The Role Of Lifestyle

It has been suggested that differences in findings regarding specific types of drinks, and in particular the low risk seen in wine drinkers compared to other drinkers, may be due to differences in patterns of drinking and to differences in risk traits between those choosing different beverages 11 . The Kaiser Permanente Study observed wine drinkers to have the most favourable coronary risk traits and liquor (spirit) drinkers to have the least favourable traits. Interestingly, the beneficial...

Cigarette Smoking And The Risk Of Stroke

Heavy smoking (> 20 cigarettes day) increases both the incidence 37-41 and mortality from stroke 40,41 , Cigarette smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage 42-48 , In contrast, evidence concerning the role of tobacco in the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial, yet it appears that heavy, but not light-to-moderate cigarette smoking, increases the risk 9,38,49,50 , Smoking is dose-dependantly associated with the risk of ischemic stroke 38,46 ,...

The Effect Modification Of Alcohol By Smoking

There are only two epidemiologic studies on the effect modification of alcohol by smoking and neither of them examines it in relation to the risk of stroke. In a Japanese cohort of 19,231 men, alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality had a J-shaped association in nonsmokers but not in smokers 78 , In a cross-sectional study of 5,312 German men and women, the rise in blood pressure associated with drinking was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers 79 , Some studies have instead examined the...

Epidemiological Studies

Recently, the South Bay Heart Watch (Torrance, CA) reported a study ofl,196 asymptomatic subjects with coronary risk factors who were assessed for alcohol consumption history and for the presence of calcium deposits in coronary atherosclerotic lesions as measured by electron beam computed tomography (EBCT). Participants were followed prospectively for 41 months for coronary events, defined as the occurrence of myocardial infarction or CHD death 6 , Subjects who drank alcohol had a relative risk...

Cigarette Smoking And Cardiovascular Disease

Cigarette smoking-related cardiovascular diseases have been described widely. However, the mechanisms of their effects on cardiovascular system were not totally clear. The effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide on blood vessel walls, unfavorable lipid profiles, increased myocardial work and the decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood of smokers contribute to the overall effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease 3J. Of the increased cardiovascular risk caused by smoking, it...

The Coeffect Of Alcohol And Tobacco Smoking

Alcoholics are commonly heavy smokers. There is a synergistic effect of alcohol consumption and smoking on cancer development, with long term ethanol consumption enhancing the mutagenicity of tobacco-derived product 24 , The combined ingestion of ethanol resulted in a significant formation of smoke-related DNA adducts in the esophagus and in their further, dramatic increase in the heart. Thus ethanol consumption increases the bioavailability of DNA binding of smoke components in the upper...

Cocaine Cardiotoxicity

As cocaine abuse has become widespread, the number of cocaine related cardiovascular events, such as angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiac myopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, and sudden death has increased substantially 1-15 , These occur in young subjects, a significant percentage of whom had no evidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease on subsequent angiography 10,11,18-21 . Twice as many men as women experience cocaine related cardiac ischemic events, at...

References

1 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies, In Preliminary estimatesfrom the 1993 National Household Survey on DrugAbuse. Advance report no. 7. Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland, 1994. 2 Andersson B, Waagstein F. Spectrum and outcome of congestive heart failure in a hospitalized population. Am. HeartJ. 1993 126 632-640. 3 Roberts WC, Siegel RJ, McManus BM. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy analysis of 152 necropsy patients. Am. J....

Alcohol and nonfatal myocardial infarction or incidence of CHD

Data on the incidence of myocardial infarction or CHD were available for about 40 of the cited cohorts. It is no longer disputed that drinkers as a group have a lower incidence of Table 1.1 Large population studies examining alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease Sample Categories of CHD Size Alcohol Intake 8 Honolulu Heart 1965-68 Program 10 Puerto Rico Heart Health Program 11 Yugoslavia Cardiovascular Disease Study Residents aged 29-62 years in Framingham, MA at exam 2 At exam 2 or exam 7...

Alcoholic versus viral or idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy DCM

The most prevalent confusion with the alcoholic heart disease caused by thiamine and nutritional deficiency is with viral or idiopathic chronic DCM. Between 20 and 35 of all cases ofDCM are thought to occur because of excessive ethanol intake 25 , However, in both alcoholic and idiopathic chronic DCM, the clinical picture is similar. In the early stages of both categories of congestive heart failure, the patients often show some response to bedrest, salt restriction, diuretics, and digitalis....

Alcohol And The Heart

Ethanol has important effects on the cardiovascular system and particularly on anti-oxidant systems (reviewed in 75,158 ). Although the relative incidence of alcohol consumption reduces the overall risk of cardiovascular disease by a number of mechanisms (for example, increasing HDL LDL ratio, reducing platelet function and aggregation 140,159 ) excessive alcohol is damaging and can lead to the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy 160-163 , Paradoxically, moderate alcohol consumption has...

Introduction

Alcohol is the most frequently used mind-altering drug except for caffeine. Half of Americans, aged 12 years and older, use alcohol on a regular basis and approximately 10 of these Americans are regarded to be alcoholics I . More pertinent to the heart, chronic alcohol abuse has been found to be the chief source of secondary cardiomyopathy (termed alcoholic cardiomyopathy or alcohol-induced heart muscle disease) in the Western world 2,3 , Furthermore, patients with alcohol-induced heart muscle...

Role Of Acetaldehydeprotein Adducts And Free Radicals

It is important to emphasize that changes in the heart protein content in response to alcohol exposure may arise via a number of mechanisms including I. Perturbations in DNA structure and function (via free radical damage or adduct formation) II. Changes (increases and decreases) in mRNA level IV. Free radical induced protein damage V. Increased or decreased protease activities. The liver is the main site of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde production, an extremely reactive metabolite. Acetaldehyde...

Myocardial Remodeling And Progression Of Ahmd

The specific structural remodeling events associated with AHMD in women have not been studied. Left ventricular remodeling is defined as a change in LV geometry, mass and volume Table 4.3 Echocardiographic parameters in men and women with AHMD compared to healthy controls Table 4.3 Echocardiographic parameters in men and women with AHMD compared to healthy controls * Indicates significant differences from control healthy females t indicates significant difference from alcoholic men. Indicates...

Apolipoprotein B

Apolipoprotein B is the major structural protein for triglyceride-rich particles including chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) as well as intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). VLDL is sequentially metabolized to IDL and LDL by hydrolysis of the triglycerides. There are two forms of apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein B48. Apolipoprotein B48 derives from mRNA editing of apolipoprotein B100 mRNA. In the intestine, where...

Unhealthy abstainers question

A large proportion of abstainers (non-drinkers) are ex-drinkers 46 , Men who were heavier drinkers are more likely to reduce their alcohol consumption as they grow older 46-48 , This is at least in part associated with the accumulating burden of ill-health and medication as people grow older 49 , The British Regional Health Study suggested a strong downward drift from heavy or moderate drinking to occasional drinking or abstinence under the influence of accumulating ill-health not necessarily...

Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal muscle comprises about 40 of mammalian body weight and as such, is an important contributor to whole body physiology. Although, ATC concentration in skeletal muscle is lower than that ofliver, it has a comparable (if not higher) contribution to the whole body ATC pool 81 , Various studies have shown that dietary ATC deficiency induces myopathic lesions within muscle 209,210 , Many of these studies on muscle have combined ATC deficiency with concomitant selenium deficiency 208,211 , In...

Ahmd In Women

To date, there are only a few studies that have specifically examined sex-differences in the susceptibility and severity of alcohol-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction or included women in the study of AHMD. Prior to the studies of Kupari and Koskinen and Urbano-M rquez and colleagues, the prevailing notion was that the female myocardium was resistant to the adverse effects of alcohol 4,14 , In a review by Fabrizio and Regan, male gender and not female gender was listed as a risk factor...

Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

The majority of ingested alcohol is rapidly absorbed from the small intestine into the bloodstream, and is distributed to tissues that possess high water content and blood flow, e.g., myocardium 5 , Once ethanol has reached myocardium, it has been shown to affect both the sarcolemma (muscle cell membrane) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In rat myocytes, chronic alcohol intake creates sarcolemma leaking along with an intracellular calcium increase 23,24 , Several studies also exhibited...

In the cardiovascular system

The role of fatty acids in cardiovascular disease Much evidence has accumulated from various lines of inquiry that indicates that the dietary fatty acid intake and lipid acyl composition of tissues is a determinant of many of the chronic diseases prominent in the Western World, notably cardiovascular disease. It has been appreciated since the 1950s that when dietary polyunsaturated fat intake is increased, a decrease in the total serum and lipoprotein cholesterol levels results 1 . Bang and...