Advantages And Limits Of Auricular Diagnosis With Esrt

The advantage of using an electronic device is essentially to be able to explore the auricle systematically without the collaboration of the patient, Advantages and limits of auricular diagnosis with ESRT 175 Reasons for choosing Agiscop and adopting a fixed ESR threshold in the validation process 176 The general distribution of points with lower ESR on the auricle 177 Differences in the diagnostic performances of ESRT and PPT 178 Looking for a suitable methodology to compare the intrinsic...

Differences In The Diagnostic Performances Of Esrt And

Both these methods show a similar performance on the total of symptoms (32.9 for ESRT and 34.6 for PPT) but their combination provides a better outcome (52.3 ), which is significantly higher compared to either ESRT or PPT considered on its own (P< 0.001). However, if we compare the success rates in the identification of the symptoms of various bodily systems, we may notice that there are some significant differences. For example, PPT shows a better outcome with musculoskeletal,...

For Muscular Hypertonus Our Experience With Craniomandibular Disorders

Digastric Muscle And Bruxism

While it is easy enough to apply NCT for challenging a painful condition, it is more difficult to demonstrate that needle contact can reduce muscular hypertonus. I have always been interested in finding an ideal research model in which the stimulation of one auricular point could change the hypertonus of a given muscle. One day, by chance, while examining a patient with bruxism with Dr Renzo Ridi, we found the right key the patient, sitting in the dentist's chair, presented neck stiffness he...

Select the most effective points in case of pain and limited range of motion

When the area which is more or less topographically related to the pain syndrome has been identified with auricular diagnosis, use the NCT. The patient in Figure 10.4 suffered with a painful shoulder and reduced range of motion during flexion and elevation. Using PPT I identified nine tender points covering at least the Chinese areas of representation of the shoulder (SF5 jian), neck (AH12 jing) and cervical vertebrae (AH13 jingzhui) (Fig. 10.4A). When PPT was repeated, the number of tender...

Transmission And Processing Of Neural Signals

Transmission and processing of neural signals occur in two conditions first there is a direct nervous conduction along the fibers by a depolarization wave traveling from one node of Ranvier to another at a velocity that depends on the diameter of the myelin sheath. The maximum speed is in the order of 120 m s corresponding to the largest sensory fibers of 25 m diameter. Second, this neural conduction, neuron to neuron, is also regulated by the synaptic doors using neurotransmitters as keys for...

Plate I Serial Anatomy And Experimental Research

Plate IA Coronal section of the anterior part of the cavernous sinus showing the oculomotor nerves III, IV, VI and the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve. Plate IB Anterior view of a coronal section of the trigeminal motor and sensory roots on the left, the trigeminal cavum on the right, the entrance of the cavum. Plate IC Sagittal section of the mesencephalon and pons.

Plate Xiii Skin Alterations Related To Cutaneous Structure Depressed Area Crease Incisure

Ear Crease Sign

Plate XIIIA Multiple creases on the posterior part of the antitragus a diagonal crease and a pigmented area on the ear lobe in a 67-year-old female affected by Parkinson's disease. Plate XIIIA Multiple creases on the posterior part of the antitragus a diagonal crease and a pigmented area on the ear lobe in a 67-year-old female affected by Parkinson's disease. Plate XIIIB Multiple creases on the ear lobe and the tragus in an 87-year-old male with Alzheimer's disease. Plate XIIIB Multiple creases...

The Cardiovascular System

One of the major differences between the different schools concerns the auricular representation of the cardiovascular system. It is still a mystery why the heart area, drawn in 1957 by Bachmann in the lower concha and coinciding perfectly with the current Chinese heart (CO15 xin), was moved afterwards by Nogier and Bourdiol. The heart area was shifted finally to the anthelix where the Chinese locate the chest (AH10 xiong) (see Fig. 5.34). Regarding the new location Bourdiol1 wrote it projects...

My experience regarding lateral preference and asymmetrical distribution of auricular points

When I discovered the importance of the auricular Sanjiao area as a major representation of a patient's reaction to life events,11 I could not imagine that this experience would induce me to study the issue of dominance. The reader will allow me to make a short digression on Oldfield's Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI),12 which is a 10-item questionnaire asking which hand one prefers for writing, drawing, throwing, using scissors, using a toothbrush, using a knife (without fork), using a...

Stress Response Areas

Even 20 years ago, when my interest in psychosomatic disorders began to develop, I was disappointed by the lack of rationale and consensus on vestibular projections of the cortex somatovisceral projections of the cortex the main sympathetic ganglia from superior cervical ganglion (a) to lumbar ganglia (e) Fig. 5.16 Representation of the CNS according to Durinyan. The thick dotted line circumscribes a very large functional area related to the pituitary-hypothalamic system and the reticular...

Case Study 1

A 70-year-old male patient had a fall when on a bus and strained his right biceps brachii muscle. Soon he began to suffer with anterior shoulder pain, weakness, restricted elevation of the arm and also some autonomic phenomena such as numbness of the forearm. After several sessions of physiotherapy had brought no benefit he asked to be treated with acupuncture. When asked to raise his arm he could not do so beyond 90 . An MTP was found in a taut band of the distal portion of the muscle,...

The Topography Of The Identified Auricular Pointarea

In the formulation of a diagnostic hypothesis the concept of auricular topography is essential. It is possible that at the start we may be unable to match the identified zones with the patient's symptoms. We need therefore to single out some key areas in this deductive work medical knowledge is important and the therapist should be free to obtain more information from laboratory tests and imaging techniques. In my opinion one or more of the following criteria are necessary for an area to be...

Clinical Validation

In the experiment, 11 asymptomatic subjects (4 males and 7 females) aged 20-63 (average 41.9 years) were examined. A total of five bilateral points were randomly chosen on different anatomical locations (helix, anthelix, triangular fossa, tragus, antitragus) (Fig. 6.6). This pattern was the same for all the 11 subjects for a total of 110 points. Further points to test were identified with the commercial device Agiscop which has been used for all the clinical investigations in this book and will...

The Representation Of Tinnitus On The Auricle

Tinnitus can have many different causes, but is most commonly associated with hearing loss due to exposure to noise, Meniere's disease, ototoxic medication, etc. Many people experience chronic tinnitus (at least 10 in the Western world) and it is therefore possible that they might seek remedy through acupuncture when conventional treatment has proven ineffective. Systematic reviews of the literature,58 however, based on evidence derived from rigorous randomized controlled trials, converge on...

Asymmetrical distribution of auricular points in case of postural disorders

The most simple case of uneven distribution is perhaps that resulting from hip replacement in serious coxarthrosis. Orthopedist Dr Gianluigi Da Campo examined nine patients before surgery and found, as expected, a higher concentration of points on the ipsilateral ear representing the hip which had to be replaced (Fig. 9.9). After 2 weeks, the pain decreased in intensity and this decrease was paralleled by a reduction in the number of tender points. After 3 months, the concentration of auricular...

The representation of the ovary on the ear

A possible somatotopy of the ovary was researched by the gynecologist Dr Ilaria Cavaliere on a group of 21 women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The patients, mainly affected by idiopathic infertility, followed the same protocol of treatment which was aimed at stimulating the ovaries with purified gonadotropin for 10-16 days. Follicular growth was checked every day or every 2 days until an approximate diameter of 18-20 mm was reached. PPT was performed in all patients...

The Representation Of The Teeth And The Temporomandibular Joint

Bachmann in his historical map drew a clear representation of the upper and lower jaw located further forward with respect to the cheek. On the Chinese maps, however, the jaw area has always been located behind the cheek area. This divergence has become more evident over time as Nogier later shifted both jaws and the temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) toward the junction of the ear lobe with the scapha, whereas the Chinese separated the tooth area (LO1 ya) from the jaw (LO3 he), interposing the...

The Puzzle Of The Representation Of Ear Nose Eye And Teeth On The Ear Lobe

One of the portions of the outer ear on which no particular consensus has been reached in the last 50 years is the ear lobe. Here, we are not looking for an association with one or more parts of the Fig. 5.30 Distribution of tender points in six patients with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (A), in six patients with atopic asthma (B), and in six patients with contact allergy (C). Fig. 5.30 Distribution of tender points in six patients with seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis (A), in six patients with...

The electrical skin resistance test

Following Puglisi's introduction to the issue of electrical skin resistance (ESR) and the instruments needed to measure it in Chapter 6, we need now to examine the diagnostic possibilities offered by the electrical skin resistance test (ESRT). There is a major difference between body and ear acupuncture as regards the purpose of detecting points with reduced ESR. In body acupuncture the exact location of points may be necessary for basic research aimed at differentiating the resistance of a...

The Nervous System

Starting from the superiority of PPT over ESRT in diagnosing neurological disorders (Table 7.2c), we should reconsider the topic of migraine since so many patients seek relief for this symptom through acupuncture. In Chapter 5 we compared the sensitization of the ear in migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) (see Fig. 5.27). Applying ESRT to both groups of patients we can see that patients with migraine show the already well known cluster of points on the colon area (on the left of Fig. 7.6)...

Inspection of the outer ear

The Chinese contribution to the inspection of the outer ear 57 Classification of skin alterations of the outer ear 59 Does inspection have the same value in all sectors of the outer ear 66 The inspection of the outer ear in the literature 68 1. The diagonal ear lobe crease or Frank's sign 68 2. The inspection of the outer ear in the case of headache 80 3. The inspection of the outer ear in digestive disorders 82 4. The inspection of the outer ear in the case of skeletal abnormalities 83 5. The...

The Validation Of Auricular Diagnosis

The term auricular diagnosis was first proposed officially by Terry Oleson in 1980.1 His study, conducted at the department of anesthesiology at the UCLA School of Medicine in Los Angeles, belongs to the history of ear acupuncture. Its aim was to evaluate the claims by French and Chinese acupuncturists that a somatotopic mapping of the body is represented upon the external ear. Forty patients were examined by a physician to determine which of 12 reported areas of their body suffered...

Knee pain

A similar distribution of points to that for lumbar-sciatic pain may be observed in 20 patients with knee pain but it is interesting to note that the large cluster of tender points on the upper part of the anthelix tends to split into two minor clusters which seem to hold different meanings (on the right of Fig. 7.4). The clusters on sectors 19-21, which are significantly larger with PPT than ESRT (P< 0.05), correspond presumably to the hip and the knee, being at mid distance between Nogier's...

Plate Vii Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Angioma

Plate VIIB Multiple angioma on the helix in a 72-year-old male affected by primary carcinoma of the liver. Plate VIIB Multiple angioma on the helix in a 72-year-old male affected by primary carcinoma of the liver. Plate VIID Angioma allocated within a reticular telangiectasia on the upper branch of the anthelix in a 73-year-old male further punctiform angioma on the tail of the helix and some incisures are visible on the upper part of the helix. When the picture was taken, the first angioma was...

Albucasis Cauterization

In order to explain how such an interesting and innovative diagnostic and therapeutic system as that involving the outer ear remained unknown until about 50 years ago, we need to take a few steps back through the history of medicine, first to ancient times when a wide variety of animal and human ailments were cured using iron and fire. Cauterization was well known to Hippocrates (460-380 bc), who wrote in his last aphorism (section VII, no. 87), 'quaecunque medicamentis non cur-antur, ferrum...

Arbes Agopuntura

Elements of auriculotherapy. Moulins-les-Metz Maisonneuve 1982. 2 Alimi D, Geissmann A, Gardeur D. Auricular acupuncture stimulation measured on fMRI. Med Acup 2002 2 18-21. 3 Liboni W, Romoli M, Allais G et al. La fMRI nella validazione dell'agopuntura auricolare un protocollo sperimentale. Asti XXII Congresso Nazionale Societ Italiana Riflessoterapia, Agopuntura, Auricoloterapia (SIRAA) 16-17 November 2007. 4 Taubert K. Diagnostik ber das Ohr Z Arztl Fortbild 1992 86 945-6. 5...

Plate Vi Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Plate VIB Multiple linear telangiectasia on the upper concha and hyperemia of the anthelix, both aligned on the same sectors, in a 70-year-old female affected by primary carcinoma of the liver. An angioma is furthermore visible on the upper part of the helix. Plates VIC and VID Telangiectasia on the upper concha and pigmentation of the root of the helix in a 65-year-old female affected by diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs (C). The worsening of the patient's hyperglycemia 1...

The pain pathways

Vestibular Pathway Diagram

All the sensory pathways have their first neuron within the spinal ganglion for spinal nerves and within the cranial ganglion for cranial nerves. A. Spinal cord level. The epicritic sensibility, concerning precise tactile discrimination and stato-kinesthetic sense given by the skin goniometric information coming from the Ruffini receptors, travels along the medial gracile (lower limb and abdomen) and lateral cuneate (upper limb and thorax) fasciculi in the dorsal column to the corresponding...

V

Adam Auricular Acupuncturist Chart

Fig. 4.9 (A) Biopsy section from ear lobe in the area of crease (A) the arrow indicates elastic-fiber tears (x100) (with permission). (B) Biopsy section from area of ear lobe crease (ELC) the arrow indicates pre-arteriolar wall thickening (x240) (with permission). There are, however, some aspects which have not been considered sufficiently and which require a careful and reliable standardization of the crease. The first is that the ELC was rarely evaluated by independent observers the second is...

Falsepositive And Falsenegative Auricular Diagnosis

This is probably the most complex problem that the therapist has to overcome to get the correct information about a patient's health problems. A false-positive diagnosis in an asymptomatic subject is probably less confounding for the practitioner than a false-negative diagnosis in a patient with various known ailments. In the former the Fig. 9.4 Tender points of the ear lobe of a 52-year-old female patient with current vertigo attack. One tender point coincides with the scar of piercing. Fig....

Mental Disorders

The symptoms of psychological disorders deserve particular attention since in my group of patients they ranked second only to those of the musculoskeletal apparatus with 22.5 of the total. Psychological psychiatric problems were declared by patients to be the main reason for their visit or were identified among other symptoms during the diagnostic procedure. As Table 7.2d reports, in 325 patients mental disorders were identified more frequently through ESRT than PPT (P< 0.05). If we wanted to...

The representation of the uterus on the ear

My contribution to this topic mainly concerned patients observed in my practice who were affected by hypermenorrhea. For example, a 44-year-old female patient showed this symptom because she had multiple uterine leiomyomas of about 1-2 cm diameter. She also suffered with recurrent lumbar pain, perhaps because she had uterine retroversion. Treatment on the anthelix points gave good results regarding her backache moreover, after the first sessions her excessive menstrual bleeding, as measured by...

Reasons For Choosing Agiscop And Adopting A Fixed Esr Threshold In The Validation Process

The first problem I had to face when I started with my project of validation of auricular diagnosis was the choice of the most reliable electric device. As there had been no report in the literature comparing the characteristics of the devices commercially available, I chose the French Agiscop manufactured by Sedatelec, for which I declare the absence of any conflict of interest. The ancestor of Agiscop was the Punctoscope, developed in the 1960s by Nogier himself on the basis of the pioneering...

Case Study

A 25-year-old female employee working several hours a day at a computer had been suffering for 2-3 years with bilateral neck stiffness and pain. She also had tension headache with occasional dizziness. Four months previously she had suffered for the first time with sciatic pain on her right side. Recently she had complained again of back pain, especially before getting up in the morning. Dr Ridi examined her and on opening the patient's mouth found that she had a lateral deviation of the...

The representation of the kidney

One of the better known divergences between Nogier's and the Chinese auricular map is the representation of the kidney. It is unclear why Nogier felt it was necessary to move the representation of this organ from the upper concha to the upper part of the helix. Nogier described its location in the following way it is situated on the triangular fossa axis, under the rim edge. This localisation is linear and extends in front, under the helix knee, and in the back, up to the Darwin point, under...

Select the reference points for each disease

This is an interesting strategy in selecting points for treatment, even if it requires long and systematic work collecting cases with the same symptoms. Despite the great variability of response in different human beings to the same etiological factor, there are nevertheless some common recurrent symptoms which characterize a given disease. The same phenomenon occurs on the auricles with regard to the prevalent sensitization of particular areas. The term 'reference points' was introduced by the...

Phobic Anxiety On The Auricle

Among anxiety disorders, panic attacks with or without agoraphobia are frequent and auricular diagnosis may confirm the existence of or the tendency to develop this mental disorder. There are certain areas that remain tender to pressure even several weeks after a single panic attack it is possible, however, that such tenderness may reflect the patient's concern about further attacks (on the left of Fig. 5.21). Another possibility regarding this area may be associated with specific phobias...

References

Hyperstimulation syndrome. Am J Acup 1979 7 161-5. 2 Abbate S. Chinese auricular acupuncture. Boca Raton CRC Press 2004. 3 Nogier PFM. Treatise of auriculotherapy. Moulins-les-Metz Maisonneuve 1972. 4 Nogier R. Auriculotherapy. Stuttgart Thieme 2008. 5 Rouxeville Y, Meas Y, Bossy J. Auriculotherapie -Acupuncture auriculaire. Paris Springer 2007. 6 Scoppa F. Lineamenti di auricoloterapia. Bologna Martina 2006. 7 Ouyang B, Gao J, Yang X. The ear reflexology zone massage. Jiangsu...

Possible associations between a subjects dominant side and the asymmetrical distribution of auricular points

Dominant Anterior

An uneven distribution of points in the absence of any other disorder such as musculoskeletal pain or postural disturbance is a puzzle that has intrigued me for many years. Only when I started to study the stress response on the ear did I become aware that the stress reaction itself, or stress-prone patients, could show an asymmetrical activation of areas as reported in Chapter 5. One question which remains open is understanding why, following a life event, biological mechanisms and behavioral...

Select the points corresponding to one or more syndromes described by TCM

This selection may be of particular interest to therapists who treat mental disorders and visceral dysfunctions according to TCM. As ESRT seems to have a higher rate than PPT in identifying this kind of problem, the practitioner may rely more often on this diagnosis in combination with auricular inspection. The patient in Figure 10.7A, for example, suffered from chronic migraine the secondary symptoms were eczema, which worsened especially in spring and autumn, blepharitis and constipation....

Plate Xiv Skin Alterations Related To Cartilaginous Structure Hypertrophy ie Thickening Hypotrophy ie Depression

Plate XIVA Hypertrophy and telangiectasia on the root of the helix in a 62-year-old male suffering with gastroduodenitis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Plate XIVA Hypertrophy and telangiectasia on the root of the helix in a 62-year-old male suffering with gastroduodenitis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Plate XIVB Serpiginous hypertrophy of the anthelix in a 60-year-old female with widespread degenerative changes in the cervical spine. Plate XIVB Serpiginous...

Variation In The Distribution Of The Auricular Points Over Time

The practitioner might be surprised at how often the distribution of auricular points changes over time. These variations may occur between one session and another as the result of the treatment itself, or may be the expression of a patient's spontaneous recovery. For example, Figure 9.15A shows the tender points detected at the first examination in 31 patients with sore throat,15 when a culture was obtained by swabbing the pharynx and both tonsils or tonsillar fossae for identifying...

Z

Fig. 5.2 Cerebral activity recorded with fMRI in a 30-year-old female (A) during active movement of the left thumb (B) during tactile stimulation of the left thumb (C) during the pressure stimulation of the left auricular thumb point (D) during the mechanical stimulation of the needle placed on it. (Courtesy of William Liboni, Gradenigo Hospital, Turin, Italy.) Fig. 5.2 Cerebral activity recorded with fMRI in a 30-year-old female (A) during active movement of the left thumb (B) during tactile...

Plate V Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Reticular Telangiectasia

Plate VA Linear telangiectasia on the right upper concha, delimiting a hypertrophic area of the root of the helix, in a 65-year-old female with chronic persisting hepatitis. Plate VA Linear telangiectasia on the right upper concha, delimiting a hypertrophic area of the root of the helix, in a 65-year-old female with chronic persisting hepatitis. Plate VC Reticular telangiectasia on the left lower concha in a 66-year-old male who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery. Plate VB Linear...

Introduction

So far, in Western countries, inspection of the outer ear has attracted little attention with the exception of the ear lobe, the diagonal crease of which has been thoroughly studied in patients with cardiovascular risk (see section entitled 'The diagonal ear lobe crease or Frank's sign' later in this chapter). The only Western physicians to show an interest in auricular morphology have been those practicing Rudolf Steiner's (1861-1925) philosophy of anthro-posophy. Steiner wrote The ear...

Plate Ix Skin Alterations Related To Pigmentation Dyschromia Macula Nevus

Plate IXA Two spots on the antitragus in a 45-year-old female who had been suffering with chronic migraine for 20 years. Plate IXC Pigmented area on the right lower concha in a 67-year-old male carrying lung cancer on the right side. The pigmentation was appreciated at least 2 years before any radiological sign of the tumor could be documented. Plate IXC Pigmented area on the right lower concha in a 67-year-old male carrying lung cancer on the right side. The pigmentation was appreciated at...

Plate Iii Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Otic Eczema

Plate IIIA Telangiectasia on the upper branch of the anthelix, caudally delimiting an area of paleness, in a 40-year-old female with a 12 month history of carpal tunnel syndrome on the right side. A reticular telangiectasia located on the representation of the elbow is possibly associated with the patient's respiratory allergy. Plate IIIB Hyperemia and folliculitis of the anterior part of the antitragus in a 35-year-old male suffering with recurrent maxillary sinusitis. Plate IIIB Hyperemia and...

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

Toothache And Ear Pain

As regards the trigeminal system, there is a lack of consensus on the possible representation of this important nerve on the auricle. Durinyan did not report such representation at all whereas Nogier and Bourdiol located the fifth nerve on the border Fig. 5.26 Auricular points proposed by Raphael Nogier for the treatment of migraine (with permission). Fig. 5.26 Auricular points proposed by Raphael Nogier for the treatment of migraine (with permission). of the ear lobe (see Fig. A1.3). The...

Plate Ii Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia From the photographic archive of

Plate IIA Paleness of the lower branch of the anthelix Plate IIA Paleness of the lower branch of the anthelix delimited by two telangiectasia in a 65-year-old male with herniation of the L4-L5 intervertebral disk. The telangiectasia lying behind and a third telangiectasia on the upper branch of the anthelix are aligned with Nogier's point zero. Plate IIB Hyperemia of the lower branch of the anthelix in a 63-year-old female suffering from chronic backache. Point zero has been marked with ink....

Methodology Of Inspection

As recommended by the Chinese, good lighting is important and my advice is to adopt either natural light or white light, possibly employing the type of magnifying lens used by dermatologists. In photography a ring-flash easily evidences more hidden areas and gives very good images. The flash may provoke reflex vasodilatation causing a significant change in the skin alterations, especially those of vascular type. Such vasodilatation may occur particularly when touching, lifting or bending the...

For Migraine

My reasons for distinguishing this pain from musculoskeletal pain is that migraine is a neurovascu-lar pain which manifests itself on the trigeminal territory and tends to relapse over time. Migraine is a disabling disorder with a high social and economical impact which requires a careful strategy of prophylaxis for reducing the number of attacks and preventing the chronic abuse of painkillers. Here acupuncture can gain ground with honor as an alternative treatment or for use in combination...

Plate X Skin Alterations Related To Pigmentation Dyschromia Macula Nevus

Plate XB Multiple nevi on the left ear in a 43-year-old female with recurrent backache needing a lift block for a left short leg. Plates XA1 and XA2 Multiple almost symmetrical nevi on the medial border of the left and right helix in a 28-year-old male suffering with chronic backache due to multiple intervertebral discs bulging in a congenital narrowing of the spinal canal. Plate XB Multiple nevi on the left ear in a 43-year-old female with recurrent backache needing a lift block for a left...

Asymmetrical distribution of auricular points and musculoskeletal pain

Auriculopoints

The easiest way to understand asymmetrical distribution is of course to study musculoskeletal pain, for which we may observe different pattern combinations 1. The most frequent is a consistent ipsilaterality as regards post-traumatic and postoperative pain, or arthritic pain disorders in single joints. 2. Secondly there is the possibility that a bilateral pain of the same area of the spine is represented asymmetrically on the auricles as in Figure 9.8. In these cases vertebral manipulation...

The Representation Of The Symptom Of Dizziness On The Auricle

Caloric Test

Dizziness and vertigo are not well-defined entities, but rather symptoms of a multisensory syndrome. This may be induced by stimulation of the intact sensori-motor system through motion (i.e. motion sickness) or by pathologic dysfunction of any of the stabilizing sensory systems, for example the peripheral vestibular in the case of neuritis or Meniere's disease and the central vestibular in the case of vertebral-basilar ischemia. As differential diagnosis is not customary for a physician, an...

The Representation Of The Ear On The

The representation of the Chinese internal ear (LO6 neier) differs greatly in location from Nogier's internal ear, which is represented on the internal portion of the tragus where the Chinese instead locate the pharynx and larynx (TG3 yanhou) and internal nose (TG4 neibi) (see Figs A1.1 and A1.2). These confounding interpretations are probably caused by the lack of any of these anatomical structures in Bachmann's historical map. As had happened for the uterus and ovary, every school was forced...

The Shape Of The Ear And The Problem Of The Transcription Of Points

Auricular Acupuncturist Chart

The research work carried out by the anthropologists Ludwig and Ilse Burkhardt and reported in the previous section is enlightening for an exhaustive appreciation of the great variability in the shape and dimension of the outer ear. This section deals with a problem which I have long felt crucial, namely the correct transcription and recording of the points mapped on the auricle. Keeping clear records of the location of points and skin alterations helps to give a complete overview of a...

Smoking Habit And Eating Disorders

Acupuncture Points For Eating Disorders

Two of the fields in which ear acupuncture has often been applied are those of tobacco addiction and obesity. In this paragraph they will be considered together because they have some common features such as depressive mood, compulsory behavior and craving which have often been the object of treatment with acupuncture. Even if the systematic reviews on both subjects are inconclusive as regards their efficacy over time, it is nevertheless noteworthy that auricular stimulation on one or more...

Filadelfio Puglisi

Since all of the clinical evaluations in this book were obtained using a commercial device, it is necessary to ascertain its consistency with the one specially built to take the measurements described in Chapter 6 Agiscop D, made by Sedatelec, France (see www.sedatelec.fr) does not use the single active electrode technique, but a double electrode. The Agiscop is a small, portable, battery-operated apparatus, with a hand reference electrode held by the patient, while the operator holds a probe...

Plate Iv Skin Alterations Related To Vascularization Paleness Hyperemia Telangiectasia

Women Doctors Switerland The 1800s

Plate IVB Linear telangiectasia on the medial surface of the auricle, corresponding to Chinese fengxi (Wind Stream) area on the lateral surface in a 38-year-old female who had been suffering from hay fever for several years. Plate IVB Linear telangiectasia on the medial surface of the auricle, corresponding to Chinese fengxi (Wind Stream) area on the lateral surface in a 38-year-old female who had been suffering from hay fever for several years. Plate IVC Telangiectasia and spots on the upper...

Laser Auriculo Diagnostic

Endocrine Disorders And Obesity Chart

Paul Nogier (1908-1996) would today be very proud to see how many 'adoptive children' he has around the world. In my opinion, ear acupuncture is one of the most intriguing discoveries of the last 50 years. Two lessons have ensued from Nogier's experience the first is that even a single physician, without expensive and sophisticated instruments, can perform good research, following his clinical instinct and rigorously analyzing his observations. The second is that every revolutionary approach in...

Migraine And Tensiontype Headache

Acupuncture Nodes

As with mental disorders and DSM classification, the broad spectrum of headaches also needed to be classified with a symptom-oriented classification. The second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2) published in 2004 maintained the three main categories of primary headaches described in the edition of 1988 migraine, TTH, cluster headache and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. It is important for the practitioner trying to treat these disorders with...

The Shape Of The Outer Ear As A Possible Expression Of Different Modeling Factors

Two German anthropologists from Munich, Ludwig and Ilse Burkhardt, were fascinated by the peculiar shape of the outer ear and its great variability according to the individual constitution. In previous literature they found only the well known association between long and slim ears with a slightly curled helix and a leptosomic constitutional body type (Greek leptos, slender), and similarly between large and oval-shaped ears with a pronounced curled helix and a pyknic constitutional body type...

Point Zero And The Principle Of Alignment According To Paul Nogier

Nogier Ear Points

The same results were found comparing the total number of correctly identified sectors (P< 0.001) and their proportions on the three different parts of the ear. The conclusions of the above evaluation (submitted for publication) are as follows The SG is based on point 0 which was considered by Nogier to be the geometrical center of the ear. It is located on a distinct notch where the horizontal concha ridge meets the vertically rising helix root (see Fig. 5.10). It is noteworthy that the...

The central pain control centers

In a didactic approach, it is possible to describe three main centers which explain the possible efficacy of auriculotherapy A. The spinal cord posterior horn selective gate. In 1965, Melzack and Wall16 formulated the gate control theory of pain, suggesting that some inhibitory neurons of the substantia gelatinosa connected with AS and C pain fibers could be activated by sensory myelinated Ap fibers closing the door to the spinothalamic tract conveying pain sensation. In fact, the posterior...

Asthenia And Familial Hypertension And Diabetes

Asthenia (Greek asthenes, without strength) is a very common symptom and several patients from my group complained of symptoms such as tiredness or fatigue. As we know, asthenia may have different causes but is commonly associated with chronic pain, depression, sleep disorders, fibromy-algia and of course with infectious diseases or chronic disorders of the heart, lung or kidney. If we simply compare ESRT and PPT in a group with this symptom we can see that the first diagnostic method shows...

Classification Of Skin Alterations Of The Outer

Alterations (SAs) of the outer ear according to Pata and Romoli - mixed melanin-hemosiderin area (grey, yellow, orange) Dystrophy (skin is thin, lucent and fragile) SA related to cartilaginous structure Hypertrophy (thickening) Hypotrophy (depression) SA related to sebaceous gland structure correspond to 42.6 of the total followed by pigmented skin alterations (mainly nevi and maculae) corresponding to 26.2 skin alterations of skin structure (creases and incisures) correspond to 15 . The...

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

The diagnostic clues offered by auricular diagnosis are, however, of two types the sensitization of some recurrent non-specific areas, regardless of the type of allergy, and the sensitization of some specific areas associated with the end organ involved in the allergic mechanism. We may therefore note that in a limited number of cases there is an evident sensitiza-tion of sectors 16, 17 and 18 on the scapha and on the aligned points on the helix. What was...

Plate Xi Skin Alterations Related To Pigmentation Dyschromia Macula Nevus

Medial Surface Ear

Plates XIA and XIB Multiple asymmetrical nevi on the right and left auricle in a 45-year-old male carrying a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Besides the particular concentration of nevi on the ear lobes, to be noted are linear telangiectasia on the right Shen men, liver and knee areas (A) on the left to be noted are a hypertrophy of the stomach area and linear telangiectasia on the anthelix and on the heart area of the left lower concha (B). Plates XIC and XID Of the four dyschromia...

The pressure pain test

What is the significance of a painful point on the ear 114 What is the average pain threshold for pressure on Are there other techniques for exploring the pinna What is the general distribution of tender points The role of PPT in identifying areas related to symptoms commonly met in practice the musculoskeletal system 116 The representation of the lower limb 117 The representation of the thoracolumbar spine 117 The representation of the cervical spine 120 The etiological puzzle of fibromyalgia...

Morphogenesis Of The Head

At the initial embryonic stage, three tubes are aligned longitudinally the neural tube, the notochord and the primitive digestive tube closed at both its caudal and cranial extremities. Two major developments will occur, drastically changing the morphology. First of all, the rapid overgrowth of the neural tube, particularly in its cranial part, will generate the five encephalic vesicles with the cephalic and pontine flexures after closing the neural tube like a 'zipper model' during primary...

Cauterization Of The

It is not easy, even approximately, to identify exactly when cautery was first applied to the external parts of the ear auricle for therapeutic purposes. If we limit our research to ancient Europe, there are traces in folk medicine which indicate that the external ear also had some significance in the prevention of disease. One noteworthy folk tradition is the custom of wearing earrings to improve sight or to prevent eye disease. Sailors of the European coasts and mountaineers of the central...

The Identification Of The Acupuncture Point

Fig Rabbit Skin

A major contribution was made by a group of clinicians from the Groupe Lyonnais d'Etudes Medicales GLEM and by researchers, particularly Claudie Terral6,7,8 and Odile Auziech,9 working in Unit 103 of the Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale French Institute of Health and Medical Research INSERM in Montpellier, France. The essence of the research program using physical, his-tological and physiological data collected between 1973 and 1983 can be summarized as follows l...

The Discovery Of Auriculotherapy

Auricular Acupuncture

A century later auricular cauterization was brought back to light and ear acupuncture had a new lease of scientific life. The years 1950-51 were important ones for the French physician Paul Nogier of Lyons 1908-1996 . Nogier was impressed by the scar on the anthelix borne by some patients who had been treated for sciatica by healers in south-eastern France. The unanimous tale of these patients was that of a rapid recovery from pain within hours, or even minutes, after treatment. An evident...

The Diagonal Ear Lobe Crease Or Franks Sign

Ear Lob Coronairy

One of the most investigated auricular signs in the literature is undoubtedly the diagonal ear lobe crease ELC . When Frank10 in 1973, in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine, described his 'aural sign of coronary artery disease' he cannot have imagined that he would trigger a long and unbroken series of researches all over the world. There are probably 40 or more reports and articles in the literature, written mainly by cardiologists, dealing with the following aspects of the...

The Contribution Of China To The Development Of Ear Acupuncture

Auricular Development

Fig. 1.10 A The 'historical' map of the posterior surface of the ear according to Zhang Di-Shan 1888 reproduced from Modern Chinese Acupuncture by Ping Chen, Paradigm Publications, 2004, with permission . B The current Chinese standard location of ear points on the posterior surface. P1 erbeixin heart P2 erbeifei lung P3 erbeipi spleen P4 erbeigan liver P5 erbeishen kidney R1 shangergen upper ear root R2 ermigen root of ear vagus R3 xiaergen lower ear root. The discovery of an increasing number...

Select personal points as soon as possible

Auricular Acupuncture Images

The more each practitioner examines the auricles of his patients systematically, the more he will find new points and combinations of areas not yet described by the leading schools. He will develop specific experience in using these new points and will be able to foresee and measure their therapeutic effect, especially in the case of unique symptoms. He needs, however, to report both the points identified by auricular diagnosis and those selected for treatment systematically on the Secto-gram....

The Representation Of The Genital System On The

Regarding the representation of the genital system, the main reason for the great differences in the representation of the uterus and ovary is, in my opinion, due to the fact that Nogier 'forgot' to draw the somatotopy of these organs in either 1957 or in 1969, when his Traite d'Auriculotherapie was published. Only in 1977, in the French edition of his Handbook to Auriculotherapy, did he describe the point of gonads related to ovary and testicle 'hidden under the rising branch of the helix' at...

The Chinese Contribution To The Inspection Of The Outer

As noted in Chapter 1, the application of the principles of TCM to ear acupuncture by Chinese therapists favored an original development of this discipline. If we consider the four different diagnostic methods proposed by TCM, besides pulse and tongue diagnosis, we find examination of the patient at the top, followed by the interview, auscultation and smelling and palpation of the body. It is not by chance that palpation has been ranked last an aphorism written by the famous physician Pien...

The Organic Evolution Of The Pinna In Primates And Humans

Charles Darwin 1809-1882 , in his masterpiece The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex,2 wrote The whole external shell of the ear may be considered a rudiment, together with the various folds The organic evolution of the pinna in primates and humans 37 The shape of the outer ear as a possible expression of different modeling factors 42 The shape of the ear and the problem of the transcription of points 47 Point zero and the 'principle of alignment' according to Paul Nogier 50 and...

The Representation Of The Eye On The

One of the most puzzling representations on the ear is that of the eye. Nogier21 wrote it is the point we think of stimulating when earrings are put on to improve the sight or strengthen the eye itself in a conjunctivitis case. the localization of the eye point is imprecise. It is in the center of a round arch formed by the lower curve of the lobule, often on the transversal and oblique fold descending from the front towards the back of the lobule. Despite the imprecise localization there is a...