Herbal Treatments for Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook

If you have an autoimmune disease, recipes can often be hard to find and you are often told the huge amounts of things like chocolate and certain foods with too high of a fat content that you can and can't eat. This eBook gives recipes that anyone can prepare without too much trouble. Even if you don't like cooking, this book makes cooking easy and breaks it down into steps. Best of all, the recipes do not taste like healthy medicine recipes. These recipes are delicious foods that anyone would want to eat, even if they didn't have to eat healthy. This book contains over 70 amazing recipes for anyone with an autoimmune disorder. The book comes with two free ebooks: 7 Steps to Living Well With an Autoimmune Disorder and The Top 10 Autoimmune Diseases Checklist. If you want to learn about your autoimmune disease and the best and worst foods for you, this is the book for you! Read more here...

Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook Overview


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Samantha Miller
Official Website: ykcmedia.co
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My Autoimmune Paleo Cookbook Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

Overall my first impression of this book is good. I think it was sincerely written and looks to be very helpful.

Is there a connection between virus infection and autoimmune disease

A comment about the relationship of virus infection to autoimmune disease in general is warranted. Infectious mononucleosis occurs only when adolescents or young adults are infected with the EBV. The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis (and other autoimmune phenomena) occur as a result of the immune reaction to the viral infection. Dr. Gertrude Henle, who discovered the relationship between EBV and infectious mononucleosis, studied a possible link between MS and this virus it was concluded that there was none. Research continues because of consistently high antibody titers to EBV in many patients with MS. HSV-6 and HSV-7 are very closely related families of viruses. Indeed, their structure (EBV, HSV-6, and HSV-7) is two thirds identical, which has made

Measurement Of Disease Activity And Damage In Different Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Because specific clinical or biologic markers for the assessment of the degree of overall activity or cumulative damage in systemic autoimmune diseases do not exist, the measurement of these disease status entities can be facilitated by developing specific criteria for each disorder.2-4 Such instruments are mainly designed to precisely assess activity or damage in patients enrolled in controlled therapeutic trials, but can also be used in daily clinical care. During the past 30 years, several activity criteria have been developed for the majority of the systemic autoimmune diseases.4 While a plethora of activity criteria have been proposed for systemic lupus erythematosus,5 a more restricted number has been validated and recommended for use in clinical and therapeutic trials and in daily practice.8

B12 deficiency and autoimmune disorders

It seems strange that B12 deficiency is involved in both under-activation and over-activation of the immune system. However, it's true, because one cause of vitamin B12 deficiency is pernicious anemia, an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its own cells. New research is questioning whether pernicious anemia is an autoimmune disorder or possibly caused by an infectious disease, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Researchers are investigating the possibility that long-standing H. pylori leads to atrophic gastritis and is the catalyst for the induction of gastric autoimmunity. This new theory is still under debate.24 Regardless of the cause, patients with autoimmune pernicious anemia need monitoring by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) because of their increased risk for gastric cancer and carcinoids (a type of neuroendocrine tumor). Chronic elevation of the hormone gastrin (which occurs in PA patients) may cause tumors called gastrinomas.

Related Autoimmune Diseases

In humans, clustering of autoimmune diseases such as SLE, RA, AITD, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and SS within families frequently has been documented.18 Autoimmune serologic abnormalities are frequent (up to 55 , depending on the antibody specificity) in otherwise healthy family members.19 Sharing of clinical and serologic features among related diseases also occurs. For example, subsets of patients who have SLE or SS may share similar symptoms (commonly including arthralgias, myalgias, fatigue, rashes, and visceral involvement from vasculitis) or serologic abnormalities, such as antinuclear autoantibodies, anti-Ro SSA, or anti-La SSB autoantibodies.20 Some features of SS are shared more commonly with RA patients, such as arthritis and production of rheumatoid factor antibodies. Furthermore, in studies using high-density gene expression microarrays, the authors and colleagues have identified key disease pathways that are present in multiple disease phenotypes. For example, pathways...

What is autoimmunity

Autoimmunity is an immune reaction against self. Autoimmune disease implies that tissue damage is a result of an autoimmune (autoallergic) reaction. This may be the result of antibody production or as a result of lymphocytes (CD4+) causing damage directly or in concert with macrophages. There is a third type of immunologic reaction, an antibody-mediated tissue damage in which different lymphocytes (CD8+) cause additional damage. All three types of reactions are Autoimmunity

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune inflammation of the inner ear may occur in isolation as an organ-specific process or may be part of a systemic autoimmune syndrome (20). Evidence is mounting to support the existence of an organ-specific cochlear autoimmune disease. The presence of antibodies to cochlear antigens, such as the 68 kD inner-ear antigen, as well as an impressive response to immunosuppressive medications, implicate autoimmunity as the underlying pathologic process in some patients with idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss. These patients with autoimmune inner-ear disease (more accurately termed immune-mediated inner-ear disease, since proof for autoimmunity is still lacking) have a fluctuating progressive sensorineural hearing loss, often associated with vertigo and tinnitus. Generally, hearing loss progresses rapidly, within a period of weeks and months, to an irreversible end-stage disease. While at any given moment, one ear may be more significantly affected, the process eventually affects...

Tolerance And Immune Regulation By Dendritic Cells

DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system.31 DCs are critical for the induction not only of central but also of peripheral tolerance. DCs present self-antigens to T cells leading to anergy or deletion in case of autoreactivity.32,33 Moreover, DCs are important for the induction of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) that act as suppressor cells and help in the maintenance of tolerance.34,35 Induction of autoimmune diseases by DCs has been demonstrated in model systems.36,37 Moreover, a recent study showed that mice with apoptosis-defective DCs display classical signs of autoimmunity, including antinuclear antibody production.38 This group further demonstrated that deficiency of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein, Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim), causes overstimulation of T cells and autoimmunity in DCs.39 As an activated type I interferon signature has been observed in salivary glands of patients who have SS,23,40 more attention has been given to...

Novel Biomarkers in Pancreatic Cancer

Bantia, S., Parker, C., Upshaw, R., Cunningham, A. & Kotian P. (2010). Potent orally bioavailable purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor BCX-4208 induces apoptosis in B- and T-lymphocytes-a novel treatment approach for autoimmune diseases, organ transplantation and hematologic malignancies. Int Immunopharmacol., 10(7) 784-90.

Cytokine Research And Biomarker Discovery

Cytokine profiles have been studied in blood and salivary gland tissues from patients who have SS61,69,70 and in mouse models for SS.42,71,73 Because cytokines are characterized by redundancy, pleiotropism, synergism, and antagonism, the interpretation of these results often is challenging. Applying the by now expanded concept of Th1 Th2 cytokines and autoimmunity, it has been postulated that Th2 cytokines may be predominant in an early phase of SS, whereas Th1 cytokines are associated with a later stage of the disease.72 Alternatively, studies in NOD mice revealed that the decrease in salivary flow, which is believed to follow the emergence of glandular inflammation,73 may be associated with Th2 cytokines.74,75 In NOD mice, commonly used as a model to study experimental SS, transition between the preclinical and overt disease state, manifested by the onset of hyposalivation, seems dependent on an intact signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) pathway.76 Revision of...

Modern Health Science

We are all aware that there are still disease conditions where the pathology is either unknown, only partially known, or extremely complex. To cite just a few the allergic conditions, autoimmune diseases, cancers, chronic illnesses, and viral infections. In these disease conditions, modern medicine offers control and palliative treatment, but not cure (8).

The Future Of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

As more is understood about the natural mechanisms for establishing and maintaining this tolerance, new drugs will be designed to treat MS. Our knowledge of immune regulation is built partly on the tremendous strides made in this century in augmenting with vaccines the immune system's ability to fight infectious diseases that once were uniformly fatal or disabling. Strategies for treating MS and other autoimmune diseases, and for tolerating transplanted organs, may include vaccines to train the immune system not to react.

Pallida Echinacea Purpurea

Tem, echinacea is not recommended for patients with autoimmune disease or HIV for fear of worsening the disease. This concern remains a theoretical risk rather than an established fact. No long-term data on the safety of chronic use are available at present. No significant drug interactions have yet been identified.

Applications for Transient Gene Therapy

The technical innovations described above are at best laboratory proofs that will require extensive animal studies before clinical testing. However, the clinical data to date suggests that success with currently available Ad vectors is possible in applications where transient expression might be sufficient. For example, studies of therapeutic angiogenesis for coronary artery disease described above are a prototype of this type of application. Medical indications such as cancer, infectious disease, tissue remodeling (angiogenesis, recovery from surgery, stroke, or injury) are areas where development might be most appropriate. In contrast, metabolic and genetic disease, autoimmune disease, and other chronic conditions would seem to need substantial advances in adenoviral vector design or more likely some kind of hybrid vector before they become treatable on a persistent basis. Importantly, the knowledge of the cellular and host response to Ad infection in humans is still quite...

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the most common inflammatory joint disease, is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects approximately 1 of the population and causes significant disability. The etiology of RA is largely unknown, although current evidence suggests contributions from both environmental and genetic components (271). The chronic inflammation in the arthritic joint is characterized by recruitment of immune cells, including lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells, leading to massive thickening of the synovium

Michael J Haller MDa Mark A Atkinson PhDb Desmond Schatz MDc

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells that culminates in absolute insulin deficiency. T1D is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, usually presents with symptomatic hyperglycemia, and imparts the immediate need for exogenous insulin replacement. Approximately one fourth of patients with T1D are diagnosed as adults and often are labeled as having latent autoimmune disease of adults, however. Approximately 5 to 10 of adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes actually may have T1D. Terms such as ''juvenile diabetes'' and ''insulin-dependent diabetes'' have been replaced because they no longer adequately reflect our understanding of the natural history and patho-physiology of T1D. This article provides an in-depth review regarding our current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, and management of T1D as it relates to childhood and adolescence.

Detection of Soluble Fragments

V-CAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) is released from activated endothelial cells and the soluble fragment supports adhesion of a T-cell line. Higher serum levels were detected in patients with inflammatory diseases and malignancies (271, 272, 277, 278). Soluble c-erbB2 in serum ofbreast cancer patients is a marker of worse prognosis. Shedding of c-erbB2 results from c-erbB2 overexpression and proteolytic activity at the plasma membrane, two phenomena correlated with tumor aggressiveness (279, 280, 281). Soluble Fas ligand has been detected in the serum of leukemia (228). Increased serum levels of TNFR were found in serum of cancer patients and correlated with the stage of the disease. Other diseases in which soluble TNFR is increased are sepsis, infections and autoimmune diseases (266). Soluble is a serum marker for T cell activation in immune disorders and for IL-2Ra expressing malignancies (4). IL-1RII has a membrane-bound and a soluble form, that is found in biological...

Mechanisms and models of cancerrelated fatigue

'Known' by this we mean fatigue associated with conditions or diseases where a plausible mechanism can readily be identified based upon the known underlying pathophysiology. In this category would be included fatigue associated with exercise, myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, cardiac disease, chronic lung disease, severe anaemia, hypothyroidism, polio, and steroid myopathy.

Contraindications And Precautions

Commission E warns against using echinacea in cases of autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, SLE and RA, as well as tuberculosis or leukocytosis (Blumenthal et al 2000). This is based on theoretical considerations and has not been tested in controlled trials. In practice, echinacea has been successfully used by herbalists in autoimmune disease without mishap (Mills & Bone 2005). Duration of use Based on evidence that parenterally administered echinacea reversibly depresses immune parameters, Commission E has recommended that echinacea should not be used for more than 8 weeks. However, in a study in which it was taken orally for up to 6 months, no changes in immune parameters were detected (Vonau et al 2001). As such, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that long-term use is detrimental.

Characterization ofBCell Lymphoma in Sjogrens Syndrome Hepatitis C Virus Patients

Recent studies have also demonstrated a predominance of low-grade lymphoma in HCV patients with other associated autoimmune diseases, such as cryoglobulinemia.67,68 In addition, SS-HCV patients show a predominant ex-tranodal location of B-cell lymphoma in the exocrine glands, liver, and stomach.60 HCV can infect and replicate in these organs leading to in situ polyclonal B-cell activation and RF production. This may lead to these organs becoming the initial sites of B-cell neoplastic transformation.60 The predominant involvement of the parotid gland in both SS-HCV patients and patients with primary SS61 reinforces the etiopa-thogenic similarity between SS-HCV lymphoma and SS-related lymphoma compared with HCV-related lymphoma.

Treatment of BCell Lymphoma in Sjogrens Syndrome Hepatitis C Virus Patients

The additive association between SS and HCV in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma suggests an important role for the association of autoimmune and chronic viral diseases in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and reinforces the idea that autoimmunity, infection, and cancer may be closely related. A careful evaluation and follow-up of HCV patients with associated SS to aid early diagnosis and treatment of possible B-cell lymphoma should be recommended.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that most often affects teenage girls and young adult women. Less frequently, SLE occurs in both older and younger individuals and in boys. SLE often begins with fevers, rash, joint pains, and fatigue. Although these symptoms are worrisome, it is the ability of SLE to affect many different internal organs (brain, heart, lungs, muscles, kidneys, skin, joints, liver, or intestine) that makes this a serious illness. It is important that children who have SLE be promptly recognized so that they can be treated and internal organ damage prevented whenever possible.

Future Work Conclusions and Recommendations

Inflammation and cell proliferation are at the base of many chronic diseases and conditions, especially atherosclerosis and cancer, but also diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, mental health, and various autoimmune diseases. Individuals carrying genetic variants for these conditions are much more prone to develop them because the high n-6 n-3 ratio leads to proinflammatory and prothrombotic states.

Diagnosing Pernicious Anemia A Note for Physicians

Because PA is an autoimmune disease, people with this condition are at increased risk of acquiring other autoimmune diseases, such as thyroid autoimmune disorders (up to 32 ), type 1 diabetes (3-4 ), and vitiligo (2-8 ). Therefore, people with autoimmune disorders (and thyroid disorders in particular) should always be screened for pernicious anemia B12 deficiency. Conversely, people with true autoimmune pernicious anemia need to be screened yearly (or earlier if symptomatic) for thyroid disorders because of this increased association. Other autoimmune disorders associated with pernicious anemia include Addison's disease, premature ovarian failure, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, hypoparathyroidism, hypog-ammaglobulinemia, agammaglobulinemia, ulcerative colitis, and idio-pathic adrenocortical insufficiency.

Summary of Research and Conclusions

At least 11 studies have investigated the effects of enzymes in animals. Seven reported that enzymes inhibited inflammation or alleviated the signs and symptoms of autoimmune diseases.200-206 Four found that enzymes inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in rodents.207-210

Autoimmune Liver Diseases

Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (CAH) and PBC are autoimmune liver diseases frequently thought to be associated with Sjogren's syndrome. Again, older publications on this association are difficult to interpret because of the inconsistent definition of Sjogren's syndrome. In 1994, we found PBC in 9 and CAH in 4 of our primary Sjogren's syndrome patients.34 However, the definition of Sjogren's syndrome according to the Copenhagen criteria35 does not allow differentiation between sicca syndrome due to PBC or CAH and primary Sjogren's syndrome associated with these disorders. A new survey in 2008 revealed only 2 cases of PBC and 1 case of CAH among 109 consecutive primary Sjogren's syndrome patients, while another 2 patients with PBC had severe sicca syndrome without fulfilling the AECC criteria for primary Sjogren's syndrome (unpublished observation). These data are in concordance with Lazarus and Isenberg's publication of additional autoimmune diseases in primary Sjogren's syndrome,...

Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

The overlap between systemic autoimmune diseases and autoimmune thyroid disease is well known. Most studies, however, are from a time before the publication of the AECC criteria for primary Sjogren's syndrome and thus difficult to compare. Among more recent publications, the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease was 10 among 400 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome followed in Hungary. Seven percent had Hashimoto thyroiditis and 3 Graves disease, about twice as frequent as in the systemic lupus erythematosus cohort from the same center and more than 150 times higher than in the general nonautoimmune Hungarian population.40 Patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases had other systemic autoimmune diseases in 30 of the cases. Sjogren's syndrome was the most common associated systemic autoimmune disease (9.4 ) followed by mixed connective tissue disease. In contrast, a smaller study from Turkey could not confirm an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases or even...

What are genes What genes cause MS

(Figure 7) at a point on the short arm of the chromosome at location number 21. You have probably heard of these in relationship to organ transplantation but the majority of genes that play a role in immune function and autoimmunity are located in this location. There are 4 of these important gene loci (locations), A, B, C, and D. The A locus is a gene that codes for the MHC class I protein and it is the actual immune response gene for antibody production. The DR gene (at the D locus) is another immune response gene that codes for the so-called MHC class II protein that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. These reactions principally involve monocytes and CD4 lymphocytes. Although, the B locus is near the D locus, its role is obscure. There are many additional genes in this region of chromosome 6 that are involved in immune reactions.

Induction of Apoptosis by Ginsenosides

Apoptosis is responsible for a pathological mechanism related to human diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disease, viral infection, and neurode-generative disorder (71). Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to arrest cell cycle at the G1 phase and to prolong the S phase (72,73). It was reported that ginsenoside Rh2 induced apoptosis through protein kinase C in human neu-roblastoma SK-N-BE (2) and rat glioma C6Bu-1 cells (17). In addition, ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptosis independently of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, or Bax in C6Bu-1 cells (74). In a parallel study, it was found that ginsenoside Rh2-induced cell death was mediated by the generated reactive oxygen species and activation of the caspase pathway in a Bcl-xL-independent manner (75). These reports demonstrate that the induction of apoptosis by ginseng may be one of its anticarcinogenic mechanisms.

Lysosomal Cysteine Proteases and Antigen Presentation

CD4+ T cell development is dependent upon recognition of self-MHC class II-peptide complexes in the thymus by TCR receptors expressed on immature thymocytes. Thymocytes capable of recognition of relatively low avidity MHC class II-self-peptide ligands expressed on cortical TECs proceed further with their differentiation program. Thy-mocytes displaying TCR with a high avidity for MHC class II-peptide complexes, expressed primarily by thymic bone marrow-derived cells, are subjected to deletion via apoptosis in the process dubbed negative selection. Elimination of these precursors of autoreactive T cells serves as a critical mechanism of autoimmunity prevention. Dendritic cells represent the most efficient type of bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells mediating negative selection in the thymus and presenting foreign and self-antigens in the periphery.

Lupus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE

Lupus is an autoimmune disease, which means the immune system is confused and attacks the body's own tissues. Damage from lupus may affect the kidneys, lungs, and vascular system. The illness can cause arthritis and is characterized by a red rash, painful and sore joints, weak

Immunomodula Tion

According to in vitro data quercetin induces Th1 -derived cytokines (promoting cellular immunity) and inhibits Th2-derived cytokines, which exert negative effects on cellular immunity (Nair et al 2002). An excess of Th2 cytokines has also been implicated in allergic tendencies, which provides a theoretical basis for the use of quercetin as an anti-allergic substance. Conversely animal studies have demonstrated that quercetin is able to inhibit Th1 differentiation and signalling of IL-12 (Muthian & Bright 2004). As this occurred in the presence of a Th1 cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease model of multiple sclerosis suggestive of Th1 excess, a possibility exists that quercetin actually exerts an immunomodulatory effect on these cells. Further trials are required to elucidate the exact effects of quercetin under different conditions.

Does diabetes put me at risk of any other diseases or illnesses

Aside from the direct consequences of high blood sugar itself, which are discussed in Question 29, people with diabetes are at risk of suffering from other associated diseases. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the diseases either result from the high blood sugar or from the root cause of the diabetes, which is a predisposition to destroy the hormone-producing tissues (called autoimmunity). Thus, a person with type 1 diabetes is more likely to suffer from adrenal gland damage (Addison's disease), thyroid gland damage (Graves' or, much more commonly, Hashimoto's disease), and several other disorders. Fortunately, except in the case of Autoimmunity

Importance Of Vaccines

Even though inactivated vaccines are safer than their live attenuated counterparts, certain problems also exist with some inactivated vaccines. For instance, the whole organism used as the inactivated vaccine can be contaminated with components from cell culture that are not removed during the manufacturing process. This contaminated material may be important in autoimmune disease. Additional shortcomings with inactivated vaccines include contamination by components of the pathogen that are not important in the generation of protective immunity. These components may generate immune responses that are not relevant to protective immunity. Deleterious reactions, such as inflammation and allergic reactions, may also result from vaccination with the inactivated whole organism. These concerns regarding contaminants and the safety issues related to whole organism vaccines point to the use of purified subunit component vaccines.

Cs and Cytokines Cooperate for the Induction of Tregs

The therapeutic use of these IL-10 modulated DCs is under investigation since injection of in vitro-generated, IL-10-modified DCs is able to prevent autoimmunity in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (EAE) and prolonged graft survival significantly in an murine GVHD model (Muller et al. 2002 Sato et al. 2003). Although most of these protocols In this regard, TNFa may play a role, since it has been shown that injection of DCs cultivated in presence of TNFa acted in a tolerogenic fashion (Menges et al. 2002). In these experiments, DCs were able to block autoimmunity in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (EAE). This suppressive effect was mediated by the induction of IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. The subsequent phenotypic analysis revealed that the DCs expressed regular amounts of MHC class II, and T cell costim-ulatory molecules, i.e., according to the authors, these DCs displayed a mature phenotype as judged by their surface marker expression. In contrast, these DCs failed to...

Hematopoietic and Immune System

Exposure induces increases in the number of memory T cells, but with enhanced reactivity against self-antigens, priming the individual for autoimmune disease. In healthy adults, IgA concentration increases by 0.2 gl1 per decade throughout life. The T lymphocytes, however, respond more poorly to ongoing antigen assault in later life. Thymic involution associated with neural and hormonal changes of aging is an impediment to T-cell maturation in older persons. The basis of intrinsic function deficits of memory cells, on the other hand, has been ascribed to defective signaling and includes hyporesponsive-ness to mitogen-stimulated proliferation and decrease in genetic suppression, allowing increased stimulation of inflammatory cytokines the balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines shifts with aging, favoring the inflammatory pole, especially with the greater expression of interleukin 6. This has a negative systemic effect on bone metabolism, as well as dysregulating overall...

Components of cognitive dysfunction

Although there are few data exploring the relationship between mental fatigue and cognitive dysfunction in cancer patients, there is some information in other disease states. For instance, patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have impaired cognitive function that is not highly correlated with mood disturbance (Christodoulou et al. 1998). Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) manifest worsening scores on cognitive tests after a single continuous 4 h testing session, while healthy control subjects show improvement over the same period of time due to practice (Krupp and Elkins 2000). Both the patients with MS and the control subjects reported subjective physical and mental fatigue over the course of the testing session. Similar findings have been reported in patients with myasthenia gravis (Paul et al. 2000). Even healthy control subjects can develop cognitive impairments as a result of fatigue. The ability to make rapid decisions declines when people are exhausted from exercise...

Properties of an Interkingdom Signal

The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to signals in their environment is essential for normal cellular function in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. For example, bacterial cells communicate information about cell number through the process of quorum sensing while classic endocrine signaling in humans involves the transmission of information via secreted hormones transported in the circulation. Errors or deficiencies in signal production, interpretation, or processing can result in congenital or acquired diseases in humans such as cancer and autoimmunity. Although intracellular signaling is normally considered in the context of a single organism, whether it is a single-celled or multicellular organism, cells from different origins may inhabit common niches in which they are exposed to signals from disparate sources. One widely described example of such an interaction is the commensal relationship between bacteria and mammalian cells in the gut epithelium (Hooper and...

TGFpMediated Immunoregulation

Understanding immune regulation and tolerance remains a major challenge in immunology. As an immunosuppressive cytokine, TGF plays a key role in attenuating excessive pathological immune responses. Mice deficient in TGF , developed severe multifocal inflammatory disease and died shortly after birth (Shull et al. 1992). Since TGFg. can be produced by and act on virtually all cell types, the regulatory network invoked by TGF remains incompletely understood. To investigate the role of TGFP signaling in T cells, we engineered a strain of transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative TGF receptor II in T cells (Gore-lik and Flavell 2000). In these mice, T cells were found to differentiate spontaneously into effector T cells, which led to the development of autoimmunity and enhanced tumor immunity and immune responses to pathogens. In addition, we took a gain-of-function approach to study TGFP regulation of autoimmune diabetes by overexpressing this cytokine in the islets of the pancreas...

Of Cholesterol Gallstone Formation

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that afflicts more than 1 million people worldwide. The destruction of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheath in the CNS is the pathological hallmark of MS. MS is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the CNS resulting from myelin antigen-sensitized T cells in the CNS. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), a CD4 + Th1-cell-mediated inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the CNS, serves as an animal model for MS. IL-12 plays a crucial proinflammatory role in the induction of neural-antigen-specific Th1 differentiation and pathogenesis of CNS demyelination in EAE and MS.

Pemphigus And Pemphigoid

Pemphigus and pemphigoid are autoimmune diseases that produce blistering of skin and or mucosa. In pemphigus, intraepithelial blistering is caused by destruction of desmogleins that connect epithelial cells. Its most common variant, pemphigus vulgaris, begins with ulcerating lesions in the mouth, as the outer epithelium of the blister sloughs. Later, skin is also involved. In pemphigoid, the basement membrane is attacked, resulting in subepithelial blisters. Mucosal involvement nearly always begins in the mouth and can spread as far caudal as the larynx. It does not involve the subglottis or trachea (7). Pemphigoid is a subepithelial blistering disease that affects skin and mucous membranes, including the nose and larynx (8).

Expanded Disability Status Scale EDSS

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis is an autoimmune disease resembling MS that has been induced in some genetically susceptible research animals. Before testing on humans, a potential treatment for MS may first be tested on laboratory animals with EAE in order to determine the treatment's efficacy and safety.

Nonskeletal Consequences of Vitamin D Deficiency

As early as 1941, it was appreciated that if you lived at higher latitudes in the US you were at higher risk of dying of cancer. A multitude of epidemiologic studies clearly show that if you live at higher latitudes and are more prone to vitamin D deficiency then you are at higher risk of dying of colon, prostate, breast, ovarian, and a variety of other cancers. It is also known that living at higher latitudes increases risk of having high blood pressure and heart disease as well as autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes.

Increase Of Baff After Rituximab Therapy

In all autoimmune diseases, treated serum BAFF levels have increased after rituximab therapy. This phenomenon has been shown for RA,40,41 SLE, and SS.42,43 This increase has been attributed to the disappearance of BAFF-binding B cells in peripheral blood. This mechanism exists however, two independent studies41,42 have shown that, beyond this stoichiometric increase after disappearance of B cells, there was also a true homeostatic feedback characterized by increased BAFF mRNA expression in monocytes after rituximab administration. This increase in BAFF after rituximab could favor the stimulation of new autoimmune B cells. Using BAFF-targeted therapy after rituximab to avoid this increase in BAFF appears to be a promising therapeutic approach.

Regulatory T Cells in Psoriasis

12.1.1 Psoriasis as a T Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Disease 194 Abstract. Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease in which T lymphocytes are thought to be central in the pathogenesis. Recently, a T cell subset population was identified, whose role is to suppress inflammatory responses triggered by T effector cells. T cells in this new population are referred to as T regulatory cells. We studied their number and activity in psoriatic lesions and found that they are both numerically and functionally deficient in their ability to suppress the abnormally persistent psoriatic immune response. This deficiency may shed more light on the complex pathophysiology of psoriasis. Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease affecting as many as 2 of the population in the world. Though there have been differing viewpoints regarding the pathogenesis of psoriasis over the preceding decades, common consensus holds that it is an autoimmune disease, and likely the most common autoimmune disease. Though an...

Melanoma and Tumor Immunology

It is generally accepted that the spontaneous generation of cancer cells is a common event, and that the immune system assures a strict surveillance with the detection and elimination of these cells. To fight cancer, the idea to use the destructive power of immunologic reactions is easily visualized in autoimmune diseases and by the rejection of allografts in transplantation medicine. A number of clinical observations in human malignant melanoma suggest a particularly vigorous immune response (36,38,42). In recent years, it became more and more clear that T lymphocytes may play a critical role in antitumor immune responses and surveillance (36,43). Furthermore, CD8 + T lymphocytes derived from melanoma lesions or the peripheral blood were shown to be capable to mediate impressive tumor regressions in vivo (44,45). The availability and further characterization of such tumor-specific T cell clones in the recent years led to the identification of several melanoma-associated antigens...

Surgery and children See hospitalization

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) The more serious and potentially fatal form of the chronic autoimmune disease lupus erythematosus that affects many systems of the body. The milder form is discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is probably not one but several conditions while many systems of the body may be affected, it is also possible that the disease may affect just the skin. Although typically a disease of girls and young women, it can affect either sex and all age groups without regard to race. The disease commonly waxes and wanes, and its etiology is affected by heredity, autoimmu-nity, certain drugs, sex hormones, ultraviolet light, and viruses. positive test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), specific proteins that are a hallmark of rheumatic or autoimmune disease

Samantha S Soldan and Steven Jacobson

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most prevalent demyelinating disease of young adults, affecting an estimated 300,000 individuals in the United States alone. The natural history of the disease is unpredictable. The majority of affected individuals have a relapsing-remitting course, while a smaller subset have a more chronic-progressive presentation. Women are affected more often than men, a phenomenon associated with a number of autoimmune diseases. Although the etiology of MS is unknown, it is generally believed that genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors are involved. This chapter will highlight these issues as they suggest that exogenous factors are associated with the patho-genesis of this disorder. It has been suggested that infectious agents may comprise an environmental component of the induction and progression of this often debilitating neurological disorder. While many viruses have been investigated as potential triggers of MS, no virus to cells have crossed the...

Lindsay Whitton and Robert S Fujinami


DNA Vaccines against Autoimmune Diseases of the CNS of MS can vary from relapsing-remitting disease to chronic progression. What role might viruses play First, MS may be the result of a persistent virus infection, acting to drive a chronic immune response. Over the past several decades, various viruses have been advanced as the cause of MS but, to date, none of these suggestions has withstood further analysis as a result, enthusiasm for this hypothesis has perhaps diminished. However, while it is unlikely that MS results from persistent infection by a known virus, it is possible that it is caused by a virus which has yet to be identified. While it may be tempting to think that, at the millennium, we have identified all microbes and their associated infections, it has been estimated that only 0.4 of extant bacteria have been cataloged, and new viruses continue to be identified. Indeed, even entire virus families have been discovered in the past decade (e.g., the Bornaviridae,...

Programed and Genetic Theories

However, the genetics of longevity have not been as revealing in mammalian studies. In mouse systems genes involved with immune response have been implicated in longevity, as has the 'longevity gene p66shc, which is involved in signal transduc-tion pathways that regulate the cellular response to oxidative stress. In humans, a number of mitochon-drial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Linkage analysis in humans systems has associated certain genes on chromosome 4 with exceptional longevity. Further support for human longevity genes may be provided by the observation that siblings and parents of centenarians live longer. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the master genetic control of the immune system, may also be one of the gene systems controlling aging, since a number of genetic defects that cause immunodeficiency shorten the life span of humans. Certain MHC phenotypes have also been associated with malignancy, autoimmune disease, Alzheimer's disease, and...

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

Summing up this section, it has to be said that we are far from having interpreted the whole range of allergic disorders on the auricle. It would also be interesting to carry out diagnostic research into the various diseases in which autoimmunity is demonstrated or supposed it is possible that such a systematic study could give us useful information for increasing the therapeutic potentialities of ear acupuncture.

Pathogenic Autoantibodies

Recently, a novel family of autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic antigens has been added to the family of RNA-binding autoantibodies detectable in sera from patients with SS and other autoimmune disorders. GW P antibodies target cytoplasmic structures that are involved in mRNA processing, RNA interference, and mRNA degradation. Proteins targeted by GW P antibodies contain a glycine tryptophan rich mRNA-binding sequence.82 Preliminary data from a single study have suggested that the clinical presentations most commonly associated with seropositiv-ity to GW body epitopes are neurologic disorders. Selection of sera reactive against GW body autoantigens identified a cohort of 55 patients with a mean age of 61, the majority of whom had SS and neurologic disease.83 The most common clinical presentation, based on retrospective review of 42 patients in whom clinical data was available, was neurologic in 33 (ataxia, motor, and sensory neuropathy). Interestingly, 44 of the patients with...

Pathophysiologic Factors That Convert Latent Acureflex Points To Passive Points

The causes of muscle pain just discussed are related to abnormal musculoskeletal mechanics. The second category of causes of muscle pain is related to medical illness, such as autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, allergies, hormonal and nutritional deficiencies, viscerosomatic pain syndromes, and iatrogenic drug-induced muscle pain syndromes. The relationship of some of these conditions to muscle pain is more difficult to confirm. When such an illness is identified and treated, the muscle pain is reduced or resolved, but clinicians must be cautious about assuming a causal relationship.12 Autoimmune diseases, particularly connective tissue diseases, also create passive acu-reflex points. For any muscular pain of head, neck, or shoulder, the possibility of polymyalgia rheumatica must certainly be considered. Even though needling helps relieve the pain, consulting a physician for the appropriate test is necessary in these cases.

Sleepdisordered breathing disorders in neurological diseases

Generation of respiratory movements (neuromuscular disorders). Vascular damage to the respiratory center may lead to central respiratory disturbances. Neurodegenerative disease can damage the respiratory center (Cormican, 2004), as well as demyelinating lesions (Auer, 1996) located within the respiratory center. Damage of the axons projecting from respiratory center to spinal cord a-motoneurons (cervical spine trauma, demyelinating plaques in multiple sclerosis) can cause respiratory disorders. Damage to the a-motor neurons of the spinal cord (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, post-polio syndrome) leads to respiratory failure (Aboussouan, 2005). Similarly, peripheral nerve conduction abnormalities (Guillian-Barre syndrome and congenital polyneuropathy) may lead to hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Disorders of the neuromuscular transmission (myasthenia gravis, botulinum toxin poisoning) and primary muscle disorders (myopathies, muscular dystrophy) can cause respiratory disorders....

Inflammatory Mediators

Studies of autoimmune disease in animal models have suggested a pathogenic role for both autoantibody production and intrathecal production of inflammatory cyto kines in the pathogenesis of nervous system disorders.109 Behavioral changes and cognitive dysfunction are well described in several animal models of spontaneous autoimmune disease.110-112 The deficits in hippocampal learning and memory, which occur in autoimmune mice, are similar to the cognitive disturbances found in patients with SLE and SS.113,114 In the animal models of chronic autoimmune disease, cognitive dysfunction develops early in the absence of gross CNS damage.112,113 Up- Evidence linking IFN-a with neuropsychiatry symptoms in cancer and HCV suggests a potential role for interferon inducible inflammatory cytokines in mediating the cognitive and affective disorders in medically ill patients, particularly persons with rheumatic disorders however, the data exploring the relationship between neuropsychiatry symptoms...

Neuromuscular Disorders

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by the gradual progression of weakness over several weeks to months. The weakness tends to progress throughout the day and is worsened with physical exertion. MG is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to acetylcholine receptors bind to the receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, causing internalization and degradation of the receptors. Dysphagia is the presenting sign in 6 to 15 of adult patients (10). Bulbar and facial muscles are often affected and those patients with bulbar involvement typically have worse dysphagia and often aspirate. Treatment initially consists of medication with Mestinon (pyridostigmine), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and possibly thymectomy. As disease progresses, some patients are offered plasmapheresis. Swallowing function varies as muscle function varies, so patients should be encouraged to eat early in the day and after medication.

Clinical Manifestations

While dryness is known to occur in the eyes and mouth, it can also occur in other organ systems including skin, vagina, ear, nose (blockage, dryness, and epistaxis are common crusting and hyposmia are rare), and throat (hoarseness chronic, nonproductive cough). A recent paper on otolaryngological examinations of 111 patients with primary SS and 26 patients with secondary SS reported that symptoms were common, but objective observations were rare and included dry mucosa, postnasal drip, and middle ear effusion (8). Sensorineural hearing loss of high-frequency hearing may be present and associated with autoimmunity, but is considered to be of limited clinical impact in SS (8-10).

Cytokine activation of the hypothalamopituitaryadrenal axis

Crf Hpa Axis

Abstract The discovery that peripheral administration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) to rats potently activated the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, initiated a new understanding of the interactions between the immune system and the brain. It was proposed, and widely accepted that the increase in circulating concentrations of glucocorticoids provided a negative feedback to limit immune activity, and to prevent autoimmunity. Administration of certain other cytokines (interleukin-6, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor a, and certain interferons) also activates the HPA axis, but none is as potent or as effective as IL-1. This chapter reviews the evidence that cytokines activate the HPA axis, and the mechanisms by which they do so. Many of the cytokines appear to act via the brain, resulting in the activation of the corticotropin-releasing factor-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. However, direct actions of cytokines on the anterior pituitary and on the...

HDAC Inhibitors in Models of Inflammatory Diseases 321 Models of Lupus Erythematosus

An unexpected finding of HDAC inhibitors was the reduction in disease severity of models of murine autoimmune disease. The mouse model for systemic lupus erythematosus is the lpr lpr mouse that develops a spontaneous disease characterized by nephritis, proteinuria and early death. Trichostatin A was injected into these mice before the onset of significant disease for 5 weeks. Because trichostatin A in water is insoluble, the vehicle was also used for 5 weeks of treatment. Trichostatin A treatment resulted in significantly less proteinuria in addition, there was histolog- IFNy is an important cytokine in several autoimmune diseases but is of particular importance in the pathogenesis of lupus erythematosus. The animal model for this disease is the lpr lpr mouse, which develops a spontaneous proteinuria and lethal nephritis. Neutralization of IL-18 reduced the proteinuria and decreased the lethality (Bossu et al. 2003). In human PBMCs, SAHA reduces IFNy induced by endotoxin or by the...

Treatment of Th1Mediated Autoimmune Skin Diseases Using AntiIFNy

Psoriasis is now generally considered to be a Th-1-mediated autoimmune disease, with evidence implicating the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-y and TNF-a (Ozawa and Aiba 2004). IFN-y has also been shown to trigger psoriasis (Fierlbeck et al. 1990), and psoriatic epidermal T cells produce and secrete IFN-y within the lesion (Koga et al. 2002). The level of IFN-y in the sera of psoriasis patients has been found to positively correlate with all indices of disease severity (Jacob et al. 2003). Since our trial, more experimental evidence has strongly implicated IFN-y in the pathogenesis of AA. Researchers presenting results at the Alopecia Workshop of the 4th Intercontinental Meeting of Hair Research Societies in Berlin, induced AA in wild-type and IFN-y knockout mice by grafting lesional AA skin from alopecia-affected mice. The knockout mice were found to be resistant to the development of AA compared to 90 of the wild-type mice, who developed alopecia. It was hypothesized that, with no...

Physiological Activities of Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes

Regulate the overall characteristic of an immune response by its ability to promote a Th2-type response, which is characterized by immunoglob-ulin (Ig) class switching to IgG1 and IgE and increased production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. The ability of PGE2 to inhibit many of the responses initiated by T-cell activation supports a central role for PGE2 within the immune response. Moreover, PGE2 has inhibitory and protective functions in autoimmune disease. Administration of PGE2 or its analogs can ameliorate the manifestations of autoimmunity and reduce immune-mediated organ injury, and can also delay or prevent allograft rejection.

Healthy Properties Of Sourdough Bread

Cereals are widely used in human diets throughout the world. Prolamin proteins of cereals are responsible for an autoimmune disorder known as celiac disease or gluten intolerance, which is activated by the intake of prolamin-containing foods. Although numerous studies are under way to find a pharmacological treatment, the only solution at the moment is a diet free of gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other cereals. Several attempts have been made to reduce the toxic proteins in bread by enhancing their hydrolysis via microbial enzymes or native enzymes of cereals. The use of selected lactobacilli, able to extensively

Epidemiology of Celiac Disease

Diagnosed celiac disease appears to be more common in women than men. However, in those individuals who are identified by population-based screening, the prevalence of the disease appears to be equal between genders. The explanation for this is unclear, however, presentation of disease may be more common in women because of the nutritional challenges posed by pregnancy and menstruation, especially when producing iron deficiency anemia. The predisposition of women to autoimmune disease may also increase the likelihood of the occurrence of symptomatic celiac disease.

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Pemphigus is a rare disease that affects mucosal membranes. Although the term pemphigus may be erroneously used interchangeably with the condition bullous pemphigoid, it is a separate entity warranting a separate discussion. Pemphigus is characterized by vesicular lesions and bulla. There are multiple subtypes, with pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus being the most common (7). Other subtypes include pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigus herpetiformis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, drug-induced pemphigus, and IgA pemphigus. Although it is a disease of all ages, it typically occurs between the ages of 30 and 60. Pemphigus affects males and females equally. There is no known ethnic predilection. Its pathogenesis stems from an autoimmune mechanism in which circulating antibodies target keratinocyte cell surfaces. Cell-to-cell adhesion is disrupted and antibody complexes activate the complement cascade, creating local tissue damage. The cause of this...

Peculiarities Of The Clinical Spectrum Of Ss

Primary SS is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands and commonly presents as persistent dryness of the mouth and eyes because of functional impairment of the salivary and lachrymal glands. However, other epithelial organs may be involved, including liver, lung, and kidney. The histologic hallmark of SS is lymphocytic infiltration of the involved tissues (exocrine and nonexocrine epithe-lia). In early lesions the inflammatory infiltrates are mainly comprised of activated T cells, while in more advanced lesions B cells are predominant. In some tissues, and in particular phases of the disease, T- and B-lymphocytes form pseudofollicular structures surrounding the target epithelial chronic cells. Persistent B-cell activation and proliferation is considered to be another important feature of the disease.12 Autoantibody production and hypergammaglobulinemia represent the serologic counterpart of this phenomenon, while cutaneous vasculitis, glomerulonephritis,...

Cordyceps Acts On The Immune System

In contrast to the above-mentioned different lines of evidence, Cordy-ceps was shown to suppress immunity function. In cultured T lymphocytes, the application of either natural or cultured Cordyceps onto the cultures inhibited the lymphocyte blastogenesis stimulated by concanavalin A (Con A), and that effect was in a dose-dependent manner. Cultured Cordyceps also significantly inhibited E-rosette formation in humans and prolonged the survival of skin allografts and cardiac tissue transplantation in mice (39,40). Systemic lupus erythematosus is an important autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of multiple autoantibodies in serum, of which antinuclear antibodies are the predominant species and anti-dsDNA antibodies are the disease-specific species. Female NZB NZW F1 mice, a typical lupus animal model, were fed with Cordyceps at dosages of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.10 g day from the time they were 6 weeks old. Mice treated with C. sinensis at 0.1 g day had a longer survival time...

Candidate Diseases For Cutaneous Gene Therapy

Gene transfer has become a practical method to induce an immune response. The skin is rich in antigen-presenting cells that are able to initiate and control a specific immune response. It has been demonstrated that injection of naked DNA that encodes antigenic epitopes can induce specific humoral immune responses (173). The advantages of immunomodulation by genetic vaccination are evident for example, there is no need to isolate and purify protein for vaccination, and it circumvents the use of life or attenuated viral vaccines. In addition, cutaneous transfer of plasmid DNA or mRNA allows for the concurrent delivery of genetic material encoding antigenic epitopes and immunomodulators (174,175). All these make cutaneous genetic transfer a desirable method for engineering specific immune responses. This strategy has been used to induce immune responses with different objectives, such as antitumoral immunotherapy, treatment prevention of infections, and treatment of autoimmune diseases...

Stephen D Miller Yael Katz Levy Katherine L Neville and Carol L Vanderlugt

The mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of autoimmune diseases are not well understood. Clinical and epidemiological evidence indicate that viral infections may be important in induction of autoimmunity. Postulated mechanisms by which virus infections may lead to autoimmune disease include molecular mimicry activation of autoreactive T cells secondary to an encounter with a pathogen that is shared or cross-reactive with self-antigens (Fujinami and Oldstone, 1985) epitope spreading de novo activation of autoreactive T cells by release of sequestered antigens secondary to tissue destruction that is mediated by virus-specific T cells (Vanderlugt et al., 1998 McRae et al., 1995 Miller and Karpus, 1994) and viral superantigens nonspecific activation of autoreactive T cells via stimulation of T cells bearing particular VP receptors (Scherer et al., 1993). Our laboratory has utilized both the relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) model of MS and the...

Catching Fibromyalgia

Interestingly, some people (mostly women) have an immune system that apparently becomes hyperactive, turning on itself. This is called an autoimmune reaction, and it may be a cause of fibromyalgia. This may explain why a large number of patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus ery-thematosus (SLE) also have fibromyalgia. Conversely, other people may have lethargic immune systems that are basically run down. Both extreme paths may ultimately lead to fibromyalgia. This theory makes particular sense, especially when considering that many people with an already-diagnosed autoimmune disease, such as lupus, may also suffer from a form of fibromyalgia. Therefore, all people being diagnosed with fibromyalgia should have an evaluation to make sure that they don't have a recognized autoimmune disorder that's precipitating their FMS symptoms.

Immunological Inflammatory Diarrheal Disorders

Regulator Cell Activation

If a child presents with an AIE, the onset is often within the first 3 or 4 months in the form of severe diarrhea which can be bloody 15 . The majority of boys with AIE present in addition with severe atopic skin disease, hema-tological abnormalities along with endocrinopathy, such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or thyroiditis. This association was described as IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, autoimmune enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome 15, 17, 18 . It is interesting to note that boys with IPEX also show severe immunoallergic symptoms with a strong Th2 response and hyper-IgE syndrome having some similarities with extremely severe food allergy. Isolated or oligosymptomatic forms of severe AIE exist in both, boys and girls. Prior to the onset of AIE IPEX, these children develop completely normal, and no antenatal or neonatal particularities exist 19 . It is important to stress that the family history is most often positive for various autoimmune diseases. This...

Omega3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

Protects against age-related macular degeneration Alleviates autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis Protects against certain types of cancer Mitigates inflammation reactions and asthma The typical Western diet has a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids of between 15 1 and 20 1. Several sources of information suggest that a very high omega-6 to omega-3 ratio may promote many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Fish provides an adequate intake of these omega-3 fats, thus improving the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty-acid ratio. Most experts do not advise the routine use of fish-oil supplements they favor eating fish and shellfish regularly in the context of a healthy diet and a regular pattern of physical activity. Whereas some research shows benefits of fish-oil supplements, research has also shown that people with weakened immune systems should avoid large doses of fish oil. The final conclusion as to whether it...

Accelerated Test Methods for Metal Ion Oxidation

As we analyzed the degraded polymer, we began to suspect that metal ions released from the conductor coils may somehow be involved as catalysts.77 In addition, the medical literature contained new reports revealing the discovery that oxygen free radicals actually could be produced in vivo. We discovered from studying the autoimmune disease and pathology literature that the mechanism by which implanted devices become encapsulated in fibrous tissue (known as the foreign body response) involved the release of oxidants. These include hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen free radicals, such as super oxide anion ('-O2) and hydroxyl radical ('OH).18,19 These oxygen free radicals could not possibly affect the inside of the device because of their extreme reactivity. However, H2O2 permeates the polyurethane even more rapidly than water to decompose on the metallic conductor wire. A hypothesis evolved that metal ions released from the conductor coils as a result of interactions with H2O2 could...

What about [Fill in the Blank Other Possible Causes

Attacks the body's own pancreas, killing the cells that produce insulin. The lack of insulin then causes the symptoms of diabetes. Dr. Warren proposed that some autistic children might undergo such an autoimmune process, but that the organ of the body attacked by the immune system in the case of autism is the brain rather than the pancreas. A few studies have found evidence of antibodies (immune proteins usually produced to combat infections) that recognized brain cells as foreign in some children with autism spectrum disorders. One further prediction of the autoimmunity theory is that children with autism should have a higher rate of other autoimmune illnesses, such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and the like. Some studies have indeed found an elevated rate of some of these difficulties in both children with autism spectrum disorders and their family members. You may have read newspaper stories or heard other media accounts linking vaccinations and...

Does shortness of breath mean Im worse

Shortness of breath occurs in diseases that weaken the muscles of the chest wall and diaphragm. These are the muscles that surround the lungs and act as a bellows. During inspiration they contract, dropping the pressure around the lungs, which causes the lungs to expand, forcing air from the atmosphere into the alveoli. During expiration the chest wall muscles relax, narrowing the space around the lungs and expelling air. Diseases that cause weakness of the muscles of the chest wall and diaphragm include muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and Lou Gehrig's disease. The resulting paralysis is similar to the deliberate paralysis caused by curare-like agents that are used in anesthesia.

Medication generictrade Alprazolam Xanax

Also reports that she tosses and turns all night and feels fatigued during the day. She attributes these symptoms to a stressful job in an uncertain economy and perhaps also the start of menopause, although her periods are still normal. Her gynecologist tested her hormone levels and found they were all within normal range. She was given the alpha-blocker Clonodine, 0.5 mg at bedtime, and that helped her fall asleep, but it did not help her to stay asleep. Further, it did nothing for her pain. A rheumatologist confirmed that she had FM, but he did not want to manage her symptoms, as he preferred to care for people with rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and other autoimmune diseases. Her primary provider was not familiar with FM treatments but knew that Duloxetine was recently approved for the treatment of FM whether patients have concurrent depression or not. He had Caroline start as the Duloxetine package insert suggested, at 30 mg with breakfast. After a few weeks he increased the dosage...

Key Nutrients Involved in Host Resistance to Infection

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Ascorbic acid is rapidly mobilized and utilized in infection and high levels of ascorbic acid are found in leucocytes. Studies in humans and animals have found a reduced T-cell response, delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, and reduced epithelial integrity in vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C supplementation is associated with increased lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen, increased phagocytosis by neutrophils, and decreased serum lipid peroxides. A role for vitamin C has been suggested in the treatment of autoimmune diseases as well as in delaying the progression of HIV to AIDS however, further research is required to confirm such a role. The effectiveness of ascorbic acid in preventing and reducing the duration of acute respiratory infection also remains controversial. Claims that high intakes of vitamin C can prevent the common cold have not been corroborated, although there is evidence of a decrease in duration and alleviation of symptoms of the...

Intrauterine Influences

The key issue of Geschwind's theory is the role of elevated testosterone levels in the development of a symmetric brain. Elevated testosterone levels also affect the development of the thymus, leading to a higher incidence of immune disorders. For this reason, Geschwind's model predicts a relation between handedness and autoimmune diseases. Geschwind and Behan (1982) reported raised frequencies of autoimune diseases in left-handers and

Inflammatory Diseases

Numerous clinical trials have investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, lupus erythematosus and migraine headaches (Belluzzi 2002, Belluzzi et al 1996, Miura et al 1998, Simopoulos 2002). Although not all trials have produced positive results, many of the placebo-controlled trials reveal significant benefit in chronic disease, including decreased disease activity and sometimes, reduced requirement for anti-inflammatory medicines (Adam et al 2003). Rheumatoid arthritis Of the inflammatory diseases, the use of fish oil supplementation is most widely seen in RA. According to multiple randomised, controlled studies, fish oil supplements have been consistently shown to reduce symptoms in RA, such as the number of tender joints on physical examination and the amount of morning stiffness (Adam et al 2003, Cleland et al 2003, Kremer 2000, Ulbricht & B sch 2006,...

Of North America

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is atypical among the major autoimmune rheumatic diseases encountered by the rheumatologist. The predominance of ocular, oral mucosal, and exocrine gland pathology accompanied by the copresence of multiple organ-specific autoimmune disorders results in a somewhat unfamiliar diagnostic and therapeutic landscape. The lack of universally accepted diagnostic, classification, and outcome criteria, as well as the need for close collaboration with ophthalmologic, dental, and otolaryngologic subspecialists for optimal patient management, all contribute to challenges in management. Nevertheless, SS affords rheumatologists and immunologists an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis, long-term evolution, and outcome of an autoimmune disease that possesses both organ-specific and systemic features. In addition, the frequent co-occurrence of SS with other major rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosis, and scleroderma, affords a...

B cells Biomarkers

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting mainly the exocrine glands. Nearly all patients complain of a persistent feeling of dry mouth (xerostomia) and dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca).1,2 The subjective symptoms can be confirmed by objective tests, showing significant functional impairment in saliva secretion capacity and tear production. Histologic evaluation of the salivary and lacrimal glands show large and persistent infiltrates of mononuclear cells within the glandular tissue. Beside lymphocytic infiltration, acinar epithelial cell atrophy and progressing fibrosis can be observed within glands from patients who have SS. Traditionally, loss of secretory capacity, degree of lymphoid infiltration and production of specific autoantibodies were anticipated to correlate with each other and indicate disease state and disease severity.1,2 The correctness of this assumption is, however, difficult to prove and may not apply to all patients. Processes...


As is true for most autoimmune diseases, the etiology of SS is at present unknown. Environmental factors in concert with an appropriate genetic background are believed to be capable of triggering SS. The enigma of the initiating event leading to the accumulation of mononuclear cells in the exocrine glands characteristic of SS has not yet been solved, however. A viral infection targeting the salivary glands has been proposed as the origin of such inflammation.7-9 Subsequently, the immune attack, initially serving the purpose of host-defense, might through molecular mimicry be converted into a pathologic immune reaction directly targeting self-determinants. Another concept follows the perception that autoimmune diseases arise from a divergence between the actual tissue state and the immune system's perception of the situation.10 Autoimmune diseases, in such a case, would be marked by insufficient anti-autoimmune regulation against key self-molecules. As is true for other autoimmune...


In vitro experiments have demonstrated the possible benefits of andrographolide on various cancer cells. The compound has been shown to increase apoptosis of prostate cancer cells (Kim et al 2005), inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells and increase IL-2 induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro (Kumar et al 2004, Rajagopal et al 2003). However, contradictory results have been described from a murine model. Andrographolide was found to decrease IFN-gamma and IL-2 production and therefore shown to have an immunosuppressive effect. Burgos et al (2005) concluded that andrographis may be useful for autoimmune disease, especially where high levels of IFN-gamma are present, for example, in multiple sclerosis and RA. In vitro and in vivo data has recently shown that andrographolide has the ability to interfere with T-cell proliferation, cytokine release and maturation of dendritic cells, as well as drastically decreasing the antibody response in delayed-type...


This the body must eliminate. First, the liver turns ammonia into urea, which is less toxic. Then the kidneys remove the urea from the bloodstream, using extra amounts of water in the flushing process. This in turn causes an increased loss of minerals, especially calcium. If there is insufficient carbohydrate in the diet, in order to meet energy demands especially of the brain, protein in muscle tissue is used, which results in a loss of lean body mass. High dietary intake of protein can also exacerbate allergies and autoimmune diseases by aggravating the immune system.


May comprise a viral infection of target organs interfering with innate immune mechanisms, leading to an inappropriate activation of the adaptive immune system, subsequently targeting self-determinants. Another concept presupposes that the genesis of autoimmune disease arises from defective immune regulation against key self-molecules. In such a case, self-antigens or other biologic agents, independent of their antigenic relationship with the actual disease-causing antigen, could be of benefit in the re-establishment of immunologic tolerance without resorting to long-term immunosuppression. Further investigations regarding regulatory processes in the progression of SS are necessary. Results published regarding anti-CD20 treatment in SS are encouraging and shed new light on the role of B cells in the pathogenesis and hopefully will soon provide physicians with an attractive option for treatment of SS. Advanced analytic platforms, such as multiplex immunoassays, mass spectrometry, and...

Genetic Epidemiology

SS is a common condition that disproportionately affects women by an odds ratio of more than 9 1 and usually presents during the fourth or fifth decade of life. Patients typically are classified as having primary SS (pSS) when additional autoimmune diseases are not evident or secondary SS (sSS) when a concurrent diagnosis of a well-defined autoimmune disease is recognized. Estimates of the prevalence of primary SS worldwide range from 0.2 to 3.39 (ie, 200-3390 cases 100,000 population) however, most estimates are closer to 0.5 to 0.7 .1-6 Ethnic specific prevalence rates outside of European and North American cohorts have not been well defined. At present, there is no evidence to suggest temporal or geographic clustering of SS. Similar to related autoimmune diseases, such as SLE and RA, susceptibility to SS likely is complex and results from variation in multiple genes.1 Evidence for a genetic component often is derived from studies demonstrating increased concordance rates among...

Snapshot Of Ms

No one knows exactly what causes MS, although it is thought to be an autoimmune disease, meaning the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Although MS is not directly inherited, MS seems to occur after a person who has one or more hereditary factors (genes) that make him or her susceptible to the disease encounters something in the environment that serves as a trigger.

HLA Associations

6 contains 140 genes between flanking genetic markers MOG and COL11A2.49 The most well-characterized genes in the MHC region are the subset that encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins. These genes, referred to as HLA genes, are well-documented risk factors for the development of autoimmune disorders.50,51 As with most autoimmune diseases, associations of HLA loci (mostly class II genes) have been described and vary in different ethnic groups with SS.1 In most studies, when an HLA association with pSS was demonstrable, a stronger association could be found to the anti-Ro SSA and anti-La SB autoantibody responses.


AIED can be defined as a fluctuating or rapidly progressing sensorineural hearing loss that is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy. Vestibular dysfunction may or may not be present. In some cases, a concurrent systemic autoimmune disorder exists at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, AIED can exist in isolation as an organ-specific disease (primary AIED) or can occur as a nonspecific injury as part of a systemic autoimmune disease (secondary AIED). Currently, there is no diagnostic laboratory test or imaging modality available to confirm the diagnosis with certainty.


Anemia can be caused by an iron deficiency due to blood loss from excessive menstrual flow, gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, during pregnancy, breast-feeding, from frequent blood donations, colon cancer, or a lack of iron in the diet. It can result from autoimmunity, a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, in this case the red blood cells or from a malfunction of the bone marrow system when it is adversely affected by infection, cancer, or toxic chemical exposure or radiation. Anemia can also occur because of a deficiency of vitamins B6, B12, folic acid, or copper and from certain anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics or an excessive

Associated Diseases

More than 30 of patients with RP have another associated systemic disease, including necrotizing vasculitis, autoimmune rheumatic disease (rheumatoid arthritis and others), hematologic disorders (especially myelodysplastic syndromes), endocrine disease (Graves' disease and others), inflammatory bowel disease, or another autoimmune disease (Table 1). Additionally, isolated cases have been described following ear piercing and intravenous substance abuse (6,7). How these associated conditions lead to RP is unknown. Tissue inflammation with release of sequestered connective tissue or cell membrane antigenic epitopes leading to an autoimmune response has been postulated.


Patients with RP demonstrate both cell-mediated and humoral immunity against extracellular matrix components of cartilage, including type II, IX, and XI collagens, matrillin-1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, and proteoglycans. Evidence for cellmediated autoimmunity includes demonstration of T cells directed against type II collagen in patients with RP. Additionally, T cell clones have been isolated from an RP patient which were specific for an immunodominant epitope of type II collagen and were restricted to HLA-DRB1 * 0101 0401 alleles (9). T cell responses to type IX and XI collagens and matrillin-1 have also been reported in individual RP patients (10,11). Humoral autoimmunity is demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin and complement deposits in affected tissues (12). Additionally, circulating autoantibodies against native and denatured type II, IX, and XI collagens, as well as matrillin-1, are found in some patients with RP (13,14). The exact role that these...

Associated Disorders

Celiac disease has also been associated with other autoimmune as well as nonautoimmune disorders. It has been reported that the longer there is exposure to gluten in patients with celiac disease, the greater the occurrence of other autoimmune diseases. There is evidence for a strong association between type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. About 8 of patients with type 1 diabetes have the characteristic features of celiac sprue on small bowel biopsy. When the two diseases coexist, 90 have the diagnosis of diabetes before celiac disease. Among the symptoms that may be suggestive of coexisting celiac disease, in addition to those considered classical for celiac disease, are delayed puberty, hypertransaminasemia, anemia, iron deficiency, arthralgias, dental enamel defects, hypoglycemia, and unexplained reduction in insulin

NK Cells and Cancer

Natural killer (NK) cells are large, specialized, non-T, non-B lymphocytes. NK cells were discovered in the mid-1970s and constitute up to 15 percent of the total lymphocyte population in healthy subjects. They are capable of killing a broad range of human solid tumor, leukemic, and virus-infected cells. Depressed NK cell activity and depressed NK cell populations appear to be associated with the development and progression of cancer, as well as AIDS, chronic fatigue syndrome, psychiatric depression, various immunodeficiency syndromes, and certain autoimmune diseases.

Studies in humans

Objective measures of fatigue could complement the subjective assessments of fatigue obtained from questionnaires (Piper et al. 1989 Richardson 1998) (for a detailed consideration of problems associated with both subjective and objective assessment of fatigue see Chapter 9). An index of muscle activity can be obtained by the use of dynamometers (Fig. 3.2) (Dawson et al. 1998 Stone et al. 1999). Their portability makes them potentially useful in a clinical setting, but they suffer from the disadvantage that they monitor activity of a muscle group in performing a simple task (usually a manual one) which is then used as an index of overall ability to perform a motor task. Whilst this may be true, it is important that force generation is also investigated in postural muscles, particularly the legs. Also, repetitive tasks should be studied (Stone et al. 1999), as it may be the ability to sustain a task which may be impaired rather than the ability to perform it once (e.g. ascending one...


Inflammation, or inflammatory response, is the physiologic process of local accumulation of fluid, plasma proteins, and white blood cells that is initiated as a result of physical injury, infection, or a local immune response. Acute inflammation refers to early and often transient episodes, whereas chronic inflammation occurs when the infection persists or when there is autoimmune disease. Inflammation is a built-in survival mechanism to protect the system from foreign invasion and to promote self-healing after tissue injury. Nevertheless, inflammation may get out of control, which results in pain or injury to tissues. Clinical evidence shows that ISDN needling brings inflammation down to the normal level at which it can assist in the process of healing. It should be noted that ISDN does not suppress inflammation but brings it to normal physiologic level.


The MHC accounts for approximately 40 of the genetic component to T1D. Evidence from genome scans and candidate gene studies indicates the existence of a large number of putative non-MHC genes contributing to the etiology of T1D, although all of comparatively small effect compared to the MHC. The most reproducible T1D associations have been found with the insulin gene, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4), and the vitamin D receptor. An association between the insulin gene (located on chromosome 11p15.5 INS), and T1D was described in the 1980s and subsequently confirmed by linkage studies. The INS locus on chromosome 11p15.5 contains a major polymorphism 5' to the transcription site, which is a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region. One functional hypothesis to explain the association between the insulin gene and T1D is that 'hypersecretors' of insulin determined by the disease-associated polymorphism might induce thymic tolerance to insulin, thus providing...


Popular detoxification (detox) diets work under the assumption that people regularly and normally take in toxins from their environment. We worry about asbestos in insulation, lead in paint, and dioxins in tampons. The goal of detox dieting is to improve one's health by removing these accumulated toxins from the body, as they are the cause of ill health. The main idea is that by regulating food and water intake, and sometimes taking certain herbs and supplements, toxins are removed from the body, and it returns to its normal, healthy state. Religions and moral philosophies have detoxification diets as well. The focus in those diets is on moral reform, but the means of regulating food intake remains the same. Exponents of alternative medicine, such as Frank Ervolino, a doctor of naturopathic medicine, asserts that detoxing can prevent disease and lessen the effects of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis . . . and chronic fatigue syndrome (Ervolino 2005 32). There are many people who...

Immune Status

Agents that enhance the functioning of the immune system could be expected to enhance health in terms of improved resistance to infection and removal of malignant or premalignant cells. These agents would be particularly useful in very young children and in the elderly, where immune status is often poor. Conversely, agents that suppress the immune system are sometimes necessary, and the development of immunosuppressive agents with high efficacy and minimal toxicity has been the focus of novel drug research. There is a need for such agents owing to advances in transplantation technology and for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Traditional chinese Medicines (TCM) have been used for centuries in China to treat various immune-mediated disorders (136), and G. lucidum specifically has a reputation for immunomodulatory effects. The administration of LZ-8 in an allografted mouse skin model resulted in an increased graft survival time, and in a rat model LZ-8 was effective in delaying the...


IFN-y is a cytokine released mainly by certain T cells and natural killer cells. It drives the immune response by directing CD4+ T cells toward a Th-1 phenotype, activating macrophages to kill pathogens, enhancing or inducing MHC class I and class II molecules and stimulating B cells to mature and secret antibodies (Snapper 1996). In many autoimmune diseases, IFN-y appears to play a key role in activating autoreactive T cells (Buntinx et al. 2002). Thus different clinical manifestations of these diseases may depend on the cell territory in which these cytokines are hyperproduced (Skurkovich et al. 1994). High levels of IFN-y or IFN-y-producing T cells compared to controls have been found in the disease sites of many Th-1 autoimmune diseases, such as in the synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis (Canete et al. 2000), in the cerebrospinal fluid and plaques in multiple sclerosis (Woodroofe and Cuzner 1993 Traugott and Lebon 1988), in the aqueous humor and corneal infiltrating cells in...


In conjunction with this analysis, we have also put considerable effort into identifying the ability of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) isolated from the CNS target organ to endogenously present virus and myelin epitopes at various stages of the TMEV-IDD disease (Katz-Levy et al., 1999a Pope et al., 1998). Our analyses have shown that macrophages microglia isolated from the CNS of TMEV-infected SJL mice have the ability to endogenously process and present several virus epitopes, including VP2 , 70-86 and VP3, 24-37, at both acute and chronic stages of the disease. This supports the conclusion that CNS-infiltrating macrophages resident microglia are persistently infected with virus and can readily present viral epitopes either directly and or by phagocytosing debris containing virus antigens. Relevant to the initiation of virus-induced autoimmune disease, only CNS APCs isolated from TMEV-infected mice with preexisting myelin damage (> 60-80 days postinfection), but not those...

The Rheumatologist

The rheumatologist is a specialist who manages autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease causing joint pain and deformity), and degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis (an inflammation that causes joint pain). It is common for patients with FM to have stiff joints that feel swollen, but they should not have inflammation, synovitis (fluid around the joints), or signs of major joint degeneration. FM patients who see rheumatologists may be given a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test (ANA) that diagnoses systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting any one of the following skin, joints, blood cells, kidneys, heart, lungs). There is a high false-positive rate for this test, which is a source of great stress for many FM patients who inaccurately assume that they have SLE. For this reason, ANA testing is best reserved for patients whose history and physical exam does specifically...

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