The one billion adolescents of the world are potentially subject to considerable morbidity and mortality. Many complex issues face youth of today as they grow up with or without a chronic illness. This chapter has reviewed some of them, such as sexuality (including pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases), substance abuse, various medical disorder, mental health disorders, and violence. The latter may be seen in such complex issues as suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents. Clinicians are challenged to help these valuable individuals survive their adolescence and become autonomous and healthy adults making contributions to the society that bore and sustained them.

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