling sensation, with bruising at the wrist.
Chronic elbow pain in childhood is most often the result of overuse. The bones and ligaments of young children lack the strength to endure the repeated stress associated with throwing hard and other sports-related activities. While the number of innings pitched during games is strictly limited in organized baseball, many parents fail to recognize that too many hard pitches in practice can also cause damage. Symptoms of Little Leaguer's elbow include pain or swelling along the inner aspect of the elbow and difficulty straightening the arm fully. Although X-rays may be normal, children with these complaints should be made to rest and not be allowed to throw until the symptoms have entirely disappeared. Continuing to throw despite elbow pain most likely will lead to long-term disability. Older children in throwing sports such as football and baseball may develop osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow as a result of repeated stress on the bone from overuse. See discussion under Knee Pain.
We've seen how their debate with Mischel led trait psychologists to appreciate that behavior is an outcome of the interaction between personality traits and situations. Another important lesson learned by trait psychologists is the value of aggregation when it comes to measuring personality traits. Aggregation is the process of adding up, or averaging, several single observations, resulting in a better (i.e., more reliable) measure of a personality trait than a single observation of behavior . This approach usually provides psychologists with a better measure of a personality trait than does using a single observation. Consider the concept of batting average, which is seen as a measure of a baseball player' s batting ability (a trait). It turns out that batting average is not a very good predictor of whether or not a player will get a hit during any single time at bat. In fact, psychologist Abelson (1985) analyzed single batting occasions over the whole season. He found that batting...
After each sentence, they saw two pictures each presented briefly and separated by a mask (see Figure 10.3). On critical trials, the depicted object was mentioned in the sentence (e.g., a softball). Crucially, the second picture was either bigger or smaller than the first one, thus suggesting movement toward or away from the viewer. The size changes were very subtle. Subjects judged whether the two pictures were the same. On trials requiring no responses, the two pictures were of different objects (e.g., a basketball and a snowmobile). In other words, the picture-judgment task was extremely easy. Nonetheless, the subjects' responses were influenced by the content of the sentences, exactly as predicted by our construal theory. Picture sequences in which the second ball was bigger than the first were judged significantly faster when the sentence implied movement toward the protagonist (e.g., as in (26)) than when the sentence implied movement away from the protagonist (as in (27)). And...
Sports injuries Football, basketball, baseball, soccer, hockey, gymnastics, and volleyball are the top six sports that cause the most injuries in children. Although these activities help develop muscles and coordination, they can also result in injury, especially in children, whose bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments are still growing. Basketball leads the list of most dangerous sport, with 574,000 injuries reported in 2001, followed closely by football, with 448,200 injuries. Children playing baseball received 252,665 injuries those playing soccer included 227,100 injuries. Hockey, which many consider to be a violent sport, was fifth on the list, with 80,700 injuries, followed by gymnastics at 75,000, and volleyball at 50,100.
Mark McGwire astounded baseball fans when he hit 70 home runs in 1998. But his use of legal performance-enhancing supplements, such as androstenedione, raised tough questions for athletes and trainers. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. Mark McGwire astounded baseball fans when he hit 70 home runs in 1998. But his use of legal performance-enhancing supplements, such as androstenedione, raised tough questions for athletes and trainers. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.
My son had a Port-a-cath for three years, from ages 14 to 17. During that time, he played basketball, football, softball, and threw the shot in track. His port was placed on his left side just below his armpit. For football, I worked with the trainer, and we developed a special pad that went into a custom pocket I sewed into some T-shirts. That way the port had a little extra padding. We also found shoulder pads that had a side piece that covered the area. He never had any problems or soreness from the port.
We can see the complexity of brain function by watching a baseball outfielder follow the course of a fly ball through the air, predicting where it will reach the ground, running to that spot, and catching the ball. The background against which the ball is moving is perceived as stationary. Wow
Accidents, according to dictionary definitions, are events that happen by chance and are not predictable and therefore are not preventable. In contrast, from a public health perspective, injuries were first clearly conceptualized by William Haddon (1964) as damage done to the body as a result of often predictable and therefore preventable energy exchange. This energy exchange may be kinetic, thermal, or chemical. For example, kinetic energy can result in injury when someone falls, hits the dashboard in a car crash, is penetrated by a bullet, or is hit on the head with a baseball bat. Injuries associated with thermal energy result in burns. Chemical energy can create injury through contact with caustics or via ingestion of a wide assortment of poisonous substances. Injuries can also occur when there is a lack of energy (e.g. frostbite) or an essential agent such as oxygen (e.g. drowning). Consequently, because of the connotation that accidents happen by chance, and therefore aren't...
Baseball For Boys
Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.