Resources On Alcohol

Al-Anon Family Groups

(for information on Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon, and Alateen) Address: 1600 Corporate Landing Parkway, Virginia Beach, VA 23454

Telephone: (for meeting information across the country):

1-888-425-2666 Websites:

www.alcoholicsanonymous.org (Alcoholics Anonymous), www.al-anon.org (Al-Anon—for families of alcoholics), www.alateen.org (Alateen—for teens with an alcoholic family member or friend)

Center for Substance Abuse Research (CESAR)

Offers fact sheets on drug and alcohol use, information on specific alcohol-related issues, and links to major surveys. Address: 4321 Hartwick Rd., Suite 501, College Park,

MD 20740 Telephone: 1-301-403-8329 Website: www.cesar.umd.edu

Children of Alcoholics Foundation

Does not hold meetings, but gives out information and offers an e-mail support network for teens.

Address: 164 W. 74th Street, New York, NY 10023

Telephone: 1-212-595-5810, ext. 7760

Web site: www.coaf.org

Families Anonymous

A support group for relatives and friends of those who have drug, alcohol, or behavioral problems.

Address: P.O. Box 3475, Culver City, CA 90231-3475

Telephone: 1-800-736-9805

Website: www.familiesanonymous.org

Go Ask Alice

A website run by Columbia University that provides details on a wide range of health-related issues, including alcohol and drug use. Address: Alice!, Lerner Hall, Columbia University, 2920 Broadway,

7th Floor, New York, NY 10027 Telephone: 1-212-854-5453 Website: www.goaskalice.columbia.edu

A MESSAGE TO TEENAGERS . . . How to tell when drinking is becoming a problem

In order to help you determine whether or not you have a problem with alcohol, Alcoholics Anonymous has developed this simple 12-question quiz for teenagers. If you answer "yes" to one or more of these questions, you may want to take a closer look at how drinking may be affecting your life. The organizations listed in this chapter, as well as your parents and teachers, can be valuable sources of advice and help if you think you may have a drinking problem.

1. Do you drink because you have problems, or to relax?

2. Do you drink when you get mad at other people, like your parents or friends?

3. Do you prefer to drink alone, rather than with others?

4. Are your grades starting to slip? Are you goofing off on your job?

5. Did you ever try to stop drinking, and fail?

Hazelden Center for Youth and Families

A nonprofit treatment center that offers rehabilitation for youth and young adults suffering from chemical dependency. Website provides useful information and links to other resources.

Address: 11505 36th Avenue North, Plymouth, MN 55441-2398

Telephone: 1-800-257-7810

Website: www.hazelden.org

6. Have you begun to drink in the morning before school or work?

7. Do you gulp your drinks?

8. Do you ever experience memory loss due to your drinking?

9. Do you lie about your drinking?

10. Do you ever get into trouble when you're drinking?

11. Do you get drunk when you drink, even when you don't mean to?

12. Do you think it's cool to be able to hold your liquor?

The questions from the pamphlet "A Message to Teenagers" are reprinted with permission of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc.

(A.A.W.S.). Permission to reprint does not mean thatA.A.W.S. has reviewed or approved the contents of this book, or that A.A.W.S. necessarily agrees with the views expressed herein.

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)

Provides information on legislative actions and campaigns to eliminate drunk driving as well as efforts to curb underage drinking. Address: P.O. Box 541688, Dallas, TX 7535401688 Telephone: 1-800-GET MADD (1-800-438-6233) Website: www.madd.org

TEENS AND TREATMENT: The Straight Facts

The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse collects information on alcohol and drug use in the United States, as well as information that describes the individuals who seek treatment to stop or reduce alcohol or drug use. As the statistics suggest, alcohol-related problems don't discriminate on the basis of age, gender, or race—young men and women of all races sought treatment in 2000. Additionally, more people sought treatment for alcohol-related problems than for any illicit drug, and self-help groups, like the groups listed in this chapter, were the most common sources of treatment:

• An estimated 0.2 million youths aged 12 to 17 received treatment for an alcohol problem (1.0 percent of all youths aged 12 to 17), and 0.4 million young adults aged 18 to 25 received treatment for an alcohol problem (1.4 percent of all adults aged 18 to 25).

Gender

• Among persons aged 12 or older, males were more than twice as likely as females to receive alcohol treatment in 2000 (1.4 vs. 0.5 percent, respectively). However, among youths aged 12 to 17, the percentage of males receiving treatment for an alcohol problem was not significantly higher than the percentage of females receiving treatment for an alcohol problem (1.1 vs. 0.9 percent, respectively).

National Association for Children of Alcoholics (NACOA)

Provides resources and information to children and families affected by alcoholism.

Address: 11426 Rockville Pike, Suite 100, Rockville, MD 20852 Telephone: 1-888-55-4COAS (1-888-554-2627) Website: www.nacoa.org

Race

Race

• Among persons aged 12 or older, the rate for alcohol or illicit drug treatment during the 12 months prior to the interview was highest among American Indians/Alaska Natives (4.0 percent). However, this rate was not significantly different from the rate for whites (1.3 percent). The rate for African Americans was 1.5 percent, and the rate for Hispanics was 1.1 percent. Among Asians, 0.3 percent had received treatment for substance use problems in the past 12 months.

Frequency and Type of Treatment

• In 2000, among persons aged 12 or older, more people received treatment for alcohol at their most recent treatment in the past year than any other substance (1.9 million persons). This represents 68.0 percent of all people receiving treatment for a substance use problem in the past year.

• Among the 2.1 million persons aged 12 or older who received alcohol treatment in the past year, more people received treatment at a self-help group than any other location (0.5 million people). An estimated 0.3 million people received alcohol treatment at each of the following three locations: (a) an inpatient rehabilitation facility, (b) an outpatient rehabilitation facility, and (c) an outpatient mental health center.

Source: 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Inc (NCADD)

Provides information and education on alcoholism and other drug-related illnesses and addictions.

Address: 20 Exchange Place, Suite 2902, New York, NY 10005 Telephone: 1-800-NCA-CALL (1-800-622-2255) Website: www.ncadd.org

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Provides statistics and information on traffic and automobile safety, including alcohol-related accidents and violations, from the U.S.

Department of Transportation.

Address: 400 7th Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20590

Telephone: 1-888-DASH 2 DOT (1-888-327-4236)

Website: www.nhtsa.gov

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

A division of the federal government's National Institutes of Health that provides summaries of alcohol-related topics, reviews of alcohol research, and a database of statistics on alcohol use and problems. Address: 6000 Executive Blvd, Willco Building, Bethesda,

MD 20892-7003 Telephone: 1-800-729-6688 Website: www.niaaa.nih.gov

Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD)

A school-based youth organization that promotes teen empowerment and uses peer influence to spread the message of positive decision-making about things like underage drinking, drug use, and violence. SADD has local chapters in middle schools and high schools around the country.

Telephone: 1-877-SADD-INC (1-877-723-3462) Website: www.saddonline.com

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Federal government office that provides information on substance abuse, including alcohol and other drug-related issues. Address: P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847-2345 Telephone: 1-310-443-0365 Website: www.samhsa.gov

Appendix

A Comparison of Teen Alcohol Use in Europe with Teen Alcohol Use in the United States

In 1999, sociologists at the Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs conducted school surveys of the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of 95,000 10th grade students in 30 participating European countries. This survey, called the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD), was specifically developed to be comparable to the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study in the United States. The results of the ESPAD and MTF surveys are very valuable to researchers in the United States and Europe, who rarely have the opportunity to compare substance abuse figures between countries. Let's review the results and compare the rates of alcohol and other drug use among teens in Europe with those in the United States:

Alcohol use in past 30 days. The MTF study finds that 40% of 10th grade students in the United States had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. The ESPAD survey finds that an average of 61% of 10th grade students in the 30 participating European countries had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days (62% in Northern Europe, 63% in Southern Europe and 58% in Eastern Europe). This proportion varies among European countries from 36% in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) to 85% in Denmark. FYROM was the only European country that had a lower rate than the United States.

There are two important concepts to consider when comparing the different rates of alcohol consumption between teens in European countries and teens in the United States. This first is set. Set is a person's expectation for the type of effect he or she will experience after using alcohol. This expectation is created by a person's total past experience—all that he or she has ever heard, read, seen, or thought about in reference to drinking. The second concept is setting. Setting is a person's physical, social, and cultural environment—the who, what, where, and when of the drinking experience.

The possible sociological and cultural differences suggested by these varying rates of alcohol consumption among teens in different countries may provide some insight into your own decision to drink. As mentioned in the first chapter of this book, alcohol is used regularly as part of the family meal in some cultures, which may account for the higher rates of alcohol in European countries where this practice is more common than in the United States. Would you be drinking with the same expectations (set) and setting (cultural environment), or is your drinking more likely to take place in secret or with friends at a party where there are no parents around?

Even if teens in Europe are drinking in "culturally acceptable" ways, however, it is a myth that more liberal drinking age laws and attitudes in Europe foster more responsible styles of drinking by teens. According to the MTF and ESPAD studies, there is no evidence that stricter drinking laws for teens in the United States is associated with a greater level of problematic drinking. Also, there is no evidence that the more liberal policies and drinking socialization practices in Europe are associated with lower levels of problematic drinking. In fact, according to the ESPAD and MTF survey comparisons:

• A greater percentage of European teens (compared to U.S. teens) report having five or more drinks in a row.

• About half of the European countries in the survey had higher prevalence rates for self-reported intoxication than the United States, about a quarter had lower rates, and about a quarter had rates that were more or less the same as the United States.

These results seem to suggest that regardless of the set or setting of alcohol consumption among teens, there will always be problematic drinking patterns.

I Bibliography_

Alters, Sandra. Alcohol and Tobacco: America's Drugs of Choice. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, Inc, 2002.

Barbour, Scott, ed. Alcohol: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998.

Bennett, Linda A. and Ames, Genevieve M., eds. The American Experience with Alcohol: Contrasting Cultural Perspectives. New York: Plenum Press, 1985.

Braun, Stephen. Buzz: The Science and Lore ofAlcohol and Caffeine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Epstein, J. F. Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment: Findings from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Aplied Studies, 2002.

FitzGerald, Kathleen Whalen. Alcoholism: The Genetic Inheritance. New York: Doubleday, 1988.

Glassner, Barry and Loughlin, Julia. Drugs in Adolescent Worlds. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Howard, George S. and Nathan, Peter E., eds. Alcohol Use and Misuse by Young Adults. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994.

Kinney, Jean and Leaton, Gwen. Loosening the Grip: A Handbook of Alcohol Information, 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO: Times/Mirror/Mosby College Publishing, 1987.

Lang, Alan R. Alcohol: Teenage Drinking. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1985.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Abuse Prevention for the General Population. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 1997.

Office of Applied Studies. Driving After Drug or Alcohol Use: Findings from the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Transportation, 1998.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 10th Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health: Highlights from Current Research. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, 2000.

Websites

American Council for Drug Education www.Acde.org

Al-Anon/Alateen www.Al-anon.alateen.org

Leadership to Keep Children Alcohol Free www.Alcoholfreechildren.org/gs/stats/

Alcoholics Anonymous www.Alcoholics-anonymous.org

Children of Alcoholics Foundation www.Coaf.org

Indiana Prevention Resource Center www.Drugs.indiana.edu

Hazeldon Foundation www.Hazelden.org

PREVLINE www.Health.org

KidsHealth www.Kidshealth.org

National Association for Children of Alcoholics www.Nacoa.org

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism www.Niaaa.nih.gov

National Library of Medicine www.Nlm.nih.gov

PRIDE Surveys www.Pridesurveys.com

Alcohol History Database www.Scc.rutgers.edu/alcohol_history/

Science Daily www.Sciencedaily.com

[ Further Reading_

Books

Alters, Sandra. Alcohol and Tobacco: America's Drugs of Choice. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, Inc, 2002.

Black, Claudia. Children of Alcoholics: Selected Readings. Rockville, MD: National Association of Children of Alcoholics, 1995.

Brooks, Cathleen. The Secret Everyone Knows. Center City, MN: Hazelden Information, 1989.

Egendorf, Laura K., ed. Teen Alcoholism. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Lang, Alan R. Alcohol: Teenage Drinking. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1985.

Leite, Evelyn. Different Like Me: A Book for Teens Who Worry About Their Parent's Use of Alcohol/Drugs. Minneapolis, MN: Johnson Institute Books, 1989.

McFarland, Rhoda. Drugs and Your Parents. Center City, MN: Hazelden Information, 1997.

Miner, Jane Claypool. Alcohol and You. London: Franklin Watts, Inc, 1997.

Mitchell, Haley R. Teen Alcoholism. Farmington Hills, MI: Lucent Books, 1997.

Ryerson, Eric. When Your Parent Drinks Too Much: A Book for Teenagers. New York: Facts on File, 1985.

Seixas, Judith. Living with a Parent Who Drinks Too Much. New York: William Morrow, 1983.

Torr, James D., ed. Teens and Alcohol. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Websites

Alateen

www.Alateen.org

Children of Alcoholics Foundation www.Coaf.org

Hazeldon Foundation www.Hazelden.org

PREVLINE www.Health.org

KidsHealth www.Kidshealth.org

National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign www.Mediacampaign.org/kidsteens/

National Association for Children of Alcoholics Foundation www.Nacoa.org

Index

Absorption, 34-37 Academic problems, and alcohol, 51, 52 Acetic acid, 39 Addiction, 17, 48

See also Alcoholism ADH (anti-diuretic hormone), 16, 40 Advertisements, 8, 29, 31

Aggressive behavior, and alcohol, 16, 51, 52, 58, 59-60 Aging, premature, 49 AIDS, 55

Al-Anon, 78, 80-81 Alateen, 80-81 Alcohol and amount in drinks,

11, 13-14, 59 in daily lives, 8 definition of, 9-11,

17, 20 forms of, 11 myths about, 57-61 and origin of word, 20 and usage statistics, 50 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), 62-63, 75-76, 77-78 Alcoholism definition of, 62-63, 65 as disease, 26-27 in family, 68 in friend, 68-73 and genetics, 55, 66 help for, 66, 71-73. See also Treatment prevalence of, 62 stages of, 65-66 and warning signs, 70 Al kohl, 20 American Medical

Association, 26-27 Annheuser Busch, 23 Anti-anxiety medications, 45-46

Antidepressants, 83 Antihistamines, 45 Antioxidants, 46 Anti-Saloon League, 22 Arabs, 20

Bacchus, 20

Bars, as responsible for drunk driving, 29 Beer advertisements for, 8 alcohol content of, 11,

13, 14, 59 ethyl alcohol in, 10 and growth of brewing industry, 23-25 history of, 20, 21-22 metabolism of, 39 production of, 13 state laws on, 26 and usage statistics, 50 and warning labels, 29 Bible, 20

Birth defects, 17, 49, 55 Blackouts, 66 Blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/blood alcohol level (BAL), 31, 33, 37, 53 Blood pressure, and alcohol, 16, 40 Bloodstream alcohol discarded from,

37, 38-39 alcohol passing into, 16, 34-37, 40 Brain and alcohol, 14-15, 16, 34, 40-45, 49, 52-53, 58

and teen drinking,

52-53 and treatment with medication, 81, 83 Breathalizers, 37 British Women's Temperance Association, 23

CAGE, 74-75

Cancer, alcohol linked to,

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