Filtration

The blood that needs to be processed enters the medulla of the kidney from the renal artery. Inside the kidney the renal artery splits into a network of capillaries called the glomerulus which filter the waste. Almost encasing the glomerulus lies a sac called the Bowman's capsule.

The blood pressure in the glomerulus is maintained at a high level, assisted by the fact that the arteriole feeding into the glomerulus has a larger diameter than the arteriole leaving it. This pressure forces fluid out through the walls of the glomerulus together with some of the substances of small molecular size able to pass through the capillary walls into the Bowman's capsule. This process constitutes simple filtration.

Afferent arteriole

Efferent arteriole

Proximal convoluted tubule

Capillaries

Loop of Henle

Afferent arteriole

Efferent arteriole

Proximal convoluted tubule

Capillaries

Loop of Henle

Glomerulus Bowman's capsule

Collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule

Urine collected

Glomerulus Bowman's capsule

Collecting duct Distal convoluted tubule

Urine collected

Fig 12.2 Nephron

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