Mixing Essential Oils

Learn How To Use Essential Oils

These aromatherapy eBooks are good for beginners and folks who just wanna make stuff. They cover some basic essential oil education, but they focus most on recipes and blending. They're written to help you play and experiment and learn how to use essential oils in your every day life. Learn how to make more than 40 natural home remedies & recipes using Lavender, Lemon, Oregano, Peppermint & Tea Tree. Over 70 Instant Tips to get started right away. Continue reading...

Learn How To Use Essential Oils Summary


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Barriers to the use of herb and spice essential oils as antimicrobials in foods

Since ancient times, spices and herbs have not been consciously added to foods as preservatives but mainly as seasoning additives due to their aromatic properties. Although the majority of essential oils from herbs and spices are classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) (Kabara, 1991), their use in foods as preservatives is limited because of flavour considerations, since effective antimicrobial doses may exceed organoleptically acceptable levels. This problem could possibly be overcome if answers could be given to the following questions

Aromatherapy in the Home for Gum Care

Most health food stores carry a wide variety of essential oils. The following are some ideas on how to use these essential oils at home for gum care. Relaxation Essential oils, such as lavender or chamomile, can be diffused in the air. Buy a diffuser and place the essential oils on the heated tray to have the essence diffused in the air to create a relaxing atmosphere. Lavender oil added to the bath or sprayed in

Aromatherapy and Its Use in Gum Therapy

The aromas of flower and herb essences have healing effects on the body. This can be related to the mind-body healing system. Have you noticed that some scents make you feel good and that you are repelled by others Aromatherapy can be used either in private practice or in your home. Aromatherapy uses essential oils to aid in healing. These oils are the natural distilled essences of plants, herbs, and flowers considered to be the heart and soul of the plant. For most of us, eucalyptus may have been our first connection to aromatherapy. Do you remember having a cold and having had Vicks VapoRub rubbed onto your chest The massage may have felt good and opened your sinuses, but more important, you felt better. The eucalyptus used in VapoRub is one of the essential oils. Eucalyptus can energize you, and you can awaken the senses readily with this aroma. It is also used for opening the passages to the sinus cavities, reducing any tendency to breathe through the mouth. Some oils, including...


Eucalyptus, as It Is traditionally used in aromatherapy, has not been systematically investigated under clinical trial conditions. Therefore, most evidence is derived from traditional sources. Aromatherapists use eucalyptus for its mentally uplifting and stimulating effects and to aid concentration. It is also used in massage and vapourisers to relieve respiratory symptoms, treat minor skin infections and acne, and relieve headache and muscular aches and pain. Usually eucalyptus oil is included in a blend of 3-5 essential oils for a massage but may be used alone for an inhalation.

What Is Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a division of herbal medicine that uses fragrant oils extracted from the roots, branches, bark, leaves, fruit, and flowers of various plants to enhance and improve health. It has its roots in ancient medical practice dating back to Egyptian times, although it was not called aromatherapy until 1928, when the term was coined by a French chemist named Renee Gattefosse, who documented the healing benefits of essential oils and wrote the first modern book on the topic.1 The word aromatherapy is a little misleading, since treatment is not just limited to inhaling vapors oils are often used during a therapeutic massage or simply added to bathwater. Each of the 130 or so varieties of essential oils used by the aromatherapist is believed to have specific healing properties that can help in the treatment of many ailments, ranging from relief from stress and minor physical conditions, such as sore throats and colds, to more serious ones, such as bronchitis. Some claim that these...

Future prospects and multifactorial preservation

Given the high flavour and aroma impact of plant essential oils, the future for using these compounds as food preservatives lies in the careful selection and evaluation of their efficacy at low concentrations but in combination with other chemical preservatives or preservation processes. Synergistic combinations have been identified between garlic extract and nisin, carvacrol and nisin, vanillin or citral and sorbate, thyme oil and or cinnamaldehyde in an edible coating, and low-dose gamma irradiation and extracts of rosemary or thyme.

Contraindications And Precautions

Do not apply essential oils to eyes or undiluted to mucous membranes. Orange essential oil is flammable and should not be vapourised near sources of heat or open flames. Therefore, candle vapourisers are not recommended. Skin sensitisation and phototoxicity are possible with the essential oils, so exposure to UV light sources should be avoided for at least 12 hours after dermal application. The risk is increased in fair-skinned individuals and when a blend that also contains other phototoxic essential oils is used.

Weighing up complementary therapies

Many of the available therapies are geared towards improving general wellbeing and emotional health. Massage therapies, reflexology, yoga, meditation, stress management, relaxation and aromatherapy are all ways to help you handle the stresses of life and many infertile couples find these forms of therapies helpful.

Dandelion flower infused

For external use, you can add essential oils to your home-made flower oil, using up to 20 drops per 3 fl oz of oil. The essential oils act as a natural preservative, and bring their own healing qualities to the mixture. Lavender, ylang ylang, and rosemary all combine well with dandelion.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The seed, which is where the essential oils are mainly found, has potential applications as an antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant, and is also reported to act as an efficient skin- The essential oils from the seeds of Elettaria cardamomum have been reported to show good skin permeation activity for certain drugs. The oils from Elettaria cardamomum interact with the lipids of the horny layer of the skin, resulting in the destruction of the structural order of the skin and thus increasing the diffusion capacity of the active components by the lipid intercellular pathway. An in vitro study on the permeation of estradiol through hairless mouse skin revealed that complex terpenes are responsible for the enhancement of transdermal permeation for moderately lipophilic drugs like estradiol (Monti et al., 2002). The in vivo and in vitro studies on the permeation of indomethacin showed that permeation was significantly enhanced after pretreatment with cardamom oil. This increased...

Chemical Components

The most important constituents in regard to pharmacological activity are the polysaccharides, caffeic acid derivatives, alkylamides, essential oils and polyacetylenes, although there are other potentially active constituents, as well as a range of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, resins, glycoproteins and sterols (Pizzorno & Murray 2006). Constituent concentrations vary depending on the species, plant part and growing conditions. In regards to the final chemical composition of an Echinacea-containing product, the drying and extraction processes further alter chemical composition.

Antimicrobial And Antiparasitic

Gingerols demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli in vitro (Yamada et al 1992), and the essential oils of ginger have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi in vitro (Martins et al 2001). Shogaol and gingerol have demonstrated anti-nematode activities 6.25 fjg mL 6-shogaol destroyed Anisakis larvae within 16 hours in vitro, whereas the antinematodal medication pyrantel pamoate had no lethal effect at 1 mg mL (Goto et al 1990). Ginger constituents have also been shown to be antifungal and antiviral. Shogaol and zingerone strongly inhibited Salmonella typhi, Vibrio choleraeand Tricophyton violaceum. Aqueous extracts have also been shown to be effective against Trichomonas vaginalis (Henry & Piggott 1987). Several sesquiterpenes, but especially beta-sesquiphellandrene, isolated from ginger have also been shown to have antirhinoviral activity in vitro (Denyer et...

Other Sensory Input in the Environment

Certain aromas are sometimes used that have various effects. There has been research in aromatherapy regarding the use of scent to create or change behavior. The following are scents that apparently are good for alertness or attention peppermint, wintergreen, pine, lemon, eucalyptus, and spearmint. Aromatherapists say the fragrances of chamomile, jasmine, lavender, sandalwood, marjoram, and honeysuckle have positive effects on relaxation or reflection (Karges-Bone, 1996).

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

About 90 of the world crop is absorbed by the food industry. Shelled hazelnuts are commercialized mainly after roasting, which provides a more intense, pleasant typical flavor and a crisper texture, in addition to allowing for removal of the slightly bitter and astringent skin. Hazelnuts are available in many forms (whole, chopped, crumbled, ground into a paste) and are extensively employed in confectionery. Hazelnut oil is used not only as food, but also in cosmetics, for its astringent and emollient properties, or as a carrier in aromatherapy.

Improved Concentration

In a RCT, exposure to lavender aromatherapy during breaks resulted in significantly higher concentration levels during the afternoon period when concentration was found to be lowest in a control group (Sakamoto et al 2005). Lavender oil aromatherapy has also been found to reduce mental stress and increase arousal rate (Motomura et al 2001), elicit a subjective sense of 'happiness' (Vernet-Maury et al 1999) and to produce increased relaxation, less depressed mood and faster and more accurate mathematical computations (Field et al 2005). In a RCT, lavender aromatherapy tended to enhance calculating speed and calculating accuracy in female but not male subjects (Liu et al 2004), but results from another study suggest 2007 Elsevier Australia A controlled study of dementia patients found that a blend of lavender, sweet marjoram, patchouli and vetiver essential oils in a cream massaged 5 times day for 4 weeks onto the bodies and limbs of 56 aged care facility residents with moderate to...

Main uses in food processing and perfumery

Virtually all essential oils produced are used in the food and perfumery cosmetics industries. Pelargonium, essential oils (EOs), obtained from different species, with a wide spectrum of chemical compositions, have shown considerable potential as antimicrobial agents (Lis-Balchin et al., 1995). Studies have been of 18 different Pelargonium petroleum spirit extracts (Lis-Balchin et al., 1998), as well as the more hydrophylic extracts in methanol, against four bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus cereus. They showed that 'Attar of Roses', similar to commercial geranium oil with the main components citronellol and geraniol, was a very potent antibactericide, as was 'Lemon Fancy', owing to its high neral and geranial content. The petroleum spirit extracts resembled the activity of steam-distilled samples. Hydrophilic extracts proved to have more potent antibacterial activity, suggesting that flavonoids, tannins and other phenolics in the herb are...

Chemical composition

11.2.2 Chemistry of the essential oils of different lavenders Lavandula lanata Boisse is morphologically similar to L. latifolia but has a very high concentration of camphor (43-59 ) and variable amounts of lavandulol (3-27 ) L. dentata L. grows wild along the Mediterranean coast of Spain (Garcia-Vallejo et al., 1989) and has two chemotypes 1,8-cineole p-pinene and P-pinene a-pinene L. multifida has carvacrol and P-bisabolene. Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. pedunculata (Miller) Samp. ex Roziera (L. pedunculata Cavanilles) and ssp. sampaioana (L. stoechas L. ssp. sampaioana Roziera) had two chemotypes camphor fenchone and P-pinene camphor fenchone L. stoechas L. ssp. stoechas has camphor and fenchone (with 1,8-cineole). Four wild populations of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas in Crete had different percentages of a-pinene, 1,8-cineole, fenchone, camphor and myrtenyl acetate (Skoula et al., 1996). Lavandula lusieri (Rozeira) Rivas-Martinez (L. stoechas ssp. luisieri (Rozeira) Rozeira)...

Respiratory Tract Infections

Peppermint and menthol have an established tradition in the treatment of respiratory infections. Chest rubs containing menthol are frequently used to treat coughs and bronchitis. Inhalation of various antiseptic and anti-inflammatory essential oils is often used in the treatment of respiratory infections, including bronchitis (Shubina et al 1990). Peppermint oil has been found to have a pronounced antimycobacterial effect in vitro, and long-term use of peppermint oil in a humidifier has been used in the Ukraine as an adjunctive treatment to multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis (Shkurupi et al 2002).

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Ancient usage of M. oleifera has been widely reported. The use of oil extracted from mature seeds by Ancient Egyptians has been well documented. The oil was treasured by the Egyptians for skin protection against both infections and damage due to extremes of desert conditions. The benefits of the healthful attributes of the oil were later relayed to the Ancient Greeks and Romans, who also used the oil in skin protection. The light and non-drying nature of the oil makes it a good massage oil, and also for aromatherapy applications. Due to its tremendous cosmetic value, it was used extensively by the Ancient Egyptians in body and hair care, as a moisturizer and conditioner. It was also used by Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans in extracting floral fragrances used in perfumes. The oil has an excellent ability to retain fragrances extracted from flowers.

Antimicrobials Treatment

The use of antimicrobials is a common practice for preservation of foods. Incorporation, in a food recipe, of chemical antimicrobials towards inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms results in the compositional modification of food. This treatment is nowadays undesirable for the consumer, who likes natural products. Scientific community reflecting consumers demand for natural antimicrobials has made efforts to investigate the possibility to use natural antimicrobials such us bacteriocins and essential oils of plant origin to inhibit microbial growth. In this chapter natural (bacteriocins and essential oils) and chemical antimicrobials used in meat and meat products processing are reviewed providing in parallel basic information on antimicrobials and factors affecting their use in foods. Nowadays, there is an increasing demand worldwide for environmental friendly and more natural antimicrobials to be used for mild preservation. This is due to the negative attitude of...

Case Studies With Plant Fragrances

Sachets are made of dried flowers and are placed in loosely woven cloth so that the fragrance can be smelled. They are used in bathrooms and bedrooms (e.g., in bedding) to provide pleasant smells, and in linen closets to repel moths that destroy wool and other cloth garments. Dried rose (Rosa spp.) petals are often used in sachets to provide pleasant aromas. Dried lavendar (Lavandula offici-nalis) flowers have essential oils that not only smell nice and clean (hence, their use in soaps and perfumes), but also, destroy bacteria that cause tuberculosis and typhoid fever.24 8.4.3 Essay on Extraction and Analysis of Essential Oils from Lavendar (Lavandula officinalis)* FIGURE 8.12 Undergraduate student Matthew Perry sitting next to a Shimadzu gas chromatograph mass spectrometer used to analyze constituents in the essential oils he extracted from flowers of lavendar, Lavandula officinalis. (Photo courtesy of David Bay.) FIGURE 8.12 Undergraduate student Matthew Perry sitting next to a...

Mezime Chemistry Delhi

Guenther, e. (1974), The Essential Oils Vol. 3, Van Nostand, New York, 739-741. jirovetz, l., buchbauer, g., shafi, m.p. and leela, n.k. (2003), Analysis of the essential oils of the leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots of the medicinal plant Alpinia galanga from southern India. Acta Pharm. 53 73-81. lawrence, b.m. (1981), Savory oil, Progress in essential oils. Perf. Flavorist 3(6) 57-8. lawrence, b.m. (2002), Progress in essential oils. Perf. Flavorist 27 84-7.

Functional properties and toxicity

In the 1980s several screening studies (agar overlay technique or dilution technique) with essential oils verified the antibacterial and antifungal activity of the essential oil of thyme. It was shown to inhibit a broad spectrum of bacteria generally Gram-positive bacteria being more sensitive than Gram-negative bacteria (Blakeway, 1986 Farag et al. 1986 Deans and Ritchie, 1987). Also some food-borne pathogens, namely Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni were tested (Smithpalmer et al., 1998). The latter was found to be the most resistant of the bacteria investigated. In another study it was shown that the antibacterial activity of thyme can be used against periodontopathic bacteria including Actinobacillus, Capnocytophaga, Fuso-bacterium, Eikenella and Bacterioides species, and may therefore be suitable for plaque control (Osawa et al., 1990). Furthermore, the essential oil of thyme showed a wide range of...

Quality issues and adulteration

Geranium oil contains mainly citronellol and geraniol and their esters, and therefore can be easily concocted from cheaper essential oils and adjusted to the recommended ISO standards. The antimicrobial activity of such essential oils is much greater than that of some authentic oils but has a similar pharmacological effect on smooth muscle (spasmolytic) and the actual odour can be even more appreciated by perfumers than the real essential oil (Lis-Balchin, 2002c). The essential oil composition of this geranium oil differs completely from that of a true Geranium robertianum oil (Pedro et al., 1992) or that of G. maccrorhizum (Ognyanov, 1985). The most expensive geranium oil was always Bourbon (Guenther, 1950), and it increased in tonnage as well as value over some years, surprisingly, on the small volcanic island of Reunion this was partly due to the increase in geranium oil production in China, which being very similar to that of Bourbon would often get accepted as such (Verlet,...

Chemical structure

The chemical character of thyme is represented by two main classes of secondary products, the volatile essential oil (Stahl-Biskup, 2002 Lawrence, 2003 and references therein) and the non-volatile polyphenols (Vila, 2002 and references therein). Owing to the excellent analytical techniques available today, both groups are fairly well known. In particular, the composition of the essential oil has been reported in numerous scientific publications. Since we are dealing with a natural product, the yield of essential oils and of the polyphenols as well as the proportions of individual constituents, vary. This is caused by intrinsic (seasonal and ontogenetic variations) and extrinsic factors (soil, climate, light). The data presented

Supercritical Satta King

Arnold n., valentini g., bellomaria b. and hocine l. (1997), Comparative study of the essential oils from Rosmarinus eriocalyx Jordan & Fourr from Algeria and R. officinalis L. from other countries. J. Essent. Oil Res., 9(2), 167-75. baratta m.t., dorman h.j.d., deans s.g., biondi d.m. and ruberto g. (1998), Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of laurel, sage, rosemary, oregano and coriander essential oils. J. Essent. Oil Res., 20(6), 618-27. faliero l., miguel g.m., guerrero c.a.c. and britto j.m.c. (1999), Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of rosemary (R. officinalis L) and thyme (Thymus mastichina L). Proc. Sec. World Congress on Medi. & Aromatic Plants for Human Welfare, WOCAMP-2. Acta Horticulture, No. 501, 45-8. hay i.c., jamieson m. and ormerod a.d. (1998), Randomized trial of aromatherapy successful treatment of Alopecia areata. Arch. Dermat., 134(11), 1349-52.

Potato tule See arrowhead

As a percentage of total volatile constituents. preservatives Substances capable of retarding or arresting the deterioration of food examples are sulphur dioxide, benzoic acid, specified antibiotics, salt, acids and essential oils. See Table 7 of the Appendix. press cake Solid residue remaining after extraction of liquid component from foods especially residue from oilseeds. Used as animal feed and in a number of fermented foods, including bongkrek, dage and oncom. pressure, absolute Total pressure above zero (a perfect vacuum), as opposed to pressure expressed above atmospheric pressure (measured using a pressure gauge) or below atmospheric (measured using a vacuum gauge). pressure cooking See autoclave papin's digester. preterm Birth before 37 weeks of gestation.

Toxicology and disease

Rosemary is generally considered safe and devoid of toxic side effects if taken in recommended doses. However, there have been occasional reports of allergic reaction such as skin irritation. Pregnant and lactating women are advised not to use rosemary, as are pepole with epilepsy. Rosemary oil should be used with caution by persons suffering from hypertension, blood pressure or insomnia cfm). In vitro studies of liquid extract of rosemary ('Herbor 025') and a mixed oily extract of herbs such as rosemary, sage, thyme and oregano, though proven to be antiviral against HIV, is found to be cytotoxic too (Aruoma et al., 1996). Rosemary leaves in excess quantity can cause coma, spasm, vomiting and, in some cases, pulmonary oedema. Rosemary oil taken orally can trigger convulsions Rosemarych. html).

Production consumption and processing

Organic spices are gaining in market share. The major consumers of organic spices in the world are the USA, Europe and Japan, which are also the major consumers of herbal spices. There is great potential for the cultivation of organic herbal spices to enjoy the premium price in the international market and to improve the quality and appearance of the produce without any pesticide or chemical residues. The spice extracts such as essential oils and oleoresins from leaves and flowering tops of various herbal spices can be recovered using steam distillation, water cum steam distillation, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and solvent extraction using low-boiling organic solvents. Of the different methods, extraction using compressed carbon dioxide gas or supercritical fluid is the most effective and is currently used on a commercial scale. In steam distillation the plant material is exposed to high temperatures from steam vapour, leading to the degradation of important components of...

Mode of action and development of resistance

In general, the mode of action of essential oils is concentration dependent (Prindle and Wright, 1977). Low concentrations inhibit enzymes associated with energy production while higher amounts may precipitate proteins. However, it is uncertain whether membrane damage is quantitatively related to the amount of active antimicrobial compound to which the cell is exposed, or the effect is such that, once small injuries are caused, the breakdown of the cell follows (Judis, 1963). Essential oils damage the structural and functional properties of membranes and this is reflected in the dissipation of the two components of the proton motive force the pH gradient (ApH) and the electrical potential (Ay) (Sikkema et al., 1995, Davidson, 1997 Ultee et al., 1999, 2000, 2002). Carvacrol, an active component of many essential oils, has been shown to destabilize the cytoplasmic and outer membranes and act as a 'proton exhanger', resulting in a reduction of the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic...

Introduction and description

Medicine and aromatherapy as well as in the perfumes and flavour industries. Rosemary has culinary uses too. The leaves, twigs, value added products and whole plant extract are also valued as functional food (antioxidant) and botanical neutraceutical. Rosemary is also credited with insect repellent properties and is used in wardrobes to protect clothing. It is also used as an insect repellent herb (functional insecticide) in orchards, as a botanical pesticide, etc. Rosemary is tolerant to pruning and shaping, making it suitable for topiary, and is a valued potted indoor plant.

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

Frinciples of Clinical FharmacoLogy. California Academic Fress, 2001. Battaglia S. The Complete Cuide to Aromatherapy. Brisbane The Ferfect Fotion, 1995. Price S, Price L. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 2nd edn. London Churchill Livingstone, 2002. Rang HP et al. Pharmacology, 4th edn. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2001. Shils M (ed). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn. Baltimore Williams and Wilkins, 2000. Skidmore-Roth L. Mosby's Handbook of Herbs and Natural Supplements. St Louis Mosby, 2001. Thomsen M. Phytotherapy Desk Reference, 2nd edn. Institute for Phytotherapy, 2001. Ulbricht CE et al. Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St Louis Mosby, 2005. Wahlqvist ML (ed). Food and Nutrition, 2nd edn. Sydney Allen & Unwin, 2002. Waller DG et al. Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. London WB Saunders, 2001. Williamson EM. Dabur Research Foundation and Dabur Ayurvet Ltd. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2002.

Application To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

In alternative and complementary systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Amchi, Chinese, and aromatherapy, plants are used to combat several diseases and pathological conditions. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy, with less (or no) toxicity and less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Sea buckthorn seed oil combines high levels of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids (ALA, LA, oleic, palmitoleic, and vaccenic), natural antioxidants and vitamins (E, K), carotenoids, and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, and b-sitosterol) (Li et al., 1996 Basu et al., 2007). These phytochemicals make it ideal for medicinal and cosmetic industries, giving synergistic power to protect the cell membrane and enhance cell regeneration. Sea buckthorn seed oil can be extracted by different methods cold-pressing, solvent extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Carbon dioxide is most commonly used in SFE of sea buckthorn seed oil at low temperature, in a microbe- and...

Medicinal Constituents Of Seeds

Apart from the general constituents, comprising both primary and secondary plant metabolites, the seeds contain a spectrum of specific secondary metabolites, most of which are very limited in distribution and some of which have complex chemical structures. Examples include alkaloids in nux vomica, calabar bean, and colchicum seeds essential oils (terpenoids) in cardamom and nutmeg seeds cardenolides in thevitia and stropanthus seeds cyanogenetic glycosides in bitter almond seed isothiocyanate glycosides in mustard seed flavonolignans in milk thistle seed bitter principles in neem and karela seeds saponins in fenugreek seed resinous matter in croton seed gum in guar gum seed liquid wax in jojoba seed, etc. It has been found that all of these secondary metabolites are principally responsible for the medicinal activity of seeds. Different specific secondary metabolites and the general seed constituents like fixed oils, carbohydrates, proteins, mucilage, etc., together contribute to the...

How And Where Some Of The Wellknown Plant Metabolites Are Synthesized In Plant Cells

Coumaryl Alcohol Biosynthesis

Which make up the protective cuticle of epidermal cells (see Cellulose Biosynthesis) and terpenes which are lipids synthesized from acetyl CoA via the mevalonic acid pathway. Terpenes produced in the terpenoid pathway serve a variety of functions in photosynthesis (see Carotenoid Biosynthesis), hormone controlled development (gibberellins and abscisic acid), and flower coloration and scent (see Section 2.6.6), to name a few. For humans, they are a source for rubber, essential oils (perfumes), and medicinal drugs such as taxol (an anticancer drug). Plants do produce very important storage forms of lipids (fats and oils) as energy reserves in fruits and seeds such as the fats and oils found in avocados, olives, soybeans, sunflower seeds, and peanuts. In some cases, these reserves also may serve as rewards for animals that disperse the plant's seeds. These stored lipids are often found in the cytoplasm of either cotyledon or endosperm cells in organelles known as spherosomes (also called...

Applications in food systems

There have been relatively few studies of the antimicrobial action of essential oils in model food systems and in real foods (Table 3.5). The efficacy of essential oils in vitro is often much greater than in vivo or in situ, i.e. in foods (Nychas and Tassou, 2000 Davidson, 1997 Skandamis et al., 1999b). For example, the essential oil of mint (Mentha piperita) has been shown to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes in culture media for 2 days at 30 C. However, the effect of mint essential oil in the traditional Greek appetizers tzatziki (pH 4.5) and taramasalata (pH 5.0) and in pate (pH 6.8) at 4 C and 10 C was variable. Salmonella enteritidis died off in the appetizers under all conditions examined but not when inoculated in pate and maintained at 10 C. Similarly, L. monocytogenes numbers declined in the appetizers but increased in pate (Tassou et al., 1995a,b, 2000). Table 3.5 Applications of essential oils in foods The type of oil or fat present in...

Twentiethcentury developments

In 1966 the City and Guilds of London Institute explored the possibility of establishing a course in beauty therapy to include massage. This course would provide thorough training, background knowledge and a recognised professional qualification that ensured a high standard of practice. In 1968 the first full-time course was offered in colleges of further education. The British Association of Beauty Therapists and Cosmetologists, the International Health and Beauty Council and other organisations also developed courses and offered certificates and diplomas. The growth in complementary medicine and the holistic approach to health has increased the demands for well-qualified practitioners, not only in massage but also in aromatherapy, reflexology, shiatsu etc. Courses are now validated by the Health and Beauty Therapy Training Board and therapists must meet the criteria of the National Council of Vocational Qualifications.

Medicinal Plant Research Centre UK

Ing herbs such as sage (Salvia officinalis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) that have been found to contain compounds that show promise in alleviating the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. A trial of lemon balm aromatherapy is also in progress. From the home page go to the Recent Publications section to see details of the Center's research interests.

Curcumin Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels

In later studies Yasni et al. identified the major component (approx. 65 ) of the essential oil as a-curcumene. Addition of essential oils (0.02 ), prepared by steam distillation, to a purified diet lowered hepatic triglyceride concentration without influencing serum triglyceride levels, whereas addition of the hexane-soluble fraction (0.5 ) lowered the concentration of serum and hepatic triglycerides (86). Rats fed the essential oil and hexane-soluble

Rosemary Extracts Preparation And Composition A Preparation

Structure Thyme And Function

To overcome the problem of odor, color, and taste associated with rosemary components, refined rosemary extracts are prepared. Manufacturing procedures generally involve two steps. In the first step, the essential oils of rosemary are removed by steam distillation or selective solvent extraction. The residue (dried leaves) is extracted with different solvents, such as hexane, methanol, ethanol, and acetone (4-8), or, alternatively, by supercritical fluid processing with carbon dioxide (9). The final preparation Figure 1 Structures of some typical components of rosemary extracts or essential oils. Figure 1 Structures of some typical components of rosemary extracts or essential oils.

Ten Alternative Remedies That Help People with Fibromyalgia

Spotting dangerous remedies Considering alternative remedies for sleep Rubbing out the pain and fatigue Smelling your way to health with aromatherapy Mudding out the pain ost people with fibromyalgia actively seek relief from their insomnia, pain, fatigue, and brain fog. Often, that relief comes in the form of alternative remedies, such as supplements and herbs, homeopathic remedies, aromatherapy, mud baths, and other treatments. In fact, in one study of 289 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), 98 percent said they had used some type of alternative therapy to cope with their symptoms in the past six months.

Terpeneless oil See terpenes

Major components of the essential oils of citrus fruits,but not responsible for the characteristic flavour, and since they readily oxidise and polymerise to produce unpleasant flavours, removed from citrus oils by distillation or solvent extraction,leaving the so-called terpeneless oils for flavouring foods and drinks. terramycin antibiotic, also known as oxytetracycline, see tetracyclines.

Chemical Constituents

Chemical investigations into the constituents of H. perforatum have detected several classes of compounds. The most common classes include naphtho-dianthrones, flavonoids, phloroglucinols, and essential oils (10,19-21). The major active constituents are considered to be hypericin (a naphtodianthrone Fig. 2a), hyperforin (a phloroglucinol Fig. 2b), rutin and other flavonoids, and tannins (10). Approximately 20 of extractable compounds are considered biologically active, according to standard bioanalytical techniques (2224).

Synthesis Of Plant Metabolites In Specialized Structures Or Tissues

It has been shown by Croteau and Winters14 at Washington State University that leaves can synthesize a variety of monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), as shown in Figure 2.22. GPP production in the terpenoid pathway is the universal precursor of all monoterpenes. Monoterpenes, as well as some sesquiterpenes, in general serve as antiherbivore agents that have significant insect toxicity while having negligible toxicity to mammals. Mixtures of these low molecular weight volatiles, called essential oils, are what give plants such as peppermint, lemon, basil, and sage their characteristic odors, and many are commercially important in flavoring foods and in making perfumes.

Phytopharmacognosy Internet Discussion Group

In Phamacognosy, Botany, Organic and Phytochemistry at Middlesex University, United Kingdom. Membership is free and open to academics, industrialists, and other suitably qualified professionals who are involved in plant-based natural products and who have an e-mail address. Active membership is limited to experts only, and potential members must submit evidence of their expertise before they can participate. Discussions are focused on the botany and chemistry of medicinal and economic plants, ethnobotany, secondary metabolites, traditional medicines, volatile oils, tropical agriculture, academic and industrial problems, herbalism, aromatherapy, ecological biochemistry and evolution, and plant chemicals. It also includes notices on conferences and specialist topic discussions. Go to the above URL for further information.


There have been only a few safety studies, but these provide an indication of the safety of essential oils extracted from seeds, for aquatic organisms, predaceous insects, mammals, and humans, when applied topically to the skin for protection against mosquito bites (Table 3.3). Despite the eco-friendly advantages of seed extracts, research is required into the non-target effects of inert surfactants used in extract formulation for those extracts that are destined to be used as insecticides (Kumar et al., 2000).


Many essential oils from herbs and spices are used widely in the food, health and personal care industries and are classified as GRAS substances or are permitted food additives (Kabara, 1991). A large number of these compounds have been the subject of extensive toxicological scrutiny and an example of the data available is shown in Table 3.6. However, their principal function is to impart desirable flavours and aromas and not necessarily to act as antimicrobial agents. Therefore, it is possible that additional safety and toxicological data would be required before regulatory approval for their use as novel food preservatives would be granted.

Downsides Dill

None known (KOM). No health hazards or side effects in conjunction with proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages (PH2). Contact photodermatosis possible as in most umbellifers. Fresh juice may possibly cause photodermatosis (PHR X12868972). We might extend to all apiaceous oils Bisset's comments on celeryseed oil, The drug is contraindicated in inflammation of the kidneys, (BIS) because apiaceous essential oils may increase the inflammation as a result of epithelial irritation (BIS). Tramil (TRA) conservatively cautions for dill and fennel contraindicated in reproductive women limit dosage to 3 days. Doses of 175 mg kg aqueous extract gastrically intubated in pregnant rats may be embryotoxic and or teratogenic (TRA).

Citrus aurantium

Historical note The root word for orange is the Arabic, narandj (Sellar 1992). The orange is a symbol of innocence and fertility. Some scholars believe the 'golden apple' Paris presented to Venus was actually an orange. In return, Venus bestowed Helen on Paris as a reward for selecting her in a beauty contest, which eventually caused the Trojan War. The tree is indigenous to eastern Africa, Arabia and Syria and it is believed that the crusaders may have introduced the orange to Europe when they returned from the crusades. Unripe dried fruits and the fruit peel are incorporated into various products, including foods such as marmalade, alcoholic beverages such as Curacao and medicinal products. The essential oil is used in perfumes, cosmetics and aromatherapy (Leung & Foster 1 996), and also used as food flavouring and to disguise the unpleasant taste of medicines. Orange blossom water has been used for centuries in Mediterranean countries to flavour cakes and beverages (Jeannot et...

Plant Parts Used

Fruit, dried outer peel of the ripe fruit, and essential oils and floral water (orange blossom water). Clinical note Three different essential oils Each of these oils has a different chemical profile and therefore different uses. Distilled essential oils are used more in food flavourings and expressed essential oils in aromatherapy and perfumes because of their stronger fragrance (Tisserand & Balacs 1995). This monograph concentrates on expressed sweet orange and bitter orange essential oils.

The room

Cards can be displayed on the walls, hanging from strings like a mobile, or taped around the windowsills. Put up pictures of the child engaged in her favorite activity, and add photos of friends, too. Most hospitals don't allow flowers on oncology floors since they can grow a fungus that can make children sick, but its fun to have bouquets of balloons bobbing in the corners. Younger children derive great comfort from having a favorite stuffed animal, blanket, or quilt on their bed. If it doesn't bother your child, make the room smell good with potpourri or aromatherapy oils.


Historical note Indigenous Australians traditionally used eucalyptus to treat fevers and respiratory infections, accounting for its name 'fevertree'. European settlers also recognised the medicinal qualities of eucalyptus and surgeon Considen is credited with producing the first essential oil sample in 1 788. Bosisto investigated oils from several Australian plants and in 1 854 eventually produced essential oils commercially in association with Mueller, a pharmacist. Bosisto and Mueller concentrated on oils rich in 1,8-cineole, which includes Eucalyptus species. In the late 1 800s, articles about its medicinal use appeared in medical journals such as The Lancet, focusing on its potential in scarlet fever and diphtheria.


Lubricants may produce an allergic reaction in some clients. These reactions may range from abnormal reddening of the skin, raised wheals or a rash to very serious shock with fatal consequences. Many clients may be allergic to nut oils, in particular arachis oil from peanuts, which can produce anaphylactic shock, which results in rapid pulse, difficulty in breathing, profuse sweating and collapse. Check whether the client suffers from any allergies, during consultation and before massage. The client may not be aware that s he is allergic to a product it is therefore safer to avoid products containing nut oils. Be aware that essential oils have different properties and different effects, some of which may be harmful to your clients, e.g. oil of bergamot should not be used on parts exposed to sunlight as this oil increases skin sensitivity to ultraviolet rays. Knowledge of oils, their safe prescription, their dangers and dilutions is essential if you wish to mix your own. Otherwise buy...

Medical Therapies

Oral treatments that have been used, with variable success, include tricyclic antidepressants, nonsteroidals, opioids, anticonvulsants and glucocorticoids (62,63). Sympathetic blocks (64), TENS (23) and botulinum injections have been used in localized pain (62). In some centers spinal stimulation are also advocated. Complementary therapies are commonly utilized by patients with chronic pain (65). The evidence supporting many of these therapies in children and adolescents is poor (66) but many young adults find certain therapies such as acupuncture, massage and aromatherapy helpful.

Eye Problems

Wash made from an infusion of calendula, eye-bright, or chamomile, kept sterile, can reduce swelling and redness add goldenseal if there is an infection. Use echinacea, eyebright, sage, and goldenseal as tea. A warm aromatherapy compress with a few drops of lavender, chamomile, or rose oil can soothe the area and help heal the infection. Green myrtle oil is an anti-inflammatory and can be mixed with water and sprayed into the eye or onto a closed eye and then blink several times. Homeopathy remedies include Apis mellifica, Argentum nitricum, Euphrasia, Hepar sulphuris calcareum, Mercurius solubilis, Natrum muri-aticum, Pulsatilla, and sulfur. Take remedy according to symptoms. Chinese medicine includes violet, chyrsanthemum flowers, and bamboo leaves boil, strain, cool, and use as eyewash.


A RCT of scalp massage using thyme, rosemary, lavender and cedarwood essential oils in 86 patients with alopecia areata found a significant improvement in hair growth after 7 months (Hay et al 1998). Although the efficacy of lavender as a stand-alone treatment was not clarified with this trial, it is known that the herb has some antibacterial and antifungal activity that may play a role. In a single case study, topical application of lavender, together with other essential oils, was reported to assist in treating scalp eczema (De Valois 2004).


Organic essential oils, especially lavender oil, are produced in various parts of the world, including the UK, Australia and the USA a comparative study of the essential oil quantity and quality of ten cultivars of organically grown lavender and lavandin is provided by Charles et al. (2002). There does not seem to be any great difference in the essential oil composition of organic compared with conventionally grown lavender, except for some percentages of enantiomers however, the absence of pesticides would be welcomed. Farmers in the UK must comply with European Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2092 91, enforced 22 July 1991, regarding organic production and the rules governing the processing and sale of organic products. Land must be put into conversion prior to full-scale organic production and then applications must be made for status with the Soil Association, which inspects the sites. This takes around three years, and this, together with a lower yield, due to loss by natural...

Downsides Cumin

Health hazards or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages are not known (PH2). A very weak oxidative mutagenic action has been revealed by cumin (X14531636). Spaniards (VAD) are more cautious but it may be generic for essential oils. Except for specified VAD indications, not for pregnant nor lactating women not for not children less than 6 years old. Not for patients with Crohn's, epilepsy, gastritis, hepatosis, IBS, neuroses, Parkinson's, and ulcers. There is a canned contraindication that could apply to every herb Do not prescribe alcoholic tinctures to recovering alcoholics (VAD).


Peppermint has a carminative activity, which refers to its ability to relax the gastrointestinal sphincters. Carminatives are thought to alleviate symptoms of bloating and gas by facilitating eructation and passage of flatus. The classic carminatives are essential oils, such as spearmint and peppermint. Studies from the 1950s on the effect of carminatives on the gut suggest that they work by inducing relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter (Massey 2001). A later study has shown that peppermint oil canalised into the gall bladder and duodenal areas was able to counteract morphine hydrochloride-induced constriction of the sphincter of Oddi (Giachetti etal 1988).


Mustard oil is extracted from the black mustard seeds, which have been macerated in warm water by steam or water distillation. Crude oil is dark brown in colour and contains a large proportion of free fatty acids. The refined oil is bland and light brown in colour. The characteristic odour of mustard oil is due to sulphur-containing essential oils produced by the hydrolysis of glucosides contained in the seeds. The quality of the mustard oil depends on the contents of the fatty acids and their percentage therein. Mustard oil is hazardous because of its high content of allyl isothiocyanate.

Sweet flag

The variation of essential oils and their major constituents in Acorus, with respect to season and geographical areas, was analysed. The major components of volatile oil obtained from the same part of the plants from different geographical areas exhibited no change in chemical structure and the best season for cropping was found to be June (Kumar et al., 2000). The calamus root oil obtained from the plants grown in various geographical areas such as China, Japan (wild and cultivated types), Asian regions, Canada, Bangladesh and also the commercial sample from Germany were subjected to analysis by various researchers. It was found that there is variation in the presence and quantity of the components in those samples (Lawrence, 2002). The comparative percentage composition of the major components of various collections of Japanese and Asian calamus root oil is given in Tables 5.2 and 5.3.

Betel vine

The varying taste of betel vine ranging from sweet to pungent is due to the presence of essential oils. The chief constituent of leaves is a volatile oil, known as betel leaf oil, and its amount varies in leaves from different varieties. The oil is of a clear yellow colour and is obtained from fresh leaves. The essential oil consists of euginol, cadinene, chavicol, chavibetol, cineole, sesquiterpene, allylpyrochavicol, caryophyllene, methyl euginol, hydroxy-chavicol, sitosterols, stigma sterols, etc. (Balasubrahmanyam et al., 1994). Fresh betel leaves are usually used for chewing. Leaves are ready for harvest in four to six months. The harvested leaves are packed moist in different types of well-aerated baskets and marketed. In some places the leaves are blanched or bleached and marketed. This process leads to some changes in the chemical composition of the essential oils (Table 5.6).

Winter savory

The essential oils in the rhizome make it useful as a carminative and stomachic. The pulped rhizome is also used on concussions and sprains. An improved cultivar (Amba) has been developed at the high altitude research station at Pottangi, Orissa (India). Lovage (Levisticum officinale Koth.) is a perennial plant that belongs to the family Apiaceae, and is a native of Europe. Centres of lovage cultivation are located principally in central Europe. It is also found cultivated in some areas in New England, USA. It has been grown over the centuries for its aromatic fragrance, its fine ornamental qualities and, to a lesser extent, its medicinal values. All parts of the plant, including the roots, are strongly aromatic and contain extractable essential oils.

Extracts Citron

And during the month that we focused on lung cancer, PubMed only had 11 citations regarding limonene and lung cancer. If I were diagnosed with lung cancer today, I would be ingesting more garlic and more citrus too. I might even be inhaling limonene-containing essential oils as I squeezed citrus peels. Raphael and Kuttan (2003) note that several naturally occurring monoterpenes, such as carvone, limonene, and perillic acid, inhibit experimental lung metastasis. (Limonene at 100 M kg body weight, 10 doses ipr, remarkably reduced metastatic tumor nodule formation.) Limonene and perillic acid just might even inhibit the metastatic progression of melanoma cells (X14582701). I doubt that Witschi (2000) would join me in judiciously inhaling citrus essential oils. Under the catchy title, Successful and Not So Successful Chemoprevention of Tobacco Smoke-Induced Lung Tumors, Witschi notes that none of the following chemopre-ventive agents green tea, phenethyl isothiocyanate,...

Rice wine See sake

Rose-Gottlieb test Gravimetric method for determination of fat in milk, by extraction with diethyl ether and petroleum ether from an ammoniacal alcoholic solution of the sample. rosella Caribbean plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa) grown for its fleshy red sepals, used to make drinks, jams and jelly. Also known as sorrel, flor de Jamaica. rosemary A bushy shrub, Rosmarinus officinalis, cultivated commercially for its essential oil, used in medicine and perfumery. The leaves are used to flavour soups, sauces and meat. rose water Fragrant water made by distillation or extraction of the essential oils of rose petals. Used in confectionery (especially turkish delight) and baking. rotary louvre dryer Hot air passes through a moving bed of the

Skin creams

Creams are made by mixing a water-based preparation with an oil-based one, to make an emulsion. Creams are absorbed into the skin more rapidly than ointments, but have the disadvantages of being more difficult to make and not keeping as well. Essential oils can be added to help preserve creams, and they keep best if refrigerated. Herbs can be added conveniently to bathwater by tying a sock or cloth full of dried or fresh herb to the hot tap as you run the bath, or by adding a few cups of an infusion or decoction. Herbal vinegars and oils can also be added to bath water, as can essential oils.

Studies in vitro

Almost all essential oils from spices and herbs inhibit microbial growth as well as toxin production. The antimicrobial effect is concentration dependent and may become strongly bacteriocidal at high concentrations. Gram-positive bacteria (spore- and non-spore-formers), Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts (Tables 3.1-3.3) and moulds (Ippolito and Nigro, 2003) are all affected by a wide range of essential oils. Well-known examples include the essential oils from allspice, almond, bay, black pepper, caraway, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, garlic, grapefruit, lemon, mace, mandarin, onion, orange, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme. The active compounds of some of these essential oils are shown in Tables 3.2 and 3.4. Table 3.3 Some examples of microorganisms sensitive to the antimicrobial action of essential oils from herbs and spices Table 3.3 Some examples of microorganisms sensitive to the antimicrobial action of essential oils from herbs and spices Table 3.4 Examples of essential oils...


Herbal, botanical, or phytomedicines are medicinal products containing active ingredients of exclusively plant origin. These medicines may be consumed as comminuted powders or as decoctions. Their production may involve concentration or purification processes resulting in extracts, tinctures, fatty or essential oils, or expressed plant juices. This review of herbal medicines excludes products that consist primarily of chemically defined constituents. The demand for herbal remedies is rising in many countries. This resurgence in the use of medicinal herbs may be due to various reasons. First, there is much disillusionment of the public with conventional medicine and its cost and inherent nonholistic approach (1-3). More important, there exists a perception among consumers that ''natural'' alternatives are safer than conventional medicine (2). In the United States, passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplementary Health and Education Act left the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with limited...

Aromatherapy Can Change Your Life

Aromatherapy Can Change Your Life

Everything you ever wanted to know about How Aromatherapy Can Change Your Life. We have been discussing Aromatherapy the ancient healing art and what it can do to change your life.

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