The Power of Positive Affirmations

Mindzoom Affirmations Subliminal Software

MindZoom uses three techniques to enter directly to your Subconscious Mind: By use of the Affirmation Delivering Engine, MindZoom conveys thousands of positive commands at speeds that are bypassed by your conscious mind. These messages are flashed rapidly in your screen at virtually undetectable speeds, Safely And Discretely. By use of our Silent Subliminal Messaging System, text affirmations are translated to speech and delivered through a Low Frequency envelope, not heard by the human ear but reaching the brain. By use of the Mindzoom Subliminal Mixer, a great feature where you can use text or audio affirmations (you can record your own affirmations or use pre-recorded ones) and Mix them with your favorite music files save and listen to them anywhere, on your Ipod, home or car stereo, you name it! Now you can also create your own subliminal CDs and recordings! The Mindzoom Subliminal Mixer is an exciting feature included free of charge. Read more...

Mindzoom Affirmations Subliminal Software Summary

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My Mindzoom Affirmations Subliminal Software Review

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Write out an extensive goal list in the form of affirmations

The next step is to write down all your goals on a sheet of paper or on cards in the form of statements called affirmations. There are three rules you must apply when writing your affirmations 1. First, your affirmations must be personal Use the word I. One of the best ways to start an affirmation is to use the phrase I AM or I have. Your subconscious only responds to commands given to it in a personal manner. Anything you say after I AM has power. One of the best affirmations I have ever heard comes from Bob Proctor, and it goes like this I am so happy and thankful now that I am_ (fill in your goal). 2. Second, your affirmations must be written in the present tense. To your subconscious mind, there is no future. Your subconscious mind only responds to commands given to it in a present tense. It may feel strange to write a goal in the present tense, but if you write it in the future tense (for example, Next year I will or I'm going to), your subconscious mind will make sure it always...

As you read your affirmations mentally visualize them as already achieved

Because your brain thinks in pictures, adding a bright, clear, moving mental picture of what you want to achieve will help you to penetrate your subconscious mind more rapidly and more deeply than if you just read your goals. In Psycho - Cybernetics Dr. Maltz wrote, Experimental and clinical psychologists have proven beyond a shadow of a doubt that the human nervous system cannot tell the difference between an actual experience and an experience imagined vividly and in detail. As with affirmations, visualization is most effective when your body is in a relaxed state, because that's when your subconscious mind is accessed most easily.

Read your affirmations your goal list at least twice a day and always keep your goals in front of you and on your mind

You can use the power of repetition to influence your own subconscious and move yourself into action. Once your affirmations are written out, read your list at least twice per day, once in the morning and once at night. Read them more often if you can. If you want to amplify the effect of the affirmation technique even more, don't just read your affirmations write them out by hand every single day. Once you've set all your goals and written your affirmations, use the power of repetition even more by literally keeping your goals in front of you all day long. Post your goal statements in a conspicuous place such as your refrigerator, your bathroom mirror or in your daily appointment book. Keep a goal card of your 90-day goal in your pocket. Paste them onto the dashboard of your car. Stick them on the top of your computer monitor so you have to look at them all day long. You may have been exposed to this affirmation technique before and shrugged it off as corny. If so, let me ask you...

Power to achieve any goal you desire

The human subconscious mind is a cybernetic goal-seeking mechanism similar to those used to guide missiles or torpedoes to their target. In this program, I will teach you how to set powerful, compelling goals and unleash the virtually unlimited power locked in your mind. Using goal setting, psychology, psycho-cybernetic principles, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), visualization and affirmations, you'll be able to erase the negative programming of the past and literally re-wire your brain to put you on automatic pilot mode towards achieving the body of your dreams.

The power of the thought

I'm not saying you can simply think yourself thin. No amount of positive thinking will work without action. Obviously you have to exercise and eat the right foods. What I'm suggesting is that if you don't channel your mental energies properly, even the best diet and training program won't help because you will always sabotage yourself. Did you ever wonder why you have lapses and breakdowns in willpower Or why some days you just can't drag yourself to the gym Or why you fall off the wagon

Read your goals with faith

How do you cultivate this attribute of faith ACT AS IF. Read affirmation statements written in the present tense as if they were already achieved. See mental pictures of yourself as if you had already achieved your goal. When you look in the mirror every day, see what you want to become, not what is presently there. Behave as if you were already there. Speak as if you were already there. Act as though I am and I will be, says the ancient proverb. If this seems like you're lying to yourself well, yes, that's exactly what you're doing. Repeat a lie often enough and you'll soon start to believe it and act on it. Read your goal lists with faith Believe it's going to happen, no matter what is actually happening at the moment. If you read affirmations while at the same time doubting that you can achieve them, you are canceling out the affirmation before it ever has a chance to take root it never reaches your subconscious mind.

Parameters of Depression

As previously noted, it is important to evaluate the severity, history, and persistence of depression. These are important parameters to evaluate, because they may provide important information regarding the cognitive factors targeted in treatment. According to the severity-persistence hypothesis of the cognitive theory of depression, the extent of negative self-referent cognition, reduced positive thinking, and negativity processing bias are linearly related to depression severity and persistence (Clark et al., 1999, p. 168). This means that patients with more severe or more long-standing and persistent depression should have more frequent and pervasive negative self-referent automatic thoughts and more prominent negative processing biases. As reviewed by Clark et al., there is considerable empirical support for this hypothesis. As applied to CT for depression, the implication of this perspec

The importance of understanding variations in body type

No amount of positive thinking or visualizing is ever going to change your inherent physical characteristics. The good news is that you can achieve fantastic results, regardless of your genetics, as long as you recognize and understand your body type and then adopt the proper nutrition and training strategies for your type.

Nutrition in the Treatment of Depression

This article (extracted from Alcoholism--The Biochemical Connection by Joan Larson) was written especially to help alcoholics, who are particularly prone to suffer from depression, but the information it contains will be valuable for every person who frequently feels depressed or unable to sleep through anxiety. Until these nutritional factors are handled no amount of positive thinking or psychotherapy can make much headway. This is the reason that I, as a psychologist, initially became interested in the subject of nutrition.

Efficacy of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Cancer

Very few randomized smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients have been published. These studies have utilized small sample sizes, focused primarily on hospitalized patients, and used nonrandomized designs. Both minimal and more intensive programs have been associated with dramatically high rates of cessation suggesting that the cancer survivor population is quite responsive to these cessation programs.63,79,80 In these studies, abstinence rates for the intervention (experimental) and usual care (control) conditions have been high, up to 70 in the first 6 months, far above the naturalistic quit rates reported in the general population of smokers (generally, 10 to 15 ).76 Gritz and colleagues62,68 compared the effects of usual care (standardized physician advice including education about the risks of smoking and the benefits of abstinence) to intervention (standardized advice with three types of self-help materials tailored to the special needs and concerns of head and...

The Link between Emotional and Physical Health

Holland tells readers that these myths are harmful. She writes, There is no scientific basis for these beliefs, which place an unconscionable added burden on patients who already have enough to cope with. Moreover, for most patients, cancer is the most difficult and frightening experience they have ever encountered. All this hype claiming that if you don't have a positive attitude and that if you get depressed you are making your tumor grow faster invalidates people's natural and understandable reactions to a threat to their lives. Dr. Holland calls this the tyranny of positive thinking. As I found out after I had surgery, my prognosis is much better than I initially suspected. The reason I share these stories is to show that pessimism, though perhaps not ideal, is not directly linked with disease progression, recurrence, or survival. Just because you think your cancer may kill you doesn't mean it will. Dr. Holland's tyranny of positive thinking is a way of saying that you don't...

Managing Impasses and Negative Reactions to Treatment

In addition, a subset of patients experience therapy as an adverse, negative process. Although analysts tend to view therapy as a healing, supportive process, these patients can experience it as hurtful and damaging. In some instances, these patients drop out of treatment and constitute treatment failures. It is therefore important to identify factors that may be disruptive to treatment and lead to a negative therapeutic reaction (Asch 1976 Freud 1923). Patients in whom improvement triggers guilt and guilt-driven disruptions to therapy are discussed in Chapter 9 (Idealization and Devaluation). Other factors that can contribute to impasses in treatment include significant impairments in patients' sense of basic trust, severe narcissistic sensitivity, and a history of trauma. In these cases, it is particularly important to find ways of strengthening the therapeutic alliance and affirming treatment goals.

Problem Solving And Skills Training

Solving includes learning how to assess potential relapse situations adequately, developing a number of solutions, and trying out these solutions. Solutions involve the use of coping skills. One type of coping skill is learning how to deal with stimulus control or high-risk situations. One method is to avoid stimuli associated with tobacco, such as the smoking section of a restaurant. Also, smokers can put themselves in situations that prevent or discourage tobacco use (e.g., movie theatre, nonsmoking restaurant). Unavoidable situations and psychological states can be countered through cognitive strategies such as distraction and positive thinking. Other techniques include using substitutes that may simulate some of the stimulus qualities or effects of smoking (e.g., chewing gum, sucking on straws). In addition, craving to use tobacco products lasts only minutes, and using distractions (e.g., exercising) can occupy the tobacco user until the craving passes. Tobacco users are also...

The Privacy of Mental Objects

The feelings are not just about the behaviors, however. The feelings are actually at a level above the level of the behavior and the context. That is, feelings consist precisely of the relationship between the behavior, such as a smile, and the context, such as meeting a friend. A smile in that context is happiness. An approving speech in the context of an apparent free expression of opinion is a positive attitude. A feeling of fluency in the absence of any other explanation is familiarity. However, just as the behaviors are public, so, too, are the contexts. They are, after all, no more than social systems and settings.

The Classic Female Fat Pattern

While I would agree with the self-help authors who tell female readers that the key to self-esteem is to love your body, I believe that a woman should find a balance between accepting her body just as it is and paying serious attention to the significant health risks of being overfat. There is nothing life-affirming about having type 2 diabetes, painful and over-stressed joints, and an increased risk of heart disease after menopause. As we have seen, being overfat also increases the risk of certain types of cancers. For example, a recent report published by the National Cancer Institute showed that women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater were twice as likely to develop cervical cancer. Women with the lowest waist-to-hip ratio, indicating a significant accumulation of abdominal fat,

The psychological reason most people sabotage their efforts to lose body fat

What you think about repeatedly every day is eventually accepted by your subconscious mind and your subconscious mind guides your actions on auto-pilot. This is the basis for the entire positive thinking movement. People who say that positive thinking, affirmations and autosuggestions don't work for them aren't using them correctly or consistently they're canceling out every positive command with a negative command. If a captain gave an order, Go east, but then kept changing his mind No, go west .no, go north, etc., the ship would never get anywhere That's why most people don't get anywhere in their fitness, bodybuilding or weight loss endeavors, either. Ironically, the very statement positive thinking doesn't work is a negative affirmation that guarantees it won't work

Supervenience and Epiphenomenalism

One often compares Martians and robots in discussions of supervenience as two sorts of alien beings with respect to which the denial or affirmation of consciousness might be an issue. But there are big differences. Martians would presumably be naturally occurring beings evolved on Mars. If we find our belief and desire psychology fits them, we have reason to suppose that the basic architecture of their mentality is like ours, that their intentionality is, as Searle says, natural and not manufactured. With any robots that now exist or are likely to, the case will be quite different. Their susceptibility to intentional description will have been planned by their creators. I do not mean to say that robots could not have natural intentionality and could not have what seems to me a requirement of it phenomenal pains and pleasures that their basic architecture motivates them to avoid and seek. But I see no reason to suppose that the robots now envisaged do so.

Imes Jackson MoNique 1967 Comedienne and television and movie actress

Her New York Times-bestselling book Skinny Women are Evil also garnered much attention in 2003. The installment of the first-ever full-figured beauty pageant reality television show, Monique's F.A.T. (Fabulous and Thick) aired on the women's television network Oxygen in August 2005. It was the most successful original program in the network's history to that date with 3. 8 million viewers, attesting to the growing demand for fat-positive programming. In addition, Mo'Nique's 2006 film Phat Girlz highlights central themes from her book and commercial endeavors, including ideas that women can be both fat and beautiful the valuation of skinny bodies is not universal across time and space, but rather the product of a particular fat-hating, diet-obsessed culture the dieting industry harms women, emotionally and physically and fat women suffer discrimination, cruelty, and lack of accessibility.

FAQ 17 When should I increase the weight andor reps Progressive Overload

It will help you with your progressive workouts if you add this to your goal and affirmation list I don't go to the gym to maintain,. I go to the gym to improve. And if I want to improve, then today, I must beat my previous workout and do something I've never done before. This mindset makes training extremely exciting. It makes you look forward to your workouts with an aggressive I want to attitude instead of a dragging your heels I have to attitude.

Albucasis Cauterization

Zahrawi Miniature

The Ancients disagreed also as to the fit time for cautery, affirming that spring was the best. Myself, I say that the cautery is suitable at all times for whatever harm may arise from the season of the operation is utterly outdone by the benefit deriving from the cauterization itself especially if the cautery is applied to pains that are severe, grievous, and swift, brooking no delay, because of the fear that the consequences may be more grave than the slight harm from the season.

Blueprint for Developing Effective Self Help Programs

Another motivational strategy is based on the consideration of the extent to which the help-seeking individual believes that his problem can be helped and the amount of effort it will take. To produce change, information about the success of the program, the suitability of the program for this individual, and affirmations of both the possibility of change and the amount of effort necessary to produce it would also be provided. This information can be provided by individuals who have been helped by the program under consideration (audio- and videotapes of individuals making such attestations are most persuasive case histories can be substituted if motivation is being provided in print) or they can be provided more

Jos Verbeek and Evelien Spelten

Cancer Patient Return Work

A positive attitude of coworkers and discretion over work hours or amount of work was positively associated with return to work. Most work-related factors, however, were negatively associated with return to work, such as manual labor and work posing physical demands. Interestingly, discrimination at work was not significantly related to return to work and did not seem to be a more prevalent problem among cancer

Summary And Evaluation

The view of repressed memories also highlights a more contemporary version of the unconscious. Although most modern cognitive psychologists believe in the unconscious, they do not believe in the motivated version of the unconscious proposed by Freud. Certainly , material can get into the mind without conscious experience, as through subliminal perception, but that material does not have the kind of sweeping motivational effects suggested by Freud.

Characteristics of Neighborhoods and Schools that Impact the Mental Health and Risk Behavior of Children and Youth

Positive Affirmations Youth

These disparities in resources are reflected in student achievement Schools with the highest percentages of students eligible for free lunch have the lowest academic achievement (Bickel, Howley, Williams, & Glascock., 2000 Wirt et al., 2003). Students attending high poverty schools are least likely to report a positive attitude toward school, and parents at high poverty schools are least likely to participate in school activities (Wirt et al., 2003). Even more troubling is the finding that students who were not themselves eligible for free lunch had lower achievement if they attended schools in which more than 50 of their peers were eligible for free lunch than if they attended schools with 25 or fewer students eligible (Wirt et al., 2003). This finding suggests that a resource-poor school environment exacts a toll even among children who are otherwise relatively advantaged. School size is implicated in how schools are organized, the curriculum that is offered, and how school...

The fat loss success system that never fails

You can have the best goals and the best plan in the world and if you don't act on it, you won't achieve a thing. A goal without action is worthless. Faith without action is dead. An affirmation without action is delusion. The bottom line is that you have to put the book down, get off your butt and get in the gym Work at it Deserve it Earn it Sweat blood Nothing worth having ever comes without effort - don't ever forget that It takes hard work and consistent action every single day. You have to do something every day to move you closer to your goal.

Experience and Consequences

One of lost love's great powers is that it may allow us to savor indefinitely the fantasy of what might have been. We have only to conjure up the memory of lost love as it is evoked in Casablanca or Gone with the Wind to see how compelling a fantasy this is. The dream of what might have been is a significant one, playing an adaptive or reparative role in our mental lives. Its power and persistence are testimony to its ongoing importance within the lover's psyche. Paradoxically, nostalgic fantasies about what might have been confirm our belief in what could still be, affirming our belief in the possibility of perfect love in the future. They keep alive the hope of realizing old dreams.

The Existential And Developmental Links Between Love And Power

Power both try to overcome loneliness, and the sense of man's insufficiency stemming from this loneliness, through duplication of his individuality. In both love and power, the Other is mobilized as an affirmation of the lover's subjectivity and will. It goes without saying that both are attempts to overcome his sense of weakness as well, and that both answer his dependency needs. Given the fact that the aims of love and power are so close yet can never be entirely achieved, it is inevitable that the one may be called upon to bolster the other. (Though it is not our primary concern here, it is also true, as Morgenthau suggests, that power seeks a modicum of love The political philosophies which emphasize the stability of power relationships, such as those of monarchies and autocracies, make a point of appealing to the love of the subject for the ruler.)

Emotional responses

What helped me the most were the decorations and having a positive attitude. My mom decorated the area outside the LAF room with balloons, cards, and posters. It was hard to take the medicine, so my mom made a huge poster to mark off how well I did. Every time I took my medicine, I got a sticker. When I got 100 stickers, I got some roller blades.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Depending on your symptoms and goals, CBT can also include coming up with strategies to target the overly positive thinking that's common in mania. CBT may help you learn behavioral strategies to decrease the risk of mania, such as reducing social stimulation and exciting activities when your mood begins to feel high. Other facets of CBT involve learning practical skills to protect yourself from making risky financial or interpersonal decisions once your mood is high for example, placing a limit on your credit cards or even making them unavailable for a couple of days. Some people we know actually freeze their credit cards in a tray of water by the time the cards have thawed out of the ice, the urge to spend has usually passed. You may also learn to minimize other consequences of feeling manic for example, by avoiding large crowds or interactions with new people on days when your mood is high. While these kinds of strategies are important for assisting you in understanding and...

Cognitive behaviour therapies

Cognitive behaviour therapists help patients replace one type of thought with another. For example, typical thoughts might be 'Why am I always so useless ', 'Why does nothing go right for me ', 'There I go again, messing up as usual.' Such thoughts only help to drive the person down into greater depths of negative moods and feelings. Alternative thoughts that might be prompted are 'I'm good at this', 'I can cope with this I've coped with much worse', 'This is a challenge that I know I can meet.' If this type of thought replacement seems like the 'power of positive thinking', long known in self-help books, then it is because it is. Positive thinking does carry a great deal of power.

Preface to the First Edition

This is the book that I wish I could have found when my Parkinson's was diagnosed in 1981. At the time, very little information was available for the layperson, and the little that existed was very depressing. What I wanted to find was a source of information that would help me understand Parkinson's, that would give me an opportunity to relate to someone who has managed well in the same situation, and that would leave me with reasons to maintain a positive attitude.

Chitting Out with Relaxation Therapy

You can purchase a relaxation audiotape to help you discover everything you'd ever need to know about relaxation therapy. Some stores even let you listen to relaxation audiotapes before you decide to buy one. Listen for a voice you find appealing and soothing. Avoid tapes that offer subliminal messages (messages heard only unconsciously) they may work, but the goal is to figure out how to achieve relaxation on your own, when you don't have the tape available.

Psychotherapy and Weight Change

Thus, therapy can include stimulus control (controlling the presence of certain trigger foods in the home and increasing the presence of exercise cues), problem-solving strategies, social assertion (figuring out ways to assert one's dietary philosophy in an uncongenial environment), setting short-term goals to enhance positive thinking, cognitive reconditioning to help alter negative thought patterns, relapse prevention (learning to gauge which situations are detrimental to weight loss commitments), and building a support network.

Benefits Of Being A Diabetic

Over the last 12 years with diabetes, my approach to health and well-being has really evolved. I now see stress management and relaxation as much more important. I consult with a naturopath and incorporate lots of different elements into my health management nutrition, exercise, and positive thinking. So I absolutely believe that my knowledge and awareness means I have protected my children's health. If they are sick, I never send them back to daycare or school until they are completely back to normal because I am so protective of their immune systems. I use supplements to strengthen their systems and feed them the healthiest food I can.

How your mental computer is programmed for success or failure

Suggestions given under hypnosis or affirmations repeated during deep relaxation are quick ways to access the subconscious mind. Another way to penetrate the subconscious (although much slower) is through repetition. Everything you hear, see, say, read or think repeatedly will eventually filter into your subconscious mind. In other words, you are constantly programming your brain through conscious self-suggestion - or you are allowing your brain to be programmed through external suggestion.

Assume 100 responsibility for your results

We create our circumstances through positive thinking and positive action, and we create negative circumstances through negative thinking, lack of action and wrong actions. In other words, you are responsible for who you are, where you are, and what you have - and that includes the way your body looks.

Make no excuses you are in control

Understanding your body type doesn't mean throwing in the towel if you're an extreme endomorph. It doesn't mean, I'm genetically inferior so I won't even bother trying in the first place. Be realistic about your body type and accept the role it plays in changing your body. Don't get discouraged if you feel you don't have Olympian genetics. You can overcome nearly any obstacle if you are willing to work hard enough. No matter what your genetic endowment is, you can totally transform yourself with hard work, dedication, persistence and a positive attitude.

Conclusion Let your results dictate your approach

There are four keys to understanding body types. The first is to learn how to recognize which is your predominant body type. The second key is to learn how to adjust your training and nutrition to fit your body type. The third key is to be patient, persistent and maintain a positive attitude as you work towards your goal. The fourth key is to assume responsibility for the outcome, for better or worse.

Maintaining a Healthy Family Attitude Siblings

Some parents find it necessary to set boundaries regarding interaction between an affected sibling and a typical sibling's friends. There's a delicate balance between giving the child with AS-HFA the benefit of social exposure and allowing your typical child to feel independent in his or her friendships. Create certain times when all the children can interact together, for example, by serving a snack or by allowing them to play video games or sports in a group. Also ensure that your typical child has the opportunity to be alone with his or her friends. Some parents find it helpful to make a rule that when children are in common space it is common time, but when friends go into a child's room, it becomes personal time. Respecting your typical child's friendships is important to promote both healthy social development and maintenance of a positive attitude toward the family and affected siblings.

The power of focus

The first step is simply to become conscious of what you are thinking. Become aware of your thoughts. Bob Proctor, a master success coach and creator of the Goal Achiever program, suggests saying NEXT or SWITCH the instant you catch yourself in the middle of a negative thought or self-defeating question. Then, immediately replace it with a positive thought, affirmation, or an empowering question. Simply overwrite the old thought with a new one. Replace I'll try with I'll do it. Instead of I should say I must. Completely banish I can't from your vocabulary. Soon you'll find that your mind switches its polarity and the negative thoughts pop up less. Here are some examples of how you could change the negative self-talk to positive self-talk

Summary of Results

The results demonstrated that the dimensions explaining QoL of home-care clients (such as functional ability, psychological resources, social relationships and subjective economic situation) were broadly similar to those of adult population in general, suggesting that a general model is applicable and that frail older people living at home should not be seen as too different to the rest of the adult population (Chapter 4). However, the results highlight a number of factors that are important when one is frail and care dependent. Acute illnesses, problems with daily functional ability, problems with housing and living environment, restricted possibilities to participate in social life, a passive lifestyle (no hobbies or exercises at home or outside) and a lack of close relatives all had a negative influence on the QoL of care-dependent old people. Positive attitude towards one's own ageing and satisfaction with home-care both had a strong positive impact on the QoL of the clients....

Exercise

To embolden my position and help reduce the anxiety I felt at having to confront my issues with my family, it was suggested that I carry a megaphone, which was presented to me one night in group. Laughter is sometimes the best stress reliever Armed with confidence, and a prop, I declared to my family that from now on they were on their own Furthermore, the power of group involvement and support cannot be underestimated. Knowing that one has made a commitment to oneself and to group prevents the shirking of this responsibility. Coming back to group with a successful outcome, or at least a successful attempt at meeting the challenge, is self-affirming a confidence builder on its own.

Methodology

Where there are lines of closeness, conflict, or disconnection on the group composite, the leader should invite the members to describe their positions relative to the other, and assist them to encounter one another and clarify meaning and relationship. It will be tempting to solve the attractions and avoidances or conflicts, however, it is very important simply to let them be seen and stated. There may be a sense of relief or affirmation in knowing clearly where one stands relative to the others.

Support

There also is evidence that children benefit from positive affirmation of worth (Ausubel, 1968 Roberts, 1986). That is, to be supportive, parents must be reinforcing (in a proactive sense) as well as responsive (in a reactive sense). How worth is affirmed varies substantially from culture to culture. In some societies worth is closely tied to individual accomplishments or status in others, it is more strongly tied to collective commitments and involvement. Finally, a supportive environment is one that provides guidance or direction for adequate functioning in other environments (Pettit, Dodge, & Brown, 1988). At its base, support is motivational preparation for encountering other environments.

Figure 161

As we hinted earlier, it is not the case that people automatically make the valid modus ponens and modus tollens inferences and resist the invalid denial of the antecedent and affirmation of the consequence inferences. Sometimes people fail to make valid inferences and consider invalid inferences to be acceptable. These results have been found in experiments where subjects are presented with a conditional statement (e.g., if she gets up early, she will go for a run) and a premise (e.g., she gets up early) and are asked to either evaluate a conclusion, draw a conclusion, or choose from a list of possible conclusions. Figure 16.1 charts the characteristic pattern of inferences for each of the four forms (from Experiment 2 by Marcus & Rips, 1979). Typically, nearly 100 of subjects make the valid modus ponens inference, but most people find the modus tollens inference much harder, about 50 or so of subjects do not make this inference. On the other hand, many subjects accept the invalid...

Figure 163

In logic, the rule in the selection task is a conditional if P then Q P here is the statement that there is a vowel on one side of the card and Q is there is an even number on the other side of the card. So, each of the cards can be re-expressed as follows the E-card is P, the K-card is not-P, the 4-card is Q, and the 7-card is not-Q (see Figure 16.3). It is not a good idea to pick the Q card (i.e., 4-card) because when Q is true and the rule if P then Q is true, P can be either true or false (see the truth table in Table 16.1) irrespective of what is on the other side of the 4-card (a vowel or a consonant), the rule will be true. Thus, turning over this card will tell you very little logically (cf. Oaksford & Chater, 1994). Of course, many people who turn over the Q card may be making the fallacious affirmation of the consequent inference they assume the rule If P then Q is true, they know Q to be true and so they can conclude that P must be on the other side (see Table 16.2). So,...

Muscles and Liking

A more robust procedure was employed in another, clever study of a more conventional movement, head nodding and shaking (Wells & Petty, 1980). Participants in this study were told that the study concerned the performance of earphones during activity. Under this ruse they were asked to either nod affirmatively or shake their heads negatively while listening to a radio program, which was in fact a persuasive communication. They agreed more with the content they heard while nodding than with the content they heard while shaking their heads. They also seemed to have greater difficulty performing the nods and shakes if the material they were listening to was inconsistent with their attitudes. In a similar procedure, Foerster and Strack (1996) also found an interaction between the participants' evaluations and their head nodding or shaking. When participants were learning positive words while shaking their heads, or negative words while nodding, there was greater interference with a...

Figure 1812

Gotlib, McLachlan, and Katz (1988) used a modified version of the task employed by MacLeod et al. (1986), but presented emotionally positive words as well as emotionally negative and neutral words. There was an effect of depression on attention, in that the non-depressed participants attended selectively to positive stimuli. However, Gotlib et al. (1988) did not establish whether the attentional bias was due to anxiety rather than to depression. Mogg et al. (1991) carried out a replication of the Gotlib et al. (1988) study, and found that the attentional bias was due to state anxiety rather than to depression.

Demographic profile

Afterlife places in both groups were often described as having particular qualities, which made them different from the places we inhabit in everyday life. In the ketamine group, 44 per cent had the feeling of entering a clearly mystical or unearthly world. Affirmations like 'It was Heaven ' were quite common.3 Experiences of Hell were also reported 25 per cent described a strange or unusual place, while 30 per cent did not report this kind of experience. God's love in Christ. Nevertheless it is our conviction that the reality of hell (and indeed of heaven) is the ultimate affirmation of the reality of human freedom. Hell is not eternal torment, but it is the final and irrevocable choosing of that which is opposed to God so completely and so absolutely that the only end is total non-being. Dante placed at the bottom of hell three figures frozen in ice - Judas, Brutus and Cassius. They were the betrayers of their friends, and through that they had ceased to have the capacity for love...

Humanistic therapies

The best known of the many varieties of humanistic therapy is client-centred therapy, championed by Carl Rogers (1961). It is based on the understanding that a person, whatever his or her psychological trouble might be, knows himself or herself better than anyone else could. Against this background, the therapist is merely a facilitator rather than someone who probes and questions. The aim is to help the person gently towards self-insight and the main technique is through empathy, frequently in the form of neutral to positive affirmations of whatever the person might be saying, for example, 'Mmm-hmm', etc.

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