Ayurveda the Science of Life

Modern Ayurveda

This easy program presents a great deal of information packed in less than 8 hours of knowledge that was gathered by one of the world's most recognized people on spirituality andAyurveda. Cate Stillman dedicates 8 hours of deep knowledge about spirituality and enlightenment that will greatly enhance your life in many ways. You will experience a lot of joy in life and fulfillment, as well as getting rid of the insecurities and frustrations that you might be facing in today's world. It will save you the trouble of having to spend years and years in the schoolsof chakras and energy in very little time that will cover all you need, you will get to know your body's rhythms and how to fix them, how to balance your energy, the ways of healing, yoga practices, ways of eating and even practices you should be doing every day that will correct your body's circadian rhythms for the day. That way, you will become the master of your own body and mind, you will finally achieve satisfaction and fulfillment. You can get all the three tracks and the free mat to practice instantly once you make a successful purchase, that way, you will be able to access the information that you need in no time. More here...

Modern Ayurveda Summary


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Appointments with your health care provider

You'll likely have your second prenatal visit with your health care provider this month. Your second visit to your health care provider will probably be briefer than your first, but it will probably include many of the same things. Your health care provider may check your weight and blood pressure. Rarely will you need another pelvic exam unless something unusual was discovered at your first visit. One thing to look forward to during your second visit If the visit occurs around the 12 th week of your pregnancy, your health care provider may use a special listening device called a Doppler, which may allow you to hear your baby's heartbeat for the first time.

Traditional Chinese Tibetan And Ayurvedic Medicine

China and the Indian subcontinent have developed what are probably the two most widely known systems of traditional health care traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic medicine. TCM refers to an ancient healing system that is thought to predate current Western medicine by over 2,000 years.4 It encompasses a range of seemingly disparate techniques and materials, including widely popular areas such as acupuncture, massage, and herbal preparations, as well as the more esoteric areas of moxibustion and qi gong. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is probably the most famous medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, and the one best know to Westerners. Many other herbs, such as ma huang and gingko biloba, have been used in Chinese medicine for over 3,000 years but are only now enjoying great popularity in Western industrialized countries. Ayurvedic medicine, another ancient system of healing, originating before 2500 B.C., provides an integrated or holistic approach to the...

The History Of Herbal Medicine A Capsule Summary

Figure Chinese Traditional Medicine

Penelope Ody, in her book, The Complete Medicinal Herbal,1 has compiled a very nice summary on the origins of western herbalism, starting with ancient civilizations of Egypt, the Greeks, and Romans. She continues with Islamic influences from the Arab world, Ayurvedic medicine from ancient India (ajur meaning life and veda meaning knowledge, refers to knowledge of how to live and places emphasis on good health being the responsibility of the individual), and Tibetian herbalism. The legacy of Chinese herbal medicine and its basic principles of five elements (wood, water, metal, earth, and fire) is cited in great detail together with beautiful illustrations in color of Chinese herbs. She has a marvelous treatise on herbs and herbal medicine that came out in magnificently illustrated herbals during the dark ages in Europe. She ends her

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX Integrative Hendler SS, Rorvik D (eds). PDRfor Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ Medical Economics Co., 2001. Hoffmann D. The New Holistic Herbal. Dorset, UK Element Books, 1990. Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical Medicine, 5th edn. London WB Saunders, 2002. Lininger SW (ed). A-Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin interactions. California Prima Health, 1999. Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London Churchill Livingstone, 2000. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. Sydney Elsevier, 2005. Mills S. The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. London Penguin Books, 1991. Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary. 6th edn. Mosby, USA, 2002. Murray M. The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA Prima Health, 1995 Newell CA et al. Herbal Medicines A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.

The National Institute of Ayurvedic Medicine NIAM

This is a comprehensive resource for basic information about the practice and beliefs of Ayurvedic medicine. The NIAM, located in Brewster, New York, is the largest resource for information on Ayurvedic medicine in the United States. Its research library has one of the largest collections of Ayurvedic literature in the country, with writings and research reports in English, Hindi, Sanskrit, Malayalam, Tamil, and several other dialects. Go to the medicinal plant page for profiles of plants from the Ayurvedic materia medica.

The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India

In 1978, German Federal Health Agency (now called the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices) established an expert committee on herbal remedies (called Commission E). The Commission E is composed of 24 members, including physicians, pharmacists, non-medical practitioners, pharmacologists, toxicolo-gists, biostatisticians, and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Fifty percent are experts from clinical therapeutic field. There are 13 full university professors on the Commission. The interdisciplinary nature of Commission E is unique in the world. The safety and efficacy of over 380 herbs have been assessed by the Commission. The World Health Organization (WHO) published Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines in 1991. Subsequently, The WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol 1 was published in 1999 and Vol 2 in 2003. Vol. 3 is the latest addition. These volumes contain 28, 29 and 31 monographs respectively. American Botanical Council, Austin,...

ASPET Herbal Medicine and Medicinal Plant Interest Group

ASPET hosts an herbal medicine and medicinal plant special interest group, providing a forum for clinical pharmacologists to discuss phytomedicinals, their active principles, modes of action, and regulatory issues concerning their use. The site has useful book reviews, information on relevant scientific meetings, and updates on the regulatory status of herbal products in the United States.

Burn the Fat Feed the Muscle is not just about cosmetic improvements its about your health

The recommendations I make in this program for losing body fat are the same ones I would make for good health reduce saturated fat, reduce refined sugars, eat a variety of natural, unrefined foods, eat plenty of fiber, eat small, frequent meals, drink plenty of water, and so on. This program is healthy and nutritionally balanced. Any diet program that is not nutritionally balanced is going to fail you in the long run.

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine United Kingdom

The Register of Chinese Herbal Medicine was set up in 1987 to regulate the practice of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the United Kingdom and to work with other organizations on issues relating to the practice and teaching of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. This site has a collection of useful online articles, including such topics as the dispensing and prescribing of Chinese herbal medicines. It also provides information on the use of Western herbs in Chinese herbal medicine, a selection of formulas for herbal preparations, and abstracts of research articles from China.

Herbal Remedies Are Not Risk Free

The increased use of herbal preparations is causing concern among doctors and pharmacists due to the widespread misconception among the American public that because herbal remedies are natural, they are free from the adverse effects or reactions associated with conventional drugs. Adverse effects, adverse reactions, and drug interactions are all areas of concern. An adverse effect is a ny unintended effect of a pharmaceutical product occurring at doses normally used in man which is related to the pharmacological properties of the drug, while an adverse reaction, is a response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for the prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function. 1 The manufacturers of herbal products are currently not required to submit proof of safety and efficacy to the FDA before bringing a product to market. For this reason, the adverse effects and drug interactions...

Medical Herbalism A Journal for the Clinical Practitioner

Medical Herbalism is a quarterly journal of clinical herbalism founded to strengthen the herbal practitioner, to preserve and develop the science and art of herbal medicine, and to promote communication and sharing of clinical methods and experiences. Its editor, Paul Bergner, teaches at the Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies, in Boulder, Colorado (see the corresponding entry in Chapter 6). Though a paid subscription is required for the journal itself, the

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine As A Model Of Antioxidantbasedcompounds Formula

In this sense, traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM) is interesting because herbs have been used to treat many complex disorders such as diabete mellitus, cancer, and others for which Western medicine may not have an appropriate diagnostic name. TCM is usually prescribed with several herbal constituents having different functions and the synergistic action exhibited by the multicomponent formula is effective for the management of many complicated diseases (8). Moreover, their therapeutic strategy is modulation of the inherent potential to recover the distorted balance of the physical condition (disease condition) by either suppressing or stimulating physiological reactions with a multifunctional-compound formula comprising several herbal components. It is also known that free-radical or reactive oxygen species (ROS) are exclusively involved in the pathogenesis of such disorders for which the Chinese herbal medicines are effectively applied. Therefore, antioxidant TCM is an...

Traditional Medicine And Herbal Remedies

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 4 billion people, or 80 percent of the world's population, use herbal remedies for some aspects of their health care.1 WHO uses the term traditional medicine to refer to ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of modern medicine (WHO Web site). It encompasses many systems of healing that are not based on the Western scientific approach and are often centered around cultural beliefs and practices handed down from one generation to another. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals, herbal therapy, and other treatments. It can encompass African traditional medicine, Arabic medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. In many developing countries, traditional medicine is still the main source of primary health care, and herbs play a significant role in these healing systems. In many instances, the efficacy of centuries-old traditional herbal treatments has been confirmed by...

Problems Associated With The Use Of Herbal Medicines

Despite the popularity of botanical supplements, many herbal products on the market are of low quality and dubious efficacy. Scientists, clinicians, and consumers are often concerned about safety, effectiveness, and consistency of herbal preparations. Their apprehension about these qualities is due to a plurality of unknowns. These include a variety of poorly controlled factors such as raw herb quality, processing methods used to make the preparations, the complex biochemical heterogeneity of herbs, potential adulteration, unpredictable consequences when herbs are combined, unpredictable consequences when herbal remedies are combined with conventional medications, and an apparent lack of scientific validation (24-27). It is not surprising that TCM, a medical paradigm that relies mainly on anecdotal data and tradition of use, frequently cannot withstand the scrutiny of evidence-based medicine.

Understanding Chinese Herbal Medicine

While herbal utilization as means of cure in communities in Europe and the United States might involve single herbs, Chinese herbal medicine uses a combination of different herbs. Although exceptional situations do occur when only one or two herbs are used, the majority of ancient effective formulae consist of multiple herbs. The major philosophy of treatment in Chinese herbal medicine is to maintain an overall balance. The yin-yang theory is that every human being is

Emerging European Regulation on the Safety of Herbal Medicines

In Britain, where only 20 of herbal medicines are licensed, there are efforts to ensure the safety of traditional and herbal medicines via new information centers. These include Pilot study to evaluate use of PEM in monitoring adverse events associated with herbal medicines Grant application submitted

Herbalism In The United States

Herbal remedies were an important component of American medicine right up until the early years of the twentieth century. Medical historians believe that upon their arrival in North America in the sixteenth century, early European explorers began trading information about herbal remedies with the Native Americans they encountered. According to Medicinal Plants of Native North America, the various indigenous tribes had over 18,000 uses for herbs.1 Several of these herbs, such as seneca snakeroot (Polygala senega L.), wild cherry (Prunus virginiana L.), and balm of Gilead (Populus candicans Ait.), actually found their way into some editions of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) or the National Formulary (NF). Some herbs sold today, such as echinacea, were originally used by Native Americans for the same purposes they are used for today. Several factors contributed to the general disappearance of herbal medicines from pharmacy shelves. The end of the nineteenth century saw the rise of...

Helping women stay healthy

Cuckold Sissy Husband

A woman who eats well and takes good care of her body is much more likely to have a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby. In fact, the ways to stay healthy listed in this chapter can be used by women and their families to stay well throughout their whole lives helps a woman resist illness and stay healthy . Eating well helps a woman and her baby stay healthy and strong. Eating well helps a woman and her baby stay healthy and strong. Talk to women about the food they eat. The earlier women start eating healthier foods, the better chance they have to stay healthy, to have normal births, and to have healthy babies For a healthier body, eat many kinds of foods. For a healthier body, eat many kinds of foods. In most parts of the world, people eat one main food at each meal . This main food may be rice, maize, wheat, millet, cassava, taro, plantain, breadfruit, or another low-cost starchy food . These foods give the body energy. But to grow and stay healthy, the body needs other types of food...

Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurvedic means the science of life, and is probably the oldest system of healing. It encompasses a philosophy that is both subtle and complex. In treating an individual, an assessment is first made of metabolic body type or dosha. There are three doshas vata, pitta, and kapha, and the dominance of one over the others determines classification. Doshas are blueprints, or a health profile of an individual, encompassing physiology, innate ten dencies, strengths, weaknesses, and susceptibilities to ill health. Once a diagnosis of the illness has been made, the methods of treatment may include cleansing the body of toxins, whether of an environmental, bacterial or viral nature, appropriate changes in diet, herbal and mineral preparations to rebuild and rejuvenate body tissues, and stress management through activities such as meditation, deep breathing, and sound therapy. The purpose is to balance the doshas within the individual. Several factors are believed to be at the basis of...

Effect of Tea Polyphenols on ROS and Aging

Premature agingmay also be a result of cellular ROS (114-116). The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate inhibited the markers for ROS and nitrogen species (116-118). It can be concluded that regular intake of 6 or more cups of tea per day facilitates healthy aging, which has been demonstrated on cellular systems, in animal models, and also, through studies of humans where regular tea intake is part of a health-promoting lifestyle, as in Japan and India (119). In that part of the world, one does find populations at advanced ages in good health, and a lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease in the aged (120-124).

Xifermentation Of Cordyceps

This represents a decrease of more than 70 compared to 1978. Because of environmental concerns, the Ordinance of Resources Protection on Wild Herbal Medicine was issued in 1987, and the collection of Cordyceps was highly restricted. The price of Cordyceps was US 5000 kg in 2002, which is about 100-fold higher than in the 1980s.

Crataegus m o n o g s y C oxyacantha

Hawthorn is well known today as an herbal remedy for the heart and circulation, but this is a relatively new use of the plant. Old European herbals mainly talk of hawthorn for the stone and for drawing out thorns and splinters, and an occasional use for treating gout and insomnia. It's perhaps surprising that it wasn't thought of for the blood, because the berries are such a deep blood-like color, and color was often taken as an indication of healing possibilities. Anne Pratt's mid-Victorian survey of British flowering plants (1857) expressed a conventional, and what could be called a pre-modern, view of hawthorn's value

Conflicts Between Allopathic Medicine And Herbalists

Health professionals most frequently criticize herbal practitioners for what they see as a lack of scientific evidence indicating that herbal remedies are effective. They are also disturbed by what they view as an entrenched antiscientific attitude among many practicing herbalists. To someone trained in the methodology of Western scientific medicine, some of the writing about herbs can seem decidedly flaky, with an aura of mysticism and mythology and links to the New Age movement, with its beliefs in astrology, crystals, and Tarot cards. Health professionals also object to some of the basic tenets of traditional herbalism, such as the belief in the superiority of herbs over conventional drugs, the activation of the body's healing system by herbs, a belief in the synergistic, or combined, activities of several herbal constituents, and an insistence that knowledge handed down from generation to generation can be as valid as that gleaned from clinical trials.1,2 Herbalists also criticize...

Europe And Germanys Commission E Monographs

In Germany and other European countries the term phytomedicine has been in use for many decades ( phyto originates from the Greek phyton, meaning plant). It is a recognized category of plant-derived drug products, referring to therapeutic products prescribed (or recommended) by physicians. In recognition of the significant role that phytomedicines play in that country's health care system, the German government has developed a unique mechanism to provide health practitioners and consumers with accurate information on their safety and efficacy. The German Medicines Act (Arzneimittelgesetz) of 1976 provided for the issuance of standard licenses for herbal products, subject to the publication of a monograph providing qualitative and quantitative information. The German Federal Health Agency (Bundesgesundheitsamt BGA ), equivalent to the U.S. FDA, established a Commission E to evaluate herbal preparations (hence the Commission E of the work's title) and to prepare monographs. The...

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

Herbal medicines are increasingly used in both Western and Chinese societies. The Chinese herb Jue-ming-zi, which is the seed of the plant Cassia tora L. (Leguminosae), has been reported to have hypotensive, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihepatotoxic activity, etc. The herb C. tora contains a variety of bioactive phenolic substances, including chrysophanol, emodin, rhein, etc., which are mainly responsible for the pharmacological action ascribed to them. In addition, many recent studies have suggested that Cassia seed has potential antioxidant and antimutagenic activity, and these biological effects of C. tora decreased with higher roasting temperature or longer roasting time. In this chapter, we review the recent studies on the antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of C. tora.

The National Council Against Health Fraud NCAHF

The NCAHF is a nonprofit, voluntary health agency that focuses on health fraud, misinformation, and quackery as public health problems. The organization is composed of health professionals, educators, researchers, attorneys, and concerned citizens. Useful resources include the NCAHF Position Paper on Over-the-Counter Herbal Remedies (1995) and its Consumer Health Digest (CHD), a free weekly e-mail newsletter summarizing scientific reports, legislative developments, and enforcement actions. CHD also contains Web site evaluations and book critiques. The Webmaster is listed as Stephen Barrett, MD, the founder of the Quackwatch Web site (see the corresponding entry in this chapter).

The Longwood Herbal Task Force LHTF

The LHTF was founded in the fall of 1998 by faculty, staff, and students from Children's Hospital, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Its mission is to help educate clinicians about the use of herbal remedies and other dietary supplements. The LHTF has comprehensive collections of fact sheets on herbs for both patients and their health care providers. Documents are available for the more popular herbs, such as echinacea and St. John's wort, but also for lesser-known herbs, such as rhubarb (Rheum officinale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis), and bearberry (Uva ursi). Information on herb-drug and herb-nutrient interactions is also available.

Histline History of medicine onLINE

The HISTLINE bibliographic database, produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), is an index to the journal literature dealing with the history of medicine and its related fields. This valuable resource for researching herbal medicine includes literature about the history of health-related professions, sciences, specialties, individuals, institutions, drugs, and diseases in all parts of the world and from all historic periods. It is updated weekly and has around 190,000 citations. HISTLINE indexes U.S. and foreign publications, including monographs, journal articles, and individual chapters in the published

Maria Trebens Take On Parlinsons Diseas

Related species Rosebay willowherb has been reclassified into the genus Chamerion, but is closely related. The great willowherb, also known as codlins and cream (E. hirsutum ), is not used in herbal medicine - it grows to 5 ft, has large cerise flowers, and grows in ditches or by streams.

Insufficient Consumer Education

Recognize the importance of safety issues associated with some herbal products. Use of herbal remedies can thus be less discerning and more indiscriminate as compared to use of conventional medicine. It is important for consumers to appreciate the fact that though herbal medicines have been in use for a long time, they still bring with them risks of side effects. A good example is ma huang (ephedra), commonly marketed as a natural weight loss product. Ma huang is a Chinese healing herb that has been used for thousands of years. The ephedra plant is a short, bushy shrub. Its stems contain the active constituent from which the stimulant ephedrine is now synthesized. The ephedra plant also produces ephedrine's stereoisomer, pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is the favored active ingredient in nondrowsy cold and sinus decongestants (2,39,40). Ephedrine was used traditionally to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, hypotension, and depression. More effective medications have...

Divergent Plant Sources of Important Classical Herbs

Accepted Sources Based on Appendix of Ayurvedic Formulary of India, 2003. Other sources Based on Ayurvedic Drugs and their Plant Sources, V V Sivarajan and Indira Balachandran, 1994 Formulary of Ayurvedic Medicines, IMPCOPS, Chennai, 1987 K. Vasude-van Nair et al., Ancient Sc Life, 5(1) 49-53,1985 Plants ofBhava Prakash and Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda, Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth, 1999,1998.

Bitter Orange Citrus aurantium

The flower of C. aurantium daidai is in the food-grade herb list. The dry, unripe fruits of C. aurantium L. and its cultivated variants are not food-grade herbs, but effective medicine, and are collected when the pericarp of the fruit is still green. The fruits are used as a digestant and expectorant and in the treatment of anal prolapse. Related citrus species are known to produce coumar-ins, flavanones, flavones, flavonols (which occur in the free form and or as glycosides), and limonoids (18). The inhibitory effect of some traditional herbal medicines on the infectivity of rotavirus, which predominantly occurs in sporadic diarrhea in infants and young children, was investigated. Among the 34 kinds of herbal medicines tested, the fruit of C. aurantium had the most potent inhibitory activity on rotavirus infection. The active components were neohesperidin and hesperidin, 2 w w on average (19-21). In another study,

AMED Allied and Complementary Medicine Database

Even though this is not a free online database, information about the AMED database is included because it is one of the most important resources for CAM information. The database, produced by the Health Care Information Service of the British Library, contains bibliographic citations with abstracts, covering subjects such as acupuncture, osteopathy, Chinese medicine, homeopathy, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, hypnosis, herbalism, physiotherapy, chiropractic,

Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies

The Rocky Mountain Center for Botanical Studies (RMCBS) offers educational programs in Western herbalism, focusing on indigenous North American plants. The school is approved and regulated by the state of Colorado, Division of Private Occupational Schools, and is an associate member of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) and the American Herb Association (AHA). It offers advanced herbal studies program and a clinical herbalism internship, which is available to advanced students of herbalism.

The Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act Dshea Of 1994

The current U.S. approach to the regulation of herbal products is rather complex and generally considered to be unsatisfactory. Until 1994, the FDA classified most herbal remedies as either food additives or drugs, and manufacturers had to meet strict FDA standards before placing their products on the U.S. market. This changed in 1994 when Congress enacted the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which placed herbs together with vitamins and minerals in a category know as dietary supplements. DSHEA defines a dietary supplement as follows DHSEA effectively means that manufacturers can now market herbal remedies and other supplements without first obtaining FDA approval of their safety and efficacy. Under DSHEA, manufacturers do not have to demonstrate that their products are effective, or even that they are safe, and they are not required to report side effects. The FDA must also prove that a supplement is harmful before it can be banned.

The Herbalist Approach To Health

The term herbalism has changed over the years, once being almost synonymous with botany, though it is now generally used to refer to the use of plant remedies to treat medical conditions. It is often associated with medical systems having a tradition of using herbs for healing, whether in North America, Europe, or China. Western herbalism, as practiced in the United States and Europe, and distinct from allopathic medicine, is characterized by an emphasis on building and maintaining health rather than fighting disease. More significant, traditional herbalists practicing outside mainstream medicine often view healing very differently from allopathic physicians. The latter tend to regard herbal preparations as being essentially no different from conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Many herbalists take a more holistic approach, believing that herbal medicine is a healing technique that is inherently in tune with nature. 1 This emphasizes the self-healing capacity of the body and its...

Herbal Organizations In The United States And Europe

In the United States, few institutions or organizations offer training in herbal medicine and no nationwide professional body promotes its use. The situation is a little better in several European countries where herbal preparations have a much longer history of use, such as in England and France, or are more effectively integrated into mainstream medicine, such as in Germany. The current explosion of interest in herbs, though, has led to the launching of several new professional organizations in both North America and several European countries. Many of these are not just concerned with offering educational opportunities for herbal practitioners but are seeking to improve the standing of medical herbalists by promoting professional standards and educational programs. Current issues of concern to traditional herbalists in both the United States and Europe include proposed legislation that seeks to restrict the practice of herbal professionals, and the question of how to embrace...

Populus Candicans Medicine In South Africa Pharmacy

Alternatives for Healthy Living, 160 Alt.folklore.herbs, 160 Alzheimer's Association, 147 Alzheimer's disease aromatherapy, 154 ginkgo, 147 Lemon Balm, 61 AMA (American Medical Association), Herbalism, 53 Ayurvedic medicine Tropical Plant Database Breast cancer, 151 Brief History of Herbalism, 9 British Herbal Medical Association California School of Traditional Hispanic Herbalism, 73 California Society for Oriental University of Exeter, 60 Complementary Medicine. See Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Complete German Commission E Monographs Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. See Commission E Monographs Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS), 138 Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP), 134 America, 53 important herb crops, 31 Education and training. See also Herbalism courses for pharmacists, 48 courses for physicians and medical students, 64 courses in Chinese herbalism, 65 courses in Medical Herbalism, 43 courses in Western...

Drugherb Herb Herb Interactions

Little more than anecdotal evidence exists regarding interactions between pharmaceutical and herbal medicines. Despite the widespread use of herbal medicines, documented herb-drug interactions are sparse. However, studies on the common herbs indicate that significant herb-drug interactions exists. Thus St. John's wort (Hypericumperforatum) lowers blood concentrations of cyclosporin, amitriptyline, digoxin, indinavir, warfarin, phenprocoumon, and theophylline furthermore, it causes intermenstrual bleeding, delirium, or mild serotonin syndrome, respectively, when used concomitantly with oral contraceptives (ethinylestradiol desogestrel), loperamide, or selective seroto-nin-reuptake inhibitors (sertaline, paroxetine, nefazodone). Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) interactions include bleeding when combined with warfarin, raised blood pressure when combined with a thiazide diuretic, and coma when combined with trazodone. Ginseng (Panax ginseng) lowers blood concentrations of alcohol and warfarin,...

Rosemary Extracts Preparation And Composition A Preparation

Structure Thyme And Function

The leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. are best known as a spice and flavoring agent but they are also reported as a herbal remedy with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antidiuretic, and hepatotoxic protective properties (1-3). Crude and refined extracts of R. officinalis L. are commercially available in the form of powders and liquids at different concentrations of the active components (e.g., Robertet S.A., Grasse, France LycoRed Natural Products Industries, Beer Sheva, Israel Kalsec Inc., Michigan, USA).

European Herbal Practitioners Association EHPA

The European Herbal Practitioners Association was founded in 1993 to represent professional herbal practitioners in the European Union (EU). One of its main objectives is to protect both herbalists and consumers by helping to develop professional standards for herbal education and practice, and by encouraging appropriate European legislation. This site primarily provides information on issues relating to political and legislative developments throughout the EU in regard to herbs and the practice and licensing of herbal practitioners. Current issues include the legal status of herbal medicines in the EU and the right of herbal practitioners to practice as autonomous health providers.

Health Fraud And Quackery

To identify health fraud on the Internet, the FTC concluded that many Web sites make deceptive, unproven, and fraudulent health claims.3 The American physicist Richard Feynmann once remarked, It's good to have an open mind, but not so open that your brains fall out. This chapter therefore includes some Web sites that are very skeptical of the value of herbal therapies. Their inclusion is by no means an endorsement of their views rather, it is an attempt to maintain some sort of balance and to alert readers to writings by both advocates and critics of herbalism. Other included sites are primarily concerned with the way the Internet is opening up new opportunities for health fraud and quackery, and not just in the CAM area. Note the subtle distinction between health fraud and quackery the FDA describes health fraud as the promotion, advertisement, distribution, or sale of articles, intended for human or animal use, that are represented as being effective to diagnose, prevent, cure,...

Lack Of Standardization Or Inadequate Processing

Poor quality of herbs that require proper curing and of proprietary medicines is also found to be a major cause ofherbal poisoning. The relative proportions of therapeutic and toxic components of plants vary depending on the part of the plant used, stage of ripeness, geographic area where the plant is grown, and storage conditions. Therefore, batch-to-batch reproducibility of active chemical ingredients should ideally be assessed in the production of marketed products, but in practice the active ingredients are often not known and most herbal suppliers and practitioners do not have the facilities or training to undertake chemical standardization, so product variation in herbal medicines can be significant.

Plantherb Recognition

Ligusticum Chuanxiong Oil

In recent years, owing to the renewed interest in herbal medicines, many inventors in the United States, Japan, and China have submitted patents based on traditional usage of ligusticum. Among the patents filed in the Chinese patent office are products with L. chuanxiong extracts that are used as detergents to prevent and treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (2), as a bathing lotion to promote blood circulation, and to improve skin conditions (3). In Japan, the herb has been patented for having the property to improve brain function (4). In the U.S. patent and trademark office, herbal concoctions with L. chuanxiong have been patented for application to the skin to help skin regeneration in patients with eczema and psoriasis (5). Tao in 2002 (6,7)

Interactions Between Modern and Chinese Medicinal Drugs

The interactions between Chinese herbs and modern drugs are a common issue, yet reports on them are very rare. According to research on 1000 elderly patients admitted through the accident and emergency department, 538 of them have used over 1087 types of drugs, and 30 of them have been affected by the side effects of these drugs (26). In fact either within the hospital or outside, when patients self-prescribe, multidrug therapies are commonly practiced. Prescribed drugs, proprietary drugs, vitamins, herbal medicines, food, etc. may all interact and affect the treatment outcome.

About the Author CP Khare

He was born into a family of herbal physicians. He studied the original Ayurvedic texts and acquired first-hand knowledge of the cultivation and processing of herbs and their usage even before going to college. He has also been included among the directors of Dabur Ayurvedic Specialities Ltd., a herbal major in India. This reference work is the outcome of ten years of in-depth study and literary research of more than 2000 plant sources of Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of Indian medicine. By the same author East and West integrative 400 detailed monographs on Indian medicinal plants in contemporary setup Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants Indian Herbal Remedies. Published by Springer.

Phytopharmacognosy Internet Discussion Group

In Phamacognosy, Botany, Organic and Phytochemistry at Middlesex University, United Kingdom. Membership is free and open to academics, industrialists, and other suitably qualified professionals who are involved in plant-based natural products and who have an e-mail address. Active membership is limited to experts only, and potential members must submit evidence of their expertise before they can participate. Discussions are focused on the botany and chemistry of medicinal and economic plants, ethnobotany, secondary metabolites, traditional medicines, volatile oils, tropical agriculture, academic and industrial problems, herbalism, aromatherapy, ecological biochemistry and evolution, and plant chemicals. It also includes notices on conferences and specialist topic discussions. Go to the above URL for further information.

Vproblem 4 The Product May Have Been Deliberately Adulterated

The deliberate addition of compounds to herbal preparations is an even more worrisome problem. Adulterants include phenylbutazone, indomethacin, dexamethasone, prednisolone, acetaminophen, fenfluramine, and aminopy-rine (11,22,30). Phenylbutazone can cause severe agranulocytosis, which is why its use as a drug is now very limited, but several cases of damage by herbs containing it as an adulterant have been reported (22,31,32). In 2002 in Singapore the Health Sciences Authority identified phenylbutazone in the herbal remedy serbuk jarem (encok), used to treat rheumatism and ''body aches.'' In England, herbal creams prescribed by TCM practitioners to treat facial and other eczema were analyzed and eight were found to be adulterated with dexamethasone, in some cases at a level that should not be used on the face (33). Yet another example is PC-SPES (see below).

Native Health History Database

The Native Health History Database (NHHD) is a computerized information resource containing complete bibliographic information and abstracts on historical American Indian and Alaska Native (AI AN) medical health research reports. The database is produced by the Indian Health Service (IHS) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Center (HSC). Database entries cover the period from 1652 to 1970. The database contains citations on traditional foods and herbal remedies and is a useful resource for locating information on the use of medicinal plants among American Indian communities.

The Literature On

Practically all health professionals now have some familiarity with the MEDLINE database, a tool that has evolved as a filter for the journal literature. In the United States, and in many other countries, it has become the primary database for searching the mainstream biomedical research literature, and it would be nearly impossible to locate relevant published journal articles without it. However, when using MEDLINE to locate information on herbal medicine and other CAM areas, three things need to be remembered. First, MEDLINE is intentionally selective in what it includes, indexing less than half of the estimated 10,000 medical journals published each year. Thus, a good deal of information that is published in journals is, for one reason or another, not represented in the MEDLINE database. Second, information related to the safety and efficacy of CAM interventions is difficult to locate and is widely scattered throughout the literature. It often is found in the so-called gray...

Regulatorypolicy Issues

The increasing number of adverse events reported in association with use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has raised some concerns among health care professionals (68,69) about the accessibility and widespread use of these products by the general population. In addition, highly publicized reports of catastrophic adverse outcomes associated with ephedra use have drawn the attention of concerned lawmakers at the state and national levels. Indeed, several states, including Texas, New York, Hawaii, Florida, and California, have passed laws restricting the use of ephedra, required warning statements on product labels, and mandated an adverse-event reporting system. And, more recently, the FDA has announced a ban on all dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids. Ephedra will remain legal as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. free access to alternative therapies that have been clearly mandated by the public. Perhaps an appropriate approach would be to classify natural...

The Internet And Health Care

The past decade has seen a significant increase in the American public's general awareness and use of CAM. Interest in herbal medicine seems greater than ever, and herbal products continue to gain in popularity. This visibility, coupled with the large quantities of medical information on the Internet, has given many people the increased confidence to attempt their own treatment for a variety of ailments. As discussed elsewhere, some online herbal information is misleading, biased, or promoted by the manufacturers of herbal products. Health professionals are justifiably concerned that consumers are not being given adequate information about the use of herbs and their possible dangers. Recognizing that this is a problem, federal health agencies, university medical centers, consumer advocacy groups, and other respected groups or individuals have established online gateways guiding consumers to the most reliable and unbiased information.

Conclusion And Comment

Modern physical and chemical analyses as well as in vitro and in vivo bioassays provide powerful tools for a better understanding of the chemical and biological aspects of B. hancei. Phenylpropanoid glycosides are the major constituents of B. hancei and are believed to be responsible for the various actions of this herbal medicine. Although acteoside is a representative main constituent of the phenylethanoids present in the species, the efficacy of B. hancei is ascribable to a complex mixture of phytochemicals in the herb.

Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI

The CSPI was founded in 1971 by scientists who had previously worked for Ralph Nader's Center for the Study of Responsive Law. The center is a nonprofit education and advocacy organization that focuses on improving the safety and nutritional quality of the food supply. It represents citizens' interests before legislative, regulatory, and judicial bodies and was involved with petitioning the FDA about labeling requirements for dietary supplements. Go to the Nutrition Action Healthletter link for its Health Watch section, with feature articles and news items assessing current information on the efficacy of herbal remedies.

Office of Natural Health Products ONHP Canada

Over 50 percent of Canadians now use some type of natural health product, such as herbs, vitamins, and mineral supplements traditional Chinese or Ayurvedic medicine and homeopathic preparations.8 In 1999, in response to concerns from consumers, health care providers, and industry, the Canadian government established the ONHP to develop a new regulatory framework for these products. The new office is designed to provide Canadian consumers with the assurance of safety while enhancing consumer access and choice to a full range of natural health products.

Effects Of Shosaikoto On Hepatic Fibrosis

Several reports concerning the role of Sho-saiko-to with respect to the prevention and treatment of experimental liver damage induced in rats by D-galactosamine (36), carbon tetrachloride (37), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (38), and pig serum (PS) (38) have appeared. Although the mechanism by which Sho-saiko-to prevents hepatic fibrosis is not at present clear, it has been reported that the preadministration of this herbal medicine protects the liver plasma membrane and HSCs against injury (31). Moreover, Sho-saiko-to was reported to prevent the development of hepatic fibrosis by the inhibition of HSC activation in a different animal model, the choline-deficient rat (39). We confirmed the preventive and therapeutic effects of Sho-saiko-to on rat experimental hepatic fibrosis induced by DMN and PS (7). The rats were fed a basic diet that contained Sho-saiko-to for 2 weeks prior to the induction of hepatic fibrosis, or during the last 2 weeks of treatment. Sho-saiko-to suppressed the...

WHO Publications Traditional Medicine

The WHO publishes a number of useful fact sheets and monographs on herbal medicine, such as Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Herbal Medicines, Medicinal Plants in China, Medicinal Plants in Viet Nam, and Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. Several are available online as full text. To see a list of relevant WHO publications, with descriptions, use the URLs listed here.

The Journal of Chinese Medicine

The Journal ofChinese Medicine is an English-language journal providing professional information on the entire field of Chinese medicine, including Chinese herbal medicine. Though the full text of the journal is not yet online, this site does provide tables of contents for the current issue and some back issues. Of particular note though are the sample full-text articles with useful information on Chinese herbal formulas used in the treatment of a variety of conditions. In addition, the online bookstore is a valuable guide to current texts on Chinese medicine.

Chinese Cultural Studies The Chinese Language and Writing

An increasing amount of information on Chinese herbs is appearing on the Internet. Some of these sites may organize information by the Chinese name for an herb or an herbal remedy, and the user may be given a choice of accessing entries using a pin yin index or a Latin index. For purposes of identification, it is important to use both the Latin binomial and the Chinese pin yin nomenclature when discussing a Chinese herb, as it identifies the plant part and method of preparation of these complicated herbal products. Pin yin, meaning spell sound, is a system for writing Chinese sounds using the Western alphabet, also known as the Latin or Roman alphabet. This Pin yin method was introduced by the People's Republic of China and has been in official use in the West since 1958, replacing the older, less correct Wade-Giles system, hence the change from Peking to Beijing. This system has been the standard for the U.S. Government for more than two decades and is now used by the United Nations...

Fogarty International Center FIC

Fogarty, the FIC is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Its mission is to reduce global health disparities by supporting and promoting research and to prepare the current and future generation of international and U.S. scientists to meet global health needs. FIC supports basic biological, behavioral, and social science research, as well as related research training. One of the center's areas of concern is the consequences for human health of the loss of the planet's biodiversity its International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) program is a unique effort that addresses how local communities can benefit economically from the discovery and conservation of natural drug products. Reports prepared by the Fogarty Center address the significance and use of both prescription and herbal remedies, including the latter's place in the health care systems of indigenous peoples.

Society for Medicinal Plant Research Gesellschaft fr Arzneipflanzenforschung

Based in Germany, but with an international reach, the Society for Medicinal Plant Research is one of the leading European organizations devoted to the advancement of research in the field of medicinal plants. Areas of interest include the biological and pharmacological activity of natural products, the breeding and cultivation of medicinal plants, and the development of manufacturing and quality control standards for herbal products. The society publishes an online newsletter, available from the Web site, and Planta Medica, one of the leading research journals in herbal medicine. Tables of contents, with abstracts, for recent issues of the journal can be viewed for free.

The National Institute of Medical Herbalists NIMH

The institute was originally established in 1864 as the National Association of Medical Herbalists and is one of the leading professional herbal organizations in the United Kingdom. The Web site provides some introductory information on herbs and herbal medicine, including an FAQ section, information on education, and an overview of research in this area. The institute publishes the European Journal of Herbal Medicine and Greenfiles, a quarterly newsletter of research abstracts. The site also features a useful section on herbal teas, including their preparation and use.

National Herbalists Association of Australia NHAA

The NHAA was founded in 1920 and is Australia's only professional herbal association. It publishes the peer-reviewed Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism. Of particular interest is the Native Herb Forum Web page, which seeks to positively influence the clinical use of Australian herbs and ensure ongoing supplies by exploring their potential for cultivation. The Forum Web site houses review articles on Australian medicinal plants and fact sheets and monographs on native Australian plants, such as sneezeweed (Centipeda minima) and kangaroo apple (Solanum aviculare).

Herb Research Foundation HRF

The Herb Research Foundation (HRF) is a nonprofit research and educational organization focusing on herbs and medicinal plants. Along with the American Botanical Council, it publishes HerbalGram, a peer-reviewed journal with a scientific focus on medicinal herbs. This is an invaluable site for keeping up to date with advances in the field of herbal medicine and with the latest results from clinical trials involving herbal products. From the home page, select News Views to view updated news items from around the world, covering herb research and related regulatory issues. Follow the link to Research Re

The American Herbalists Guild AHG

Tional excellence, ethical standards, and integrity in herbalism. It is the only peer-reviewed organization for professional herbalists. Useful AHG publications include a directory of educational programs for herbalists, a list of recommended readings, and various position papers on herbal issues. Its Journal of the American Herbalists Guild publishes scholarly manuscripts on all aspects of herbalism with an emphasis on clinical and professional application of herbal products within the vitalistic paradigm. Most of the documents themselves are not online but may be purchased from the AHG for a small fee.

American Botanical Council ABC

The American Botanical Council (ABC) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to educate the public about beneficial herbs and plants and to promote their safe and effective use. It is probably one of the best-known and most active herbal organizations in the United States. The ABC conducts continuing education (CE) modules for pharmacists and, along with the Herb Research Foundation (HRF), publishes the widely respected peer-reviewed journal HerbalGram. The ABC site has useful information on upcoming congresses and meetings of relevance to herbal medicine, as well as useful links to some very specialized herbal resources. In the summer of 1998, the ABC published the English translation of Germany's Commission E Monographs, widely regarded as the most accurate source of information on the safety and efficacy of herbs and phytomedicines (i.e., herb extracts).2 About 300 monographs have appeared so far, covering most of the economically important herbal remedies available in...

Concluding Remarks

G. lucidum is a well-regarded Asian herbal remedy with a long and impressive range of applications. Global consumption of G. lucidum is high, and an increasingly large series of patented and commercially available products that incorporate G. lucidum as an active ingredient are available as food supplements. These include extracts and isolated constituents in various formulations and these are marketed worldwide in the form of capsules, creams, hair tonics, and syrups (6,182). The various postulated health benefits of G. lucidum are outlined in Figure 5, and a summary of the experimental studies described in this chapter, with our comments, on the putative therapeutic effects of G. lucidum is presented in Table 2.

The American Association of Naturopathic Physicians AANP

The word naturopathy was first coined in the United States around 100 years ago and refers to a holistic way of treating illness using the natural healing forces present in the human body. According to the philosophical basis of naturopathy, healing occurs naturally in the human body if it is given what it needs, such as a proper diet, pure water, fresh air, sunlight, exercise, and rest. As with other holistic healing systems, the emphasis is not on finding a disease and curing it, but rather on helping the body establish what is considered to be its own state of good health. Traditional naturopaths do not diagnose or treat disease but instead focus on health and education. Naturopaths employ a wide range of herbal medicines, from a variety of herbal traditions.

Herbal Products And Manufacturers

Along with the mainstreaming of herbal medicine in the United States has come a burgeoning of the market for herbal preparations. The actual size of the herbal market in the United States is difficult to determine, but it is now believed that annual sales exceed 3 billion.2 Herbal preparations are moving beyond health food stores into pharmacies and grocery stores. Much of the sales growth can be traced to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, which critics argue allowed herbal companies to promote their products with little oversight, as long as they do not claim that the products treat a specific disease or condition. The more responsible members of the herbal industry, though, including many manufacturers of herbal preparations, realize that if herbal medicines are to be integrated successfully into the health care system, companies will have to deal with issues such as safety, toxicology, and interactions with conventional drugs. Supported by the...

S Orange Oil Phyllanthus emblica

The fruit of P. emblica L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet to regulate and promote the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal distension, etc. (43). Various parts of the medicinal plant have been used by 17 countries and nations of the world in their medical treatment. The medicinal plant is thought to have an antihepatitis, anticancer, and antitumor action and is regarded as a traditional immunomodulator and a natural adaptogen (75). The aqueous extract of the fruits can protect against nickel-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis (76) and N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animals (77).

P Sea Buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides

The fruit of H. rhamnoides L. is a traditional herbal medicine mainly used in Tibet and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regions to regulate the function of stomach and intestines, and treat syndromes such as indigestion, abdominal pains, etc. (43). It has been well documented to have antioxidant, immuno-stimulative, regenerative, and antiulcerogenic properties (59), a protective effect against injuries in mice (60), and effects on hyperlipidemic serum cultured smooth-muscle cells in vitro (61). The alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant at a concentration of 0.5 mg mL were found to inhibit chromium-induced free radical production, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, these extracts were able to arrest the chromium-induced inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation. This suggests the alcoholic extracts have marked cytoprotective properties (62). An alcoholic extract of the berries of the plants protected against radiation-induced DNA strand breaks (63) and inhibited...

The Way Forward for TCM

Pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of bioactive compounds can be examined scientifically in animal models. Finally, these herbal products can be tested in human studies where the outcome parameter can be refined according to the mechanisms of action defined in vitro and in animal models. The complete process will take many years and will be expensive. Here an enlightened and practical attitude on the part of legislators and regulators will help the industry move forward. Funds for research will have to be set aside from industry. Exclusive marketing rights for products that have been certified will help manufacturers recoup the costs of research and product standardization. Such a system has already been suggested by the U.S. FDA's guidance document for industry on botanical drug products (45). As in the German system, the first emphasis should be on manufacturing quality and standardization of bioactive components. Safety has to be assured in the recommended doses. Efficacy can...

Traditional Chinese Herbs

The pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese herbs includes the richest and oldest sources of medicinal plants. Herbal medicines have been used for millennia in China and one of the earliest texts is the Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing published in 101 B.C. Each subsequent emperor and dynasty has continued to commission written pharmacopoeia on medicinal herbs. One of the most prominent texts, Ben Cao Gang Mu, first published in the Ming dynasty in the late 1500s, is still a reference source for current TCM practitioners. This text contains 52 volumes and includes 1160 drugs from plants and 11,096 prescription formulae. This detailed pharmacopoeia, written by Li Shih Chen, has botanical drawings of plants drawn by his son. In 1596, it was translated into Latin and later into English, French, German, Russian, and Japanese. Sadly, since then the Chinese materia medica has not been improved for hundreds of years and current TCM practices do not differ much from that of the sixteenth century. Very...

Commission E Evaluation Methods And Criteria

Clinical data are reviewed to ensure that the herbal medicines are reasonably safe when used according to the dosage, contraindications, and other warnings provided in the monographs. With regard to efficacy, the Commission is guided by ''the doctrine of reasonable certainty. The Commission will grant a positive review if the scientific data provided reasonable verification of a particular historical use.'' Thus some of the older herbs were given positive reviews despite the absence of a significant body of clinical studies. Since 1990, the Commission began to focus on good clinical practice studies to document the uses and have amended usage to a more restricted indication. An example is the Hawthorn (Cratageus) monograph of 1984, which initially contained indications for use in Stages I and II of the New York Heart Association (NYHA). This indication was limited in July 1994 for Stage II NYHA and only for hawthorn leaf with flower. Clinical studies using other parts of the hawthorn...

Inadequate Regulation

Since 1994 and the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), herbal remedies in the United States are classified as dietary supplements and not as drugs or food, and are regulated far less stringently than conventional pharmaceuticals. Under the DSHEA regulations, herbal remedies are commodities sold for '' stimulating, maintaining, supporting, regulating, and promoting'' health rather than for treating disease. Dietary supplements may carry a statement that ''describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans'' or that''characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function.'' DSHEA allows general health or ''structure function'' claims but does not permit therapeutic claims. Although dietary supplements are sold to affect physiological functioning, they can be removed from the market only if the FDA can prove they are not safe....

Identification Harvesting and Manufacturing

May result in a different constituent in the final product, or a different percentage of the active compound (32,33). It is not surprising that inconsistencies in similar herbal remedies, or even between different batches of a specific herbal remedy, are a problem (33-36).

Synergisms And Other Combinatorial Effects

Synergistic interactions are thought to be of importance in phytomedicines, to understand the efficacy of apparently low doses of active constituents in a herbal product. This concept, that a whole or partially purified extract of a plant offers advantages over a single isolated ingredient, also underpins the philosophy of herbal medicine. Clinical evidence to support the occurrence of synergy in phytomedicines is, however, scanty. Typically herbal medicines

Medical Education

Recent information from Japan indicated that starting very soon, all medical students in Japan would be required to go through 150 hr of undergraduate study in a variety of Kampo medicine (which is Chinese medicine) (20). This appears a genuinely positive commitment to herbal medicine outside China, which is providing 150-400 hr of Chinese medicine study for all modern medicine undergraduates.

Efficacy and Beyond Research Methodologies for Traditional and Complementary and Medicine

Consumer satisfaction is of importance in evaluating health services. Satisfaction with care is one component of well-being, which has in turn been identified by WHO as a marker of good health. Our own research at Oxford University suggests that a search for satisfaction in the treatment of chronic disease is the primary reason why people in Britain particularly women seek the services of complementary health care providers. Consumer satisfaction studies merit a high place in national research into complementary and traditional health care (Ong et al., 2002). While evidence of mechanism of action is clearly not needed to promote utilization or to achieve consumer satisfaction this is happening of its own accord basic research into the physiological links and molecular bases of therapeutic outcomes and mechanisms of action is needed in the longer term. Where employed, basic research methodologies need to be generated to sensitively capture aspects of CM practice and theory that may...

Capacity Development

A primary concern regarding traditional and complementary therapies is ''Are they safe '' Recent studies in England have found that there has been adulteration with steroids of some traditional Chinese dermatological preparations. In an analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatolog-ical conditions, Keane et al. (1999) found that 8 of 11 creams analyzed contained steroids. Clearly, policy gaps need to be plugged and effective regulation of herbal medicines is needed, while ensuring that regulation is not simply a means of limiting public access to these preparations. Limiting access through professional controls and regulatory means can be seen as constituting monopolistic trade practice. Safety must be the starting point for national drug development strategies for herbal medicines. While most of the published research on herbal medicine is pharmacological, WHO's 1993 Guidelines on the Evaluation of Herbal Medicines consider that clinical evaluation is ethical where...

Potential Conflicts Arising from Allocation of Resources to Traditional Health Care Services

High profitability of traditional medicine can lead to its custodians resisting moves to provide insurance coverage for their services and products. In Korea, where the profit margin of herbal medicines is variously estimated to be 100-500 compared to their basic cost (Cho, 2000), the population utilize herbal medicines on a large scale (Han, 1997, cited in Cho, 2000). The amount of reimbursement for herbal medicine under the National Medical Insurance (NMI) scheme was approximately 50 billion Korean won in 1993. This was estimated to be only a small portion of total expenditure on herbal medicines (Moon et al., 1997, cited in Cho, 2000). The high returns on herbal medicine boosted the socioeconomic status of traditional medicine doctors to the extent that about two-thirds (64 ) of them did not want herbal remedies to be included in the NMI scheme at all (Lee, 1993a, cited in Cho, 2000). An example of comparative research of a traditionally used herbal medicine and the main equivalent...

Social and Economic Costs of Changes in IP Legislation

By requiring patents to be applied to pharmaceuticals, it is argued by many commentators that TRIPS will have the effect of pricing common drugs out of the reach of most people in poor countries. If herbal medicines are patented either domestically or internationally the medicines used as the first and last resort for health care by the poor will also become unaffordable. Some examples illustrate the point.

Herbal Information And The Internet

Educating health professionals and consumers to assess the quality of health-related information found on Web sites has now become something of a priority. This particularly applies to herbal medicine and other areas of alternative medicine because of the current lack of established authoritative resources. Furthermore, it should be remembered that the World Wide Web is only one section of the Internet access to much valuable data on the use of herbs exists also in the more informal milieus of electronic mailing lists or newsgroup postings, where information is often anecdotal and difficult to evaluate.

English Indian Napellus

Ayurvedic Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha (related sp.). Action Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar-rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. (See A.ferox.) It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11 includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine.

Herbal Information Resources

In the preface to the 1981 edition of the The Honest Herbal, Dr. Varro Tyler, a respected authority on herbal medicines, opined In the years since this was written, major developments, both in the United States and in European countries, have considerably improved the amount of reliable information on herbs that is now available to both the general public and health care providers. However, although both the number and quality of information resources have improved, the increased consumer demand for herbal preparations has resulted in a proliferation of both print and online publications that are of variable quality and reliability. The newcomer to herbal medicine often has to navigate through a maze of unsubstantiated claims and anecdotal information, a large percentage of it written by nonprofessionals or herbal product manufacturers. Difficulties associated with finding substantiated data are often compounded by what seems to be the strong mystical or New Age slant of much herbal...

Preface to the I edition

If we give ourselves some latitude in the first part of our title, what of medicine Herbal medicines are traditional and effective, and we encourage you to use our chosen plants in making your own medicines. In the process you are taking responsibility for your own health. We do not intend to decry either pharmaceutical or manufactured herbal products, for clearly both have their place and many people want them. What we'd prefer to do is make a positive case for our wild plants. Consider the following quotation from a 2004 survey of Britain's Wild Harvest, which is also relevant for the US. In terms of sourcing herbal medicines, it said that Britain is a major user of herbs, but despite this interest our own wild species play a remarkably small role in this market. Almost all of the tinctures, creams or infusions we use derive from plants that we import or cultivate. Using local plants for herbal remedies saves on imports and air miles backyard medicines are not only cheap, they are...

Herbal Associations and Organizations

The Mainstreaming of Herbal Medicine 55 Traditional Medicine and Herbal Remedies 69 Traditional Chinese, Tibetan, and Ayurvedic Medicine 70 Web Sites Focusing on Traditional Herbal Medicine 72 Herbal Remedies Are Not Risk Free 105 Web Sites That Discuss Adverse Herb Reactions

Different Mechanisms Of Action Of Bioactive Constituents

Observed effects may be the sum total of different classes of compounds having diverse mechanisms of action. The most widely used herbal medicine in Germany and Western countries is Gingko biloba (see Chapter 7). It is prescribed for ''brain dysfunction and to improve memory and cognition. In randomized placebo-controlled trials, the herb has been shown to improve memory impairment, cognitive performance, dementia, tinnitus, and intermittent claudication (9-11). The bioactive components of gingko are believed to include flavonoids and unique diterpenes called ginkolides. Gingkolides are potent inhibitors of the actions of platelet-activating factors, which are important for platelet activation and clotting (12). In addition, gingko Flavonoids are common compounds in plants with a role in the inhibition of interactions between plants and microbes. Soya products that contain flavonoids are thought to have potential health benefits in terms of cardiovascular health and postmenopausal...

German Model For Regulation Use And Scientific Evaluation Of Herbal Products

Despite the inherent difficulties of performing clinical trials on herbal products because of their myriad constituents, different mechanisms of action of bioactive constituents, unusual dose-response relationships, and the synergistic combinatorial effects of the many bioactive compounds, proper scientific evaluation and safe regulated use is possible. This is best exemplified by the herbal industry in Germany where herbal medicines have been regulated by imperial decree since 1901 (44). In 1976, the second medicines act was passed and sections of this act specifically addresses phytomedicines. This requires that the entire range of medicinal plants and phytomedicines be reviewed by scientific committees. In 1978, the German Minister of Health established an expert committee, Commission E, for herbal drugs and preparations. Commission E has 24 members including physicians, pharmacists, pharmacologists, toxicologists, biostatisticians, and representatives from the pharmaceutical...

Xicurcumin Affects Alzheimers Disease

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is characterized by increased cytokines and activated microglia. Epidemiological studies suggest reduced AD risk is associated with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whereas chronic ibuprofen suppressed inflammation and plaque-related pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic APPSw mouse model (Tg2576), excessive use of NSAIDs targeting cyclooxygenase can cause gastrointestinal, liver, and renal toxicity. One alternative NSAID is curcumin, which has an extensive history as a food additive and herbal medicine in India and is also a potent polyphenolic antioxidant. Lim et al. found that curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model (114). To evaluate whether it could affect Alzheimer-like pathology in the APPSw mice, they tested the effect of a low (160 ppm) and a high dose of dietary curcumin (5000 ppm) on inflammation, oxidative damage, and plaque pathology. Low...

Therapeutic Uses Of St Johns Wort

John's wort's use as an herbal remedy results from studies that appear to verify its efficacy, especially in treating mild to moderate depression. In return, its use has generated widespread interest among scientists seeking to firmly evaluate its effectiveness. Such studies have included in vitro analyses on the effects of St. John's wort extracts on isolated tissue samples, studies using animal models, and clinical analyses and meta-analyses of humans given St. John's wort extracts. Comprehensive reviews of the research on St. John's wort have been recently prepared by Greeson et al. (9) and Barnes et al. (10).

Indian Bibilography On Medicinal Plants

The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I, second revised edn., Ministry of Health, Govt. of India. 2003. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I., Vol I to IV (2004), (API), Ministry of Health, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, Marlowe & Company, New York. 1998. The British Herbal Compendium, British Herbal Medicine Association. The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia, British Herbal Medicine Association. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants, Ram P. Rastogi and BN Mehrotra, Vol. 5, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow. 1998. Published by NISCAIR, CSIR, New Delhi. Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants, Akhtar Husain et al., Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow. 1992. Herbal Medicine-Expanded Commission E Monographs, American Botanical Council, Austin. 2000. Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda, Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (National Academy of Ayurveda), New Delhi. 1998. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Medical Economics Company,...

Use comfrey for

Its levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids are much higher than those of common ciomfrey, the officiial speciies of herbalism. Russian comfrey is a hybrid between common comfrey and rough or prickly comfrey. Russian comfrey and prickly comfrey contain echimidine, the most toxic of the alkaloids, and are best limited to external use. The species hybridize readily and cian be difficiult to tell apart, but see above for guidelines. Growing conditions probably also have an effect on alkaloid levels, making the issue more complex.

Notes to the te

Harvesting from the wild x James Green, The Herbal Medicine-Makers Handbook A Home Manual (Berkeley, CA, 2000), 10 Steven Foster & James Duke, A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs Of Eastern and Central North America (Boston, MA, 1999) nettle and elderflower from William Woodville, Medical Botany, 4 vols (1790-3), courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich. BURDOCK 20-23 official British Herbal Medical Association, British Herbal Pharmacopoeia (1996), 49 Green, Herbal Medicine-Maker's Handbook, 35. courtesy of John Innes Foundation Historical Collections, Norwich Culpeper, 91 old herbalists Thomas Bartram, Bartram's Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine (1998 1995 ), 459 superlative remedy' Matthew Wood, The Practice of Traditional Western Herbalism (Berkeley, CA, 2004), 152 jaundice recipe Mary Norwalk, East Anglian Recipes, 2nd edn (Dereham, 1996 1976 ), 40. HORSE CHESTNUT 74-77 park figure cited in Independent, 24.8.06 Turkey Mclntyre, 52 Chris Howkins,...


AFI The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Revised English Edition API The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume British Herbal Ed. Bradley PR., published by British Herbal Medicine British Herbal Published by British Herbal Medicine Association, CCRAS Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi. Standard Nomenclature of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Lucknow. Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants, Akhtar Husain et al., 1992. PDR PDR for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition, 2005,

Use mint for

Medicinally, mint is classified as both cooling and heating, depending on use, species and form taken. This dual energetic pattern, tellingly, is recognized in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic and western herbal traditions. You can feel the effect when taking mint tea it warms, then cools the palate and digestion, even the skin it is stimulating and then soothing.

Equipment needed

You don't need any special equipment for making your own herbal medicines. You probably already have most of what you need. Kitchen basics like a teapot, measuring cups, saucepans, and a blender are all useful, as are jam-making supplies such as a jelly bag and jam jars.

What Is Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a division of herbal medicine that uses fragrant oils extracted from the roots, branches, bark, leaves, fruit, and flowers of various plants to enhance and improve health. It has its roots in ancient medical practice dating back to Egyptian times, although it was not called aromatherapy until 1928, when the term was coined by a French chemist named Renee Gattefosse, who documented the healing benefits of essential oils and wrote the first modern book on the topic.1 The word aromatherapy is a little misleading, since treatment is not just limited to inhaling vapors oils are often used during a therapeutic massage or simply added to bathwater. It should be emphasized that aromatherapy does not include the Bach flower remedies, a complex system of flower healing developed in the 1930s by British physician Edward Bach (1886-1936). The Bach remedies involve flower extracts and their essence or life force to improve the mental and emotional well-being of a patient.4 The Bach...

Herbal Folklore

It should be remembered that herbs generally have a long history of use, with some dating back several thousand years. For some there are written records, detailing uses and observations, while information about others survived only through oral traditions. In traditional herbalism, this herbal folklore has been a rich source of information. The word folklore is often used in the context of traditional medicine, referring to the traditional beliefs, legends, and customs of a par ticular group of people. In many countries, the tradition of folk medicine originated in centuries-old indigenous healing systems that flourished long before the development of Western scientific medicine. Folk medicine usually implies the care of the sick by unlicensed healers, or folk healers, including those who practice herbal medicine. Herbal folklore has played an important role in preserving knowledge about herbal remedies and, in recent years, has become of increasing interest to many people in the...


The English medical literature is demonstrably biased toward positive results, and negative trials thus tend to emerge in journals published in other languages (22). It is therefore important to not restrict systematic reviews to the English literature. In herbal medicine this is perhaps more important than in other areas since much of the primary trial data used to be published in German.

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