Summary of main skin types

Soft, supple, smooth Free from blemishes Shiny, thick,coarse and uneven Sallow colouring Blocked pores, comedones, papules and pustules may be present Dry on cheeks and neck, oily blemished in T-zone Variable enlarged in T-zone and fine and small on cheeks Poor in dry areas good in oily areas Warm to touch, thin, dry and flaky, high colouring, easily irritated Variable tend to be small and tight

In Practice

Rosacea is a skin condition where both dermatological and skin care treatments can be helpful. Clients with rosacea should be referred to a dermatologist for diagnosis and management. If the right medication is given, along with the correct skin care treatment it can help avoid a flaring up and worsening of the condition. It is important to avoid products that are harsh, abrasive, fragranced and heavy, and to avoid excessive extraction, steam or a very stimulating massage. Clients should be...

Parts of a cells structure

Molecules combine in very specific ways to form what is called cell organelles (little organs) which are the basic component parts of the cells. Each organelle has a particular functional significance within the cell that allows it to live. Despite the great variety of cells in the body, they all have the same basic structure. When studying the cell's structure it is helpful to also think of it in three parts the outer part called the cell membrane the inner part containing the nucleus the...

Interrelationships with other systems

The skin links to the following body systems. Vitamin D is produced by the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet light. This is needed in bone formation and bone maintenance. Muscles provide a supportive function to the skin. Muscles lie directly under the skin and therefore contribute to skin's tone and elasticity. Blood clots at the site of an injury and forms a scab on the surface of the skin. This allows the skin to heal and protects underlying structures from any further damage. Oxygen...

The transmission of nerve impulses

Neurones are responsible for neurotransmission, the conduction of electrochemical impulses throughout the nervous system. Neurone activity is provoked by mechanical stimuli touch and pressure thermal stimuli heat and cold chemical stimuli from external chemicals or from a chemical released by the body such as histamine. Nerve impulses are caused by chemical changes in the cell body. Chemical compounds generate electrical charges called ions. Inside the nerve cell body there are potassium ions...

The growth cycle of a hair

Each hair has its own growth cycle and undergoes three distinct stages of development anagen, catagen and telogen. While carrying out hair removal treatments, it is important to remember that the hair follicle is part of the skin's structure, therefore any treatment which affects the hair is also going to affect the skin. Once a hair has been removed, the maximum amount of blood will be sent straight to the area being treated to heal and protect the skin. This is a normal reaction of the skin...

The structure of the nail

The nail has several important anatomical regions. Situated immediately below the cuticle The nail's most important feature. It is the area where the living cells are produced receives a rich supply of blood which supplies oxygen to the nail and is vital to the production of new cells Area from which the health of the nail is determined Immediately below the nail plate is a continuation of the matrix part of the skin upon which the nail plate rests Provides nourishment and protection for the...

The muscles of the pelvic floor

The levator ani and the coccygeus are the muscles that form the pelvic floor. These muscles support and elevate the organs of the pelvic cavity such as the uterus and the bladder. They provide a counterbalance to increased intra-abdominal pressure which would expel the contents of the bladder, rectum and the uterus. During childbirth these muscles can become weakened and need to be strengthened by pelvic floor exercises as soon as possible after the birth. Superficial muscles Deep muscles...

Stroke

This is a blocking of blood flow to the brain by an embolus in a cerebral blood vessel. A stroke can result in a sudden attack of weakness affecting one side of the body, due to the interruption to the flow of blood to the brain. A stroke can vary in severity from a passing weakness or tingling in a limb to a profound paralysis and a coma if severe. Sometimes the term is used to describe cerebral haemorrhage when an artery or congenital cyst of blood vessels in the brain bursts, resulting in...

Leukaemia

This term refers to any of a group of malignant diseases in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce an increased number Common pathologies of the circulatory system 169 Drainage of lymphatics can result in the spread of leukaemia - refer to GP consultant for advice. Take care if applying pressure with massage to avoid bruising clients may also have a tendency to bleed. Be aware that lymph glands, liver and spleen can be very tender In the case of a pacemaker electrical...

Sinusitis

This condition involves inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. It is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection or may be associated with a common cold or allergy. The congestion of the nose results in a blockage in the opening of the sinus into the nasal cavity and a build-up of pressure in the sinus. The condition presents with nasal congestion followed by a mucous discharge from the nose. The pain is located in specific areas depending on the sinuses affected. If the frontal sinuses...

Different grades of acne vulgaris

There are four different grades of acne, the grade being dependent on the severity of the disorder Presence of a few papules and pustules, minor breakout. Mainly open comedones present, with some closed comedones Grade 1 acne is typical in a teenager just beginning puberty Greater incidence of papules and pustules, presence of many closed comedones and more open comedones Skin appears very red and inflamed, with many papules and pustules present Cysts present with comedones, papules, pustules....

Body Facti

Muscle tone will vary from person to person and will largely depend on the amount of exercise undertaken. Muscles with good tone have a better blood supply as their blood vessels will not be inhibited by fat. rate and depth of breath remains above normal for a while after strenuous exercise has ceased. Large amounts of oxygen are taken in to allow the cells of the muscles and the liver to dispose of the accumulated lactic acid by oxidising it and converting it to glucose or glycogen. Lactic...

The chemical makeup of a cell

Chemically, a cell is composed of the major elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen and trace elements of several other elements such as sodium, calcium, chlorine, magnesium, iron, iodine, potassium, sulphur and phosphorus. Cells are made up of approximately 80 per cent water, 15 per cent protein, 3 per cent lipids or fats, 1 per cent carbohydrates, 1 per cent nucleic acids. Being like the body's reservoir, water provides a universal solvent for the facilitation of chemical reactions in...

The muscles of the anterior aspect of the trunk

Thick, fan-shaped muscle covering the anterior surface of the upper chest Attaches to the clavicle and the sternum at one end and to the humerus at the other end Adducts arm, medially (inwardly) rotates arm Tightness in this muscle can cause restrictions of the chest and postural disortions (rounded shoulders) Pectoralis minor (pek-to-ra-lis my-nor) Thin muscle that lies beneath the pectoralis major Fibres attach laterally and upwards from the ribs at one end to the scapula at the other end...

Inflammatory skin conditions

Dermatitis literally means inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is caused by a primary irritant which causes the skin to become red, dry and inflamed. Substances which are likely to cause this reaction include acids, alkalis, solvents, perfumes, lanolin, detergent and nickels. There may be skin infection as well. This is a mild to chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by itchiness, redness and the presence of small blisters that may be dry or weep if the surface is...

Fungal infections of the skin

This is a fungal infection of the skin which begins as small red papules that gradually increase in size to form a ring. The affected areas on the body vary in severity from mild scaling to inflamed itchy areas. This is a type of ringworm and is a fungal infection of the scalp. It appears as painless, round, hairless patches on the scalp. Itching may be present and the lesion may appear red and scaly. This is a highly contagious fungal condition which is easily transmitted in damp, moist...

Lymphatic drainage

Movement of lymph throughout the lymphatic system is known as lymphatic drainage and it begins in the lymphatic capillaries. The movement of lymph out of the tissue spaces and into the lymphatic capillaries is assisted by The pressure exerted by the skeletal muscles against the vessels during movement. Changes in internal pressure during respiration. The compression of lymph vessels from the pull of the skin and fascia during movement. Lymphatic drainage of the head and neck The main groups of...

Tuberculosis TB

This infectious disease is caused by the bacillus (bacteria) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The main transportation of tuberculosis is via droplet infection and hence the most common site for the bacilli to spread to is the lungs. The bacilli can also result from drinking unpasteurised milk from infected cows. It is characterised by the formation of nodules in the body tissues. Symptoms include coughing, sneezing, night sweats, fever, weight loss and the spitting of blood. Enlarged lymph nodes can...

Cirrhosis of the liver

Cirrhosis refers to a distorted or scarred liver as a result of chronic inflammation. The functional liver cells are replaced by fibrous or adipose connective tissue. The symptoms of cirrhosis include jaundice, oedema in the legs, uncontrolled bleeding and sensitivity to drugs. Cirrhosis may be In the case of a client with gallstones, avoid massage to the upper right quadrant of the abdomen. caused by hepatitis, alcoholism, certain chemicals that destroy the liver cells or parasites that infect...

Dry skin

A dry skin is so called because it is either lacking in sebum or moisture, or both. It develops as a result of under-activity of the sebaceous glands. The skin's natural oil, sebum, lubricates the corneum layer and in the absence of this oily coating the dead cells start to curl up and flake. The sebum coating also helps to prevent moisture loss by evaporation. Therefore, due to a lack of sebum, dry skin has difficulty retaining inner moisture. Although dry skin is hereditary, it can also...

Overview of the principal parts of the brain

Makes up front and top part of brain Relays sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex Small structure lies beneath the thalamus Governs many important homeostatic functions (hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, anger, aggression, hormones, sexual behaviour, sleep patterns and consciousness) Pea-sized mass of nervous tissue attached by a stalk in the central part of the brain Attached to the upper portion of the thalamus Secretes melatonin Regulation of circadian rhythms Cauliflower-shaped...

Disorders of the sebaceous gland

A chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands which leads to the over-production of sebum. It involves the face, back and chest and is characterised by the presence of greasy, oily skin with enlarged pores, inflammation in and around the sebaceous glands, papules, pustules and, in more severe cases, cysts and scars. Acne vulgaris is primarily androgen induced and appears most frequently at puberty and usually persists for a considerable period of time. Although it is commonly...

Heartburn

This is a burning sensation felt behind the sternum and often appears to rise from the abdomen up the oesophagus towards or into the throat. It is caused by regurgitation of the acidic stomach contents. Common pathologies of the digestive system 291 In the case of a client with IBS remember that the lower abdomen in particular can be painful and tender. Clients with this condition may need easy quick access to the toilet. Advise the client to avoid wind-producing foods, e.g. onion, dry beans....

Sensitive skin

While sensitivity is a condition that may affect any skin type, sensitive skin is more commonly referred to in its own classification and therefore most product lines now recognise and market products specifically for this skin type. The aim in treating sensitive skin is to soothe and calm the skin, avoid harsh products and forms of treatment conditions (such as heat) that may cause irritation. Pink tone, with or without dilated capillaries. Thin and translucent appearance. Usually feels quite...

Lupus erythematosus

This is a chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue affecting the skin and various internal organs. It is an auto-immune disease and can be diagnosed by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the bloodstream. Typical signs are a red scaly rash on the face, arthritis and progressive damage to the kidneys. Often the heart, lungs and brain are also affected by progressive attacks of inflammation, followed by the formation of scar tissue. It can also cause psychiatric illness due to direct...

Pigmentation disorders

This condition is caused by an inherited absence of pigmentation in the skin, hair and eyes, resulting in white hair, pink skin and eyes. The pink colour is produced by underlying blood vessels which are normally masked by pigment. Other clinical signs of this condition include poor eyesight and sensitivity to light. This is a pigmentation disorder with irregular areas of increased pigmentation, usually on the face. It commonly occurs during pregnancy and sometimes when taking the contraceptive...

Migraine

This is a specific form of headache, usually unilateral (one side of the head), associated with nausea or vomiting, visual disturbances such as scintillating light waves or zigzag fashion. The client may experience a visual aura before an attack actually happens. This is usually called a classical migraine. There are other types of migraine Ophthalmoplegic migraine this causes painful, red and watery eyes. Neuropathic migraine it causes one-sided paralysis and weakness of the face and body....

General terms associated with the skin

This disorder occours when the body becomes hypersensitive to a particular allergen. When irritated by an allergen, the body produces histamine in the skin as part of the body's defence or immune system. The effects of different allergens are diverse and they affect different tissues and organs. For example, certain cosmetics and chemicals can cause rashes and irritation in the skin. Certain allergens such as pollen, fur, feathers, mould and dust can cause asthma and hay fever. If severe,...

Parts of a neurone

Although neurones vary in their shape and size they all have three basic parts Cell body this has a central nucleus and is surrounded by cytoplasm and contains standard organelles such as mitochondria and a golgi body. Dendrites these are highly branched extensions of the nerve cell. These neural extensions receive and transmit stimuli towards the cell body. Axon this is long, single nerve fibre extending from the cell body. The function of an axon is to transmit impulses away from the cell...

The skin hair and nails

1 In which of the following layers are epidermal cells constantly being reproduced a horny layer b basal cell layer c clear layer d granular layer 2 Desquamation occurs in which layer of the epidermis a horny layer b basal cell layer c prickle cell layer d clear layer 3 Which of the following is responsible for making the skin pigmentation darker a keratin b sebum c carotene d melanin 4 The type of sweat glands that are widely distributed throughout the body are a apocrine b eccrine c adipose d...

Internal factors affecting the skin

The natural process of ageing naturally affects the skin, as cell regeneration starts to decrease with age (see chart on page 55 for information on the effects of ageing). These also contribute to skin ageing. Free radicals are parts of molecules (e.g. oxygen molecules) that are found in the body. As a result of external factors, like ultraviolet radiation, nicotine or unhealthy food, the free radicals become prone to react. This means that they are constantly looking for other chemical...

Cancer of the prostate

If the cancer is located close to the urethra, there may be a frequency of micturition, urgency, difficulty in voiding, blood in urine or blood in the ejaculate. Cancer of the prostate is often diagnosed by rectal examination, where it feels nodular and hard. Prostate cancer usually spreads to the bones and produces bony pain, or causes fractures in the bone after trivial injury. In the advanced stage, as in all cancers, the person loses weight and is anaemic.

The endocrine system

1 The purpose of the endocrine system is to a contribute to the reproductive process b produce and secrete hormones to regulate body activities c maintain the body during times of stress d all of the above 2 Which of the following secretes the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a anterior lobe of pituitary b posterior lobe of pituitary c adrenal medulla d adrenal cortex 3 The endocrine gland responsible for secreting the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is 4 Which of the following hormones...

Different types of hair growth

As there is a continuous cycle of hair growth, the amount of hair on the body remains fairly constant. However, hair growth will vary from client to client and from area to area. A new client coming to the salon for a hair removal treatment should be made aware of the fact that hair growth occurs in three stages which will result in the hair being at different lengths both above the skin and below it. The apocrine glands begin to function at puberty. Now complete Activity 2.1 in the resources...

Skin Tag Fibrous

Skin tags may be surgically removed or may be cauterised by a qualified electrologist with advanced training. They are not contra-indicated to skin care treatment, although care should be taken to avoid catching them and causing any discomfort. Moles are also known as a pigmented naevi. They appear as round, smooth lumps on the surface of the skin. They may be flat or raised and vary in size and colour from pink to brown or black. They may have hairs growing out of them. This is a mass of...

Urinary

The anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) helps to regulate fluid balance in the body. Revision summary of the endocrine system 251 Key words associated with the endocrine system Revision summary of the endocrine system The endocrine system consists of ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands are concerned with the regulation of metabolic processes. A hormone is a chemical regulator secreted by an endocrine gland into the bloodstream and has the power to influence the...

Arthritis osteoarthritis

This is a joint disease characterised by the breakdown of articular cartilage, growth of bony spikes, swelling of the surrounding synovial membrane and stiffness and tenderness of the joint. It is also known as degenerative arthritis. It is common in the elderly and takes a progressive course. This condition involves varying degrees of joint pain, stiffness, limitation of movement, joint instability and deformity. It commonly affects the weight bearing joints - the hips, knees, lumbar and...

The muscles of the lower limb

(quad-ri-seps eks-ten-sor) The quadriceps is made up of four muscles rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis Attached to the pelvic girdle (rectus femoris) and femur (vastus group) at one end and to the patella and tibia at the other end As a group they extend the knee and flex the hip The quadriceps is a group of strong muscles used for walking, kicking and raising the body from a sitting or squatting position Attached to the ilium of the pelvis and the medial...

Identifying skin cancers

It is important to be aware of the typical characteristics of skin cancer An open sore, of any size, that bleeds, oozes or crusts and remains open for three or more weeks. A persistent, non-healing sore. A reddish patch or irritated area that does not go away and fails to responds to moisturisers or treatment creams. A smooth growth with a distinct rolled border and an indented centre. A shiny bump or nodule with a smooth surface that can be pink, red, white, back, brown or purple in colour. A...

Postural defects

This is an abnormally increased outward curvature of the thoracic spine. In this condition the back appears round as the shoulders point forward and the head moves forward. A tightening of the pectoral muscles is common in this condition. This is an abnormally increased inward curvature of the lumbar spine. In this condition the pelvis tilts forward and as the back is hollow, the abdomen and buttocks protrude and the knees may be hyperextended. Typical problems associated with this condition...

Fibromyalgia

This is a chronic condition that produces musculo-skeletal pain. Predominant symptoms include widespread musculo-skeletal pain, lethargy and fatigue. Other characteristic features include a non-refreshing sleep pattern in which the patient experiences interrupted sleep, and wakes feeling exhausted and more tired than later in the day. Other recognised symptoms include early morning stiffness, pins and needles sensation, unexplained headaches, poor concentration, memory loss, low mood, urinary...

Viral infections of the skin

Viral Warts

Herpes simplex is normally found on the face and around the lips. It begins as an itching sensation, followed by erythema and a group of small blisters which then weep and form crusts. This condition will generally persist for approximately two or three weeks but will reappear at times of stress, ill health or exposure to sunlight. This is a painful infection along the sensory nerves due to the virus that causes chickenpox. Lesions resemble herpes simplex with erythema and blisters along the...

Types of joint

Synovial Joint

Joints are classified according to the degree of movement possible at each one. There are three main joint classifications fibrous - no movement is possible (also known as fixed joints) cartilaginous - slight movement is possible synovial freely moveable joints. These are immovable joints with tough fibrous tissue between the bones. Often the edges of the bones are dovetailed together into one another, as in the sutures of the skull. Some examples of fibrous joints include the joints between...

Oily skin

Oily skin is hereditary and develops due to an over-production of sebum from the sebaceous glands. The aim in the treatment of an oily skin is to help balance it by bringing the oil secretions under control through thorough cleansing and exfoliation. It is still important to protect oily skin by moisturising the surface with a water-based hydrating product designed for oily skin. There is always a tendency for clients to over-treat their skin if it is oily However this can compound the problem...

Nail diseases and nail disorders

Whitlow Nail

Diseases of the nail are as a direct result of bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses attacking the nail or surrounding tissues. Nail disorders may be caused by illness, physical and chemical damage, by general neglect or by poor manicuring techniques. Nail disorders do not contra-indicate manicure or pedicure treatments. However, nail diseases do as they may cause cross-infection. A therapist must be able to recognise diseases and disorders so that the correct treatment or advice may be given....

The muscles of the shoulder

Large triangular-shaped muscle in upper back Its fibres are arranged in three groups - upper, middle and lower Extends horizontally from the base of the skull (occipital bone) and cervical thoracic vertebrae to scapula Its fibres are arranged in three groups - upper, middle and lower The upper fibres raise the shoulder girdle, the middle fibres pull the scapula towards the vertebral column and the lower fibres draw the scapula and shoulder downwards One of the most commonly found muscles to...

Ethnic skin types

All ethnic skin types vary in the degree of melanin they produce. Although all ethnic skin types have the same number of melanocytes cells, black skins have melanocytes capable of making large amounts of melanin. White skin (British, Scandinavian, East and West European, North American, South Australian, Canadian, New Zealand origin) Generally a pale buff some skins may appear pinkish while others have a sallowish tone Relatively small amounts of melanin present in white skins, as melanin is...

Hepatitis

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, toxic substances or immunological abnormalities. Hepatitis A - this is highly contagious and is transmitted by the faecal-oral route. It is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food, water or milk. The incubation period is from 15 to 45 days. Hepatitis B this is also known as serum hepatitis and is more serious than hepatitis A. It lasts longer and can lead to cirrhosis, cancer of the liver and a carrier state. It has a long...

Anatomy physiology

Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders of material reproduced here. The authors and publishers would like to thank the following for permission to reproduce copyright illustrations p. 47, top to bottom, Science Photo Library, Dr Jeremy Burgess Science Photo Library p. 48, Wellcome Photo Library p. 56, Photodisc Getty Images p. 57, all Photodisc Getty Images p. 58, Medical-On-Line Alamy p. 59, Dr H. C. Robinson Science Photo Library p. 60, Dr P. Marazzi Science Photo Library...

The muscles of the head and neck

Attaches to the skin of the eyebrows and the frontal bone at the hairline Wrinkles the forehead and raises the eyebrows Attached to the occipital bone and the skin of the scalp Is united to the frontalis muscle by a broad tendon called the epicranial aponeurosis which covers the skull like a cap Fan-shaped muscle situated on the side of the skull above and in front of the ear Attaches to the temporal bone and to the upper part of the mandible Muscle becomes tightened with a tension headache...