Violence is a major cause of psychosocial and physical morbidity and mortality among adolescents in the world (1,81-83). Consequences of violence may be especially noted in male adolescents who are taught to be self-reliant, violent as other males, abuse females, abuse chemicals, and avoid care for their mental health or medical problems. Both males and females can be the victims of abuse, whether it is overt neglect, physical abuse, emotional abuse, or sexual abuse (29,84,85). American studies note
Table 9 Sequelae of Depression in Adolescents Abuse
Academic dysfunction (failing grades, school dropout behavior) Aggressive behavior
Disruption of intimate relationships and friendships Sexual dysfunction
Sexual promiscuity with unplanned adolescent pregnancies and STDs
Substance abuse disorders
Others that 10% of adult males and 20% to 25% of adult females have been sexually abuse sometime in their childhood or adolescence (84). In Canada, 33% of males report sexual abuse under age 18 (29). Abuse leads to many negative behaviors, including injuries, bullying behavior, dating violence, (up to 60% prevalence in adolescent and young adult females), STDs, unwanted pregnancies, and others (29,87).
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