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involving CYP450 enzymes [1]. Phase II reactions are most commonly mediated by Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase, sulfotrans-ferase, N-acetyltransferase, and glutathione-S-transferase.

Pharmacokinetic drug interactions can also occur during renal excretion. These interactions are usually competitive interactions that occur rapidly and often involve the active secretion of medications. The organic anion transport proteins (OAT1 and 3) are primarily located in the kidney and facilitate excretion of weakly acidic drugs, such as penicillins and some antiviral agents [8]. Probenecid is an inhibitor of OAT1 and thus leads to decreased renal clearance of OAT1 substrates.

CYP1A1/2

CYP2C8/9

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