Terminology

Unfortunately, earlier terms like "stress-resistance" or "invulnerability" were misleading inasmuch as they insinuate that some children and young people were so constitutionally tough that they would not succumb to the pressure of stress and adversity (57). Nowadays, resilience is considered as "an ability to recover from negative events" (58). This does not presuppose absence of any kind of impact following exposure to adversity. Rather, it means absence of lasting disturbance. Similarly, Fonagy et al. (59) described resilience as "normal development under difficult conditions."

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