The skin hair and nails

1 In which of the following layers are epidermal cells constantly being reproduced a horny layer b basal cell layer c clear layer d granular layer 2 Desquamation occurs in which layer of the epidermis a horny layer b basal cell layer c prickle cell layer d clear layer 3 Which of the following is responsible for making the skin pigmentation darker a keratin b sebum c carotene d melanin 4 The type of sweat glands that are widely distributed throughout the body are a apocrine b eccrine c adipose d...

Nail diseases and nail disorders

Whitlow Nail

Diseases of the nail are as a direct result of bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses attacking the nail or surrounding tissues. Nail disorders may be caused by illness, physical and chemical damage, by general neglect or by poor manicuring techniques. Nail disorders do not contra-indicate manicure or pedicure treatments. However, nail diseases do as they may cause cross-infection. A therapist must be able to recognise diseases and disorders so that the correct treatment or advice may be given....

Blood vessels of the head and neck

Right Carotid Artery Ostial Occlusion

Blood is supplied to parts within the neck, head and brain through branches of the subclavian and common carotid arteries. The common cartoid artery extends from the brachiocephalic artery. It extends on each side of the neck and divides at the level of the larynx into two branches The internal carotid artery passes through the temporal bone of the skull to supply oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, forehead and part of the nose. The external carotid artery is divided into branches (facial,...

Arthritis osteoarthritis

This is a joint disease characterised by the breakdown of articular cartilage, growth of bony spikes, swelling of the surrounding synovial membrane and stiffness and tenderness of the joint. It is also known as degenerative arthritis. It is common in the elderly and takes a progressive course. This condition involves varying degrees of joint pain, stiffness, limitation of movement, joint instability and deformity. It commonly affects the weight bearing joints - the hips, knees, lumbar and...

Inflammatory skin conditions

Dermatitis literally means inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is caused by a primary irritant which causes the skin to become red, dry and inflamed. Substances which are likely to cause this reaction include acids, alkalis, solvents, perfumes, lanolin, detergent and nickels. There may be skin infection as well. This is a mild to chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by itchiness, redness and the presence of small blisters that may be dry or weep if the surface is...

Viral infections of the skin

Viral Warts

Herpes simplex is normally found on the face and around the lips. It begins as an itching sensation, followed by erythema and a group of small blisters which then weep and form crusts. This condition will generally persist for approximately two or three weeks but will reappear at times of stress, ill health or exposure to sunlight. This is a painful infection along the sensory nerves due to the virus that causes chickenpox. Lesions resemble herpes simplex with erythema and blisters along the...

Disorders of the sebaceous gland

A chronic inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous glands which leads to the over-production of sebum. It involves the face, back and chest and is characterised by the presence of greasy, oily skin with enlarged pores, inflammation in and around the sebaceous glands, papules, pustules and, in more severe cases, cysts and scars. Acne vulgaris is primarily androgen induced and appears most frequently at puberty and usually persists for a considerable period of time. Although it is commonly...